The valour of ‘Ali

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The valour of ‘Ali

 

The previous narration portrays ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu as a meek cowardly individual who unwillingly pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu due to coercion. This despite the numerous Shia tales of the unparalleled courage and super natural abilities possessed by ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Take into consideration the following statement of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

By Allah! If I were to confront them single handed and their numbers filled the whole earth, it would not worry me nor would I become intimidated.[1]

 

He is the one about whom it has been transmitted from Abu Wathilah:

 

I was walking with someone (i.e. ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu as al Majlisi has explicitly mentioned in Hayat al Qulub) when I heard an inarticulate utterance coming from him.

I inquired, “What is the matter, O so and so.”

He replied, “Woe to you! Do you not see this lion? He is a champion and the son of a champion! The one armed with the two swords and the flag. He strikes with justice and is severe against those who transgress and tyrannize.”

I then turned around and saw none other than ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib.

He instructed me to draw close to him and said, “I wish to inform you about his valour and bravery. On the day of Uhud we pledged allegiance to the Prophet of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not to flee from the battlefield, and if any one of us fled, he would be considered deviant. If anyone were to be killed, he would be considered a martyr, and for that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would stand as his guarantor. Thereafter one hundred leaders confronted us, each leader headed a hundred men or more. Their sheer numbers completely incapacitated us. I saw ‘Ali like a lion gathering little particles, and carrying a handful of pebbles.

He then threw it in our faces and said, ‘May these faces become disfigured and disgraced! To where are you fleeing, to the Fire?’

After hearing him we decided not to retreat. He once again returned to us with a shield which was dripping with death and said, ‘First you pledged allegiance and now you wish to violate your pledge. By Allah you deserve death more than those who have been killed!’

I looked into his eyes and it seemed as if they were burning with flames, or they seemed as if they were two goblets filled with blood. Before we knew it he had gone to every single one of us.

I then hastened to him from amongst my companions saying, ‘O Abu al Hassan, fear Allah! Fear Allah! Indeed the Arabs frequently flee temporarily during battles and thereafter return once again to attack, their retaliations serves as an expiation for their fleeing.’

At that moment he seemed to have understood what I was saying, and due to his shyness he turned his face away from me. The feeling of awe continues to fill my heart. By Allah that awe has not left my heart right up to this moment.”[2]

 

Many incidents have been narrated by the Shia about the bravery of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Amongst them is a particular incident which al Qutb al Rawindi narrates:

 

It reached ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu that ‘Umar had spoken about his Shia. He therefore set out to meet him, and found him in a garden pathway—whilst he held his bow in his hand.

‘Ali said, “O ‘Umar! It has reached me that you are talking about my Shia.”

‘Umar sneered and said, “Be on your way!”

‘Ali then said, “You have underestimated us.”

He then threw his bow onto the ground, which turned into a large serpent the size of a camel. It opened its mouth and went towards ‘Umar intending to swallow him.

‘Umar then yelled, “Fear Allah! Fear Allah! O Abu al Hassan! I will never ever make mention of anything after this!’’

He began pleading with him. ‘Ali placed his hand upon the serpent and it once again turned into a bow as it originally was. ‘Umar then returned to his home in a state of fear.[3]

 

The Shia narrator Sulaim ibn Qais al Hilali narrated that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu vilified and threatened ‘Umar:

 

‘Ali said, “O son of Sahhak, by Allah, if you fire that arrow I will return your right hand to you, for verily if I draw my sword, I will not sheath it until you are destroyed, so fire it if you dare.”

‘Umar felt defeated and remained quiet, for he knew that when ‘Ali took an oath, he remained true to it.

‘Ali then said, “O ‘Umar, are you not the one who caused distress to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, so he sent for me and I came carrying my sword. I turned towards you intending to kill you then Allah revealed the verse:

 

فَلَا تَعْجَلْ عَلَيْهِمْ إِنَّمَا نَعُدُّ لَهُمْ عَدًّا

So be not impatient over them. We only count out [i.e. allow] to them a [limited] number.[4]

 

Ibn ‘Abbas said, “They plotted and planned until they said, ‘Our matter will not be resolved for as long as this man remains alive.’

Abu Bakr then asked, ‘Who will kill him for us?’

So ‘Umar replied, ‘Khalid bin Walid!’

They then sent for him and asked, ‘Khalid, what is your opinion about this matter that we have placed upon your shoulders?’

He replied, ‘Make me responsible with whatever you wish, for by Allah, even if you make me responsible with the murder of Ibn Abi Talib I will surely do so.’

They then said, ‘By Allah that is exactly what we desire.’

He then said, ‘Then I am willing.’

Abu Bakr then said, ‘When we stand for the Fajr prayer, then stand by his side with your sword, and at the first opportunity strike his neck!’

He said, ‘Yes!’

And they agreed to that. Abu Bakr then put great thought into what they had decided concerning ‘Ali, and he knew that if what they decided were to take place a great war and calamity would ensue. He regretted his decision and spent a restless night not being able to get any sleep until the following morning when he came out to the Masjid. When the salah was about to begin he went forward to lead the congregation. Meanwhile he was in a state of deep thought, to such an extent that he did not know what he was reciting. Khalid ibn Walid then entered with his sword and stood by ‘Ali’s side, but by then ‘Ali had already perceived his intentions.

When Abu Bakr completed his final sitting in salah, before he had even concluded his salah with the salam he yelled out, ‘O Khalid! Do not do as I have ordered! For if you do I will kill you!’

He then completed the right and left salam. ‘Ali leaped forward grabbing hold of the lapels of Khalid’s garment, and grabbed the sword from his hand. He threw him onto the ground, sat on his chest and raised his sword to kill him. All the people present in the Masjid gathered around him and tried to save Khalid, but they were unable to release him.

‘Abbas told them, ‘Implore him by the right and the honour of this grave.’

Subsequently they implored him by the right of the grave and he left him, stood, and returned to his home.”[5]

 

The Shia have persisted in exaggerating his valour to such an extent that they said:

 

He possessed such sheer strength that one day he stamped his foot upon the ground and it resulted in an earthquake.[6]

 

They also report that once an earthquake occurred and he placed his foot upon the earth which caused it to subside, as stated in al Safi:

 

It is reported from Fatimah P that a great tremor had afflicted the people during the reign of Abu Bakr. The people hastened to Abu Bakr and ‘Umar but they found that the two of them had already left their homes in haste to search for ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam. So the people followed them in their quest until they reached the door of ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam. He came out of his house to meet them, and was completely unperturbed by what was afflicting them. He started walking and the people followed him until they reached a hill. He mounted it and everyone else gathered and seated themselves around it. They watched as the orchards of Madinah trembled due to the earthquake.

‘Ali then said to them, “It seems that what you are witnessing is a cause of distress to you.”

They replied, “How could it not distress us when we have never seen the likes of it?”

His lips then began moving and he struck his hand upon the ground saying, “What is with you! Remain still!”

It stopped shaking by the permission of Allah. They became even more astonished than they were when he came out to meet them the first time.

He then inquired, “Are you people astonished by my doing?”

They replied, “Yes!”

He said, “I am the one that Allah refers to in the verse:

 

إِذَا زُلْزِلَتِ الْأَرْضُ زِلْزَالَهَا وَأَخْرَجَتِ الْأَرْضُ أَثْقَالَهَا وَقَالَ الْإِنْسَانُ مَا لَهَا

When the earth is shaken with its [final] earthquake. And the earth discharges its burdens. And man says, “What is wrong with it?”

 

I am the one who will say to the earth, ‘What is wrong with it?’ That day it will report its news.[7]

 

Shia reports of this nature are many. Since we began this discussion, we would like to complete it by making mention of a false strange incident which proves the lies of this nation, and the tales that they have concocted and subsequently based their entire religion upon and use as a foundation for their entire belief system. This incident is transmitted from the book, al Anwar al Nu’maniyyah, authored by Ni’mat Allah al Jaza’iri.[8] He reports:

 

Al Bursi, whilst describing the events of Khaybar, narrates:

The victory of the conquest was achieved by the hand of ‘Ali. Jibril ‘alayh al Salam came to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam bringing glad tidings after the death of Mirhab. The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then inquired about the glad tidings that he had brought.

He replied, “O Messenger of Allah! When ‘Ali raised his sword in order to strike Mirhab, Allah ordered Israfil and Mika’il to take hold of his arm in mid-air, so as to prevent him from striking with his full strength. By doing so his strength was reduced to half. Without considering the amount of metal armour Mirhab was clad with, and the fact that he was mounted on a horse, ‘Ali’s sword penetrated into the earth’s stratosphere.

Allah then said to me, ‘O Jibril, hasten to the bottom of the earth and prevent the sword of ‘Ali from reaching the other end which would result in the earth overturning.’

So I rushed and gained hold of it. It felt weightier upon my wing than all the lands of the nation of Lut. Their lands were seven in total and I raised it from the seventh earth with a single feather of one of my wings until it reached close to the heavens. I remained in that position until the morning, awaiting the divine command. Then Allah ordered me to overturn it. I have not found it to be as weighty as the sword of ‘Ali.”

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then asked him, “Why did you not overturn it (the nation of Lut) at the very moment you had lifted it?”

Jibril replied, “There was an old disbelieving man asleep, he had reached a very old age, so Allah felt shy to punish them. When we reached morning the old man woke and set off, then Allah ordered me to destroy them.”

On the very same day, when the fort was conquered, and they took the women as captives, Safiyyah the daughter of the king of the fort was amongst them. She came to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam whilst her head was wounded, so the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam inquired about it.

She explained, “When ‘Ali approached the fort to conquer it and it became difficult for him, he went and took hold of one of its towers and shook it. Subsequently the entire fort began shaking. Everyone that was on a raised platform fell flat onto the ground, and I was seated on my bed, so I fell down and the bed struck me.”

The Prophet of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then said to her,’’ O Safiyyah! When ‘Ali became angry and the fort began shaking, Allah became angry due to the anger of ‘Ali. The heavens began shaking until even the angels began fearing and they fell prostrate on their faces.”

 

This should suffice in illustrating the godlike strength and courage of ‘Ali, as depicted by the Shia. As for the door of Khaybar:

 

Forty men had assisted each other to replace it that night. When he entered the fort his shield flew from his hand because of the numerous amount of blows he had admitted with it. He then ripped the door off and used it as a shield, and continued fighting with it in his hand until Allah granted us victory at his hands.[9]

 

Another example of this unparalleled strength can be found in the narration of the Shia al Ya’qubi:

 

When it reached Abu Bakr and ‘Umar that a group of the Muhajirin and the Ansar had gathered with ‘Ali in the home of Fatimah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, they came to the congregation and started destroying the house. ‘Ali then came out with his sword, so ‘Umar confronted him. ‘Umar tried overpowering him but ‘Ali gained victory over ‘Umar and broke his sword.

Everyone entered the house and Fatimah exited and said, “By Allah, you will exit my house or I will expose my hair and leave my complaint to Allah!”

Thereafter everyone left the house. The people settled for a few days and one after the other began pledging allegiance.[10]

 

We are baffled as to which of these Shia scholars was the truthful one. Was it Ni’mat Allah al Jaza’iri, Sulaim ibn Qais al Hilali[11], al Qutb al Rawindi, al Qummi, al Majlisi, al ‘Ayyashi, or al Ya’qubi?

We do not know if all of them are liars who fabricate and invent these tales or whether they merely reported the fabrications without knowing that the Ahlul Bayt did not say these words. The reality is it never transpired as they have reported, for if what they have reported were true then the Ahlul Bayt would never have said that Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was al Siddiq (the Truthful) or that ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was a righteous soul and even-natured individual. Furthermore they would not have named their children after them and they would not have intermarried with them, lived amongst them, and praised them after they had passed on. After all of these narrations, we have no choice but to say—if one believes that they were truthful in their actions and words, and sincerely articulated what they believed in—that the Shia are fabricating in their name and that they go contrary to them in their beliefs. The Shia consider the loved ones, family, those related through marriage, close friends, leaders and governors of the Ahlul Bayt as their enemies. The very same people who whole heartedly gave them obedience, good will, authority and good council, as we have clarified in detail previously.

How can it even be imagined that a brave warrior such as this could be forced by Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu to pledge allegiance to him, that ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu could have coerced him to marry his daughter to him, that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu could have forced him into allowing him to precede him, and that they could have forced him to name his children after them? Especially when one considers all the support he received from the Ahlul Bayt and those who were prepared to assist him.

It is apparent that even though these people apparently claim that they are under the leadership of the Ahlul Bayt, in reality they go contrary to their teachings by harbouring hatred against the Rightly Guided Khalifas’ and the successful, divinely chosen Companions of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Those concerning whom the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam—may my parents and soul be sacrificed for him—had said, “Glad tidings to those who have seen me and brought iman upon me.”[12]

Be it as it may, we will now mention incidents that display these people going contrary to the Ahlul Bayt by them harbouring animosity against the family and those related to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Concerning Dhu al Nurayn, concerning the verse:

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ أٰمَنُوْا لَا تُبْطِلُوْا صَدَقَاتِكُمْ بِالْمَنِّ وَالْأَذَى

O you who have believed, do not invalidate your charities with reminders [of it] or injury.[13]

 

Al ‘Ayyashi claims that it was revealed concerning ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[14]

Al Qummi is no better than al ‘Ayyashi in cursing, slandering, and accusing them of being sinners and disbelievers. Under the verse:

 

وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ عَدُوًّا شَيَاطِينَ الْإِنْسِ وَالْجِنِّ يُوحِي بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَى بَعْضٍ زُخْرُفَ الْقَوْلِ غُرُورًا

And thus we have made for every prophet an enemy — devils from mankind and jinn, inspiring to one another decorative speech in delusion.[15]

 

He mentions:

 

Allah did not send a prophet except that in his nation were two devils who harmed him. As for the two companions of Muhammad, they were Hibtar and Zurayq.[16]

 

We have transmitted many narrations from him in our book al Shia wa al Sunnah.

As for al Bahrani, he is very similar to the two of them, he commented upon the verse:

 

ثَانِيَ اثْنَيْنِ إِذْ هُمَا فِي الْغَار

As one of the two, when they were in the cave.[17]

 

He clearly denies that Abu Bakr was with the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam during the journey from Makkah to Madinah, by the order of Allah:

 

The Messenger of Allah ordered ‘Ali to sleep in his bed, because he feared that if Abu Bakr stayed behind he would expose his whereabouts and guide them towards him. Therefore he decided to take him along with him to the cave.[18]

 

He also fabricated from Abu Jafar saying:

 

The Messenger of Allah turned to Abu Bakr in the cave and said, “Stay calm, for verily Allah is with us,” until he said, “I wish to show you my Companions amongst the Ansar gathering and having a discussion, and I wish to show you Jafar and his companions in the ocean, whilst they are swimming.”

He agreed, so the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wiped his hand across his face, and he saw the Ansar sitting in their gathering, and he saw Jafar and his companions diving deep into the ocean. At that moment he thought the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was a sorcerer.[19]

 

As for al Faruq, the one who extinguished the fires of the Zoroastrians, by whose armies the idols of the Khosrow were destroyed, the one who demolished the pomp and glory of the Jews, the one who was beloved to the beloved of Allah, and who hated those who sought enmity with the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his nation. Al Bahrani says about him whilst discussing the verses:

 

وَكَانَ الشَّيْطَانُ لِلْإِنْسَانِ خَذُولًا

And ever is Satan, to man, a deserter.[20]

He says this Satan refers to ‘Umar.

 

The verse:

يَا وَيْلَتٰى لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أَتَّخِذْ فُلَانًا خَلِيلًا

Oh woe to me! I wish I had not taken that one as a friend.[21]

He says it refers to ‘Umar.

 

The verse:

لَقَدْ أَضَلَّنِي عَنِ الذِّكْرِ بَعْدَ إِذْ جَاءَنِي

He led me away from the remembrance after it had come to me.[22]

Here too he says it refers to ‘Umar.[23]

 

He increases in his exaggeration and openly curses and degrades him by saying:

 

Iblis and that which has a similar meaning, it will be explained later that Shaitan refers to the second (‘Umar). From this we are able to deduce that the word Iblis can also be said to refer to him because both names share a common meaning.

It is reported in some narrations from al Asbagh ibn Nabatah that ‘Ali came out with a group people, Hudhayfah ibn al Yaman was also amongst them, and said, “O Angels of my Lord, bring forth to me the worst among the devils and the Firouns immediately.”

I swear by Allah that the duration of a blink of an eye had barely passed when they presented him before him.

When they dragged him in front of him he stood up and said, “Destruction be upon him for the oppression that he has caused to the family of Muhammad! Destruction upon him who had the audacity to challenge me before them!”

He pleaded, “O my Master have mercy upon me, because I cannot bare this type of punishment.”

‘Ali then said, “May Allah not show any mercy to you and may He not forgive you, O wretched filthy devil!”

‘Ali then turned towards us and said, “Question him until he informs you about who he is.”

So we asked him who he was.

He replied, “I am the most wretched devil and the Firoun of this nation. I am the one who rejected my master and leader, the leader of the believers and the Khalifah of the Lord of the worlds. I denied his signs and his clear miracles.’’

It is apparent that this person was ‘Umar, since he was the head of the trouble makers. He is the one that is referred to as Shaitan in the Qur’an.[24]

 

As for his comments about the benefiter of the Muslims and Islam, ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, he writes:

 

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to him, “It seems that your Islam has killed you, so go. Allah then revealed the verse:

يَمُنُّونَ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ أَسْلَمُوا

They consider it a favour to you that they have accepted Islam.[25]

 

He further professes his hatred and malice for them by commenting on the verse:

 

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يُزَكُّونَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ

Have you not seen those who claim themselves to be pure?

He says it means those who gave themselves the names[26] al Siddiq, al Faruq, and Dhu al Nurayn.[27]

 

He also insists that those referred to in the verse:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ

Then as for one whose scales are heavy [with good deeds].

refers to ‘Ali and his Shia, while the verse:

وَأَمَّا مَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ

As for those whose scales will be light.

refers to the three Khalifasʼ and their followers.[28]

 

He continues to mock and disparage the Companions of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his wives, saying that the verse:

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ جَآءُوا بِالْإِفْكِ

Indeed, those who came with falsehood.

was revealed concerning ‘Aisha, Hafsah, Abu Bakr, and ‘Umar; when they allegedly slandered Mariyah al Qibtiyyah and Jurayh.[29]

 

Their fourth exegete, namely al Kashani, is no less worthy of being blamed than the rest of his people for his wretchedness and slander. In his Tafsir he comments under the verse:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ أٰمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا ثُمَّ أٰمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا ثُمَّ ازْدَادُوا كُفْرًا

Indeed, those who have believed then disbelieved, then believed then disbelieved, and then increased in disbelief.

He says that this verse was revealed concerning Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, Muawiyah, ‘Abd al Rahman, and Talhah.[30]

 

He mentions under the verse:

وَلَقَدْ قَالُوا كَلِمَةَ الْكُفْرِ وَكَفَرُوا بَعْدَ إِسْلَامِهِمْ

While they had said the word of disbelief and disbelieved after their [pretence of] Islam.

 

He says:

 

On the day of Ghadir al Khum, when the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam appointed ‘Ali, he had by his side a group of seven hypocrites. They were Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Abd al Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Abu ‘Ubaydah, Salim—the freed slave of Abu Hudhayfah, and Mughirah ibn Shu’bah.

‘Umar said, “Do they not see his eyes, they are like the eyes of a mad man,” i.e. the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he stands up and says, “My Lord told me…”[31]

 

I seek refuge in Allah from the transmission of these fabrications.

Their fifth exegete who named himself al Mufassir (the exegete) continued to slander them, namely al ‘Arusi al Huwayzi, commenting on the verse:

لَهَا سَبْعَةُ أَبْوَابٍ

It (Hell) has seven gates.

From Abu Basir who says: “Jahannam will be brought, while it has seven doors, the first door will be for the oppressor who is Zurayq, the second will be for al Hibtar, the third will be for the third (Khalifah), the fourth will be for Muawiyah, the fifth for ‘Abd al Malik, the sixth for ‘Askar ibn Hawsar, and the seventh for Abu Salamah, their followers will follow them accordingly.[32]

 

Al Majlisi then further comments upon all of this saying:

 

Zurayq refers to Abu Bakr because the Arabs regard the blueness of the eyes to be a bad omen. Al Hibtar means fox. Perhaps he was referred to by it because of his cunning and plotting. In other reports it seems to have been used the other way around and that is the more correct opinion because if al Hibtar is used for the first it would be more suitable. It could also be used for the second one, perhaps it is used for the second one because he preceded in wretchedness, harshness, and severity. ‘Askar ibn Hawsar refers to some Khalifas’ of the Banu Umayyah or the Banu al ‘Abbas. Abu Salamah refers to Abu Jafar al Dawaniqi. It is also possible that ‘Askar could refer to ‘Aisha and all of those who participated in the Battle of Jamal, since the name of the camel of ‘Aisha was ‘Askar. It is also reported that he was a Shaitan.[33]

 

He further writes under the verse:

 

وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللّٰهِ لَا يَخْلُقُونَ شَيْئًا وَهُمْ يُخْلَقُونَ أَمْوَاتٌ غَيْرُ أَحْيَآءٍ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ أَيَّانَ يُبْعَثُونَ

And those they invoke other than Allah create nothing, and they [themselves] are created. They are [in fact] dead, not alive, and they do not perceive when they will be resurrected.

He says:

 

Those who call unto others besides Allah are Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman. They belied the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who said, “Take ‘Ali as your leader and follow him,” and instead they took ‘Ali as their enemy and did not consider him as their leader. The people then left him and chose their own leader. This is what is referred to by the verse, “And those they invoke other than Allah… They are [in fact] dead, not alive.” They are disbelievers and not from amongst the believers, and the verse, “While they are arrogant in rejection,” refers to them rejecting the leadership of ‘Ali.[34]

 

NEXT⇒ The Muhaddithin and Fuqaha’ of the Shia


[1]Nahj al Balaghah, pg. 452, Tahqiq by Subhi.

[2]Tafsir al Qummi, vol. 1 pg. 114, 115.

[3] Kitab al Khara’ij wa al Jara’íh, pg. 20, 21.

[4]  Surah Maryam: 84

[5]  Kitab Sulaim ibn Qais al Hilali, pg. 256,257.

[6]  Tafsir al Burhan, forward, pg 74.

[7]  Al Safi, pg. 571.

[8]  He is Ni’mat Allah ibn ‘Abdullah al Husaini al Jaza’iri. He was of the great latter day scholars, and the pride of our learned men. He possessed a pure heart, handsome face and a balanced nature. He authored a book by the name of al Anwar al Nu’maniyyah, which comprises of fruitful life experiences. Al Hurr al ’Amili said : “He was a great, well known scholar and researcher, and had great academic value.” He died in the year 1112 Hijri and was a student of al Majlisi. (Rawdat al Jannat by al Khuwanasari vol. 8, pg. 150 onwards)

[9]Al Anwar al Nu’maniyyah.

[10]Tarikh al Ya’qubi, vol. 2 pg. 126.

[11]  He is Sulaim ibn Qais al ‘Amiri al Hilali al Kufi. He died in approximately 90 A.H. The Shia say about him, “He was among the companions of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib.” Al Khuwanasari states, “He was the companion Amir al Mu’minin and also the author of a famous book that is transmitted from him in al Bihar and other than it. He was amongst the former scholars of the Ahlul Bayt. He met five of the infallible Imams: Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali, Hassan, Hussain, Zayn al ‘Abidin, and al Baqir.” (Rawdat al Jannat, vol. 4 pg. 66). Al Qummi says, “He has a famous work which forms the foundation of the fundamental works that the people of knowledge and narrators of the hadith of the Ahlul Bayt transmit. It is the first book that became known amongst the scholars of hadith. Sheikh al Kulayni, the truthful, relied upon it, as well as others.” (al Kuna wa l Alqab, vol. 3 pg. 248)

[12]Kitab al Khisal, vol. 2, pg. 342.

[13]  Surah al Baqarah: 264

[14]Tafsir al ‘Ayyashi, vol. 1, pg. 147; al Bihar, vol. 8, pg. 217.

[15]  Surah al An’am: 112

[16]Tafsir al Qummi, vol. 2 pg. 242.

[17]  Surah al Tawbah: 40

[18]Al Burhan, vol. 2 pg. 127.

[19]  Ibid pg. 125; al Rawdah min al Kafi, vol. 8 pg. 262.

[20]  Surah al Furqan: 29

[21]  Surah al Furqan: 28

[22]  Surah al Furqan: 29

[23]Al Burhan, vol. 3 pg. 166.

[24]Al Burhan, the introduction, pg. 98.

[25]Al Burhan, vol. 4 pg. 215.

[26]  His hatred and malice blinded him to such an extent that he did not realise that none of the three Khalifas’ named themselves by these names. Nothing is narrated to prove that. Rather the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Ahlul Bayt were the ones who gave them these names and titles, as we have previously mentioned. While the wretched curser remained ignorant about the narrations that were established in their own books that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the one who gave himself these names. He allegedly called himself by these names saying, “I am al Siddiq, I am al Faruq.” (Al Ihtijaj by al Tabarsi, vol. 1 pg. 95).

[27]Al Burhan, the introduction, pg. 172.

[28]  Ibid, introduction, pg. 333.

[29]Al Burhan, vol. 3 pg. 127.

[30]Tafsir al Safi by al Kashani, pg. 136.

[31]Al Safi, pg. 236.

[32]Nur al Thaqalayn, vol. 3 pg. 18

[33]  Ibid.

[34]  Ibid, vol. 3, pg. 47.