The position of the Ahlul Bayt regarding ‘Uthman

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The position of the Ahlul Bayt regarding ‘Uthman

 

‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the third of the rightly guided Khalifas’. He was generous, modest, and kind-hearted. He had the honour of marrying two daughters of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum. This is a unique virtue of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and none in the history of man has had the honour of having wed two daughters of a prophet besides him. This also makes him the brother in-law of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha and her husband ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the first to migrate in the path of Allah after Prophet Ibrahim ‘alayh al Salam. During his Caliphate the expansion of the Islamic state continued with many cities coming under the banner of Islam. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu spared no penny in assisting the Muslims and amongst his favours upon the Ummah is the purchase and donation of the Well of Rumah. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu also purchased the land required for expanding Masjid al Nabawi during the lifetime of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

In fact, it was ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu who had assisted ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu—who the Shia consider to be more virtuous than the Messengers and the close angels[1]—in his marriage to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu himself attested to this:

 

The day I went to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to propose for Fatimah, he said to me, “Sell your armour, and bring back to me the money so that I can arrange for you and my daughter, Fatimah, what you require.”

I took my armour and went to the market where I sold it to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan for four hundred silver coins.

After we have exchanged the money and armour he said to me, “O Abu al Hassan, am I not more entitled to this armour and you to the money?”

I replied, “Yes.”

He then said, “This armour is a gift from me to you.”

I then took the armour and the silver coins and presented both to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Thereafter I informed him of what had transpired. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then supplicated for ‘Uthman.[2]

 

The cousin of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, had the same opinion regarding ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He said:

 

May Allah have mercy on Abu Amr (‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan)! By Allah he was the noblest and most righteous of men. He prayed a great deal at the time before dawn and wept at the remembrance of the Fire. He was the first to do righteous deeds and to offer help at the time of calamity. Beloved, confident, and loyal. The one who equipped the army of Tabuk, and also the son-in-law of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[3]

 

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also made him a witness to the marital contract of ‘Ali and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed him to call Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, and a number of the Ansar. He relates:

 

I went and called them after all of them were seated, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “I make you witness that I have married off my daughter, Fatimah, to ‘Ali for the dowry of four hundred mithqal of silver.”[4]

 

It suffices for ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had married off one of his daughters to him, thus becoming his son-in-law, thus leading the Shia to believe that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was entitled to the Caliphate after the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. What then should be the status of that person who the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had married not one but two of his daughters?

Moreover, it was ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu who had covered the expenses of the wedding of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, made the necessary arrangements, and thereafter also served as one of the witnesses.

It suffices for ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu that there is none on the face of the earth who had had the privilege to marry two of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam daughters. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu married Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha in Makkah which was the command of Allah as the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam “does not speak from [his own] inclination. It is not but a revelation revealed.”[5]

After her demise, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married his other daughter, Umm Kulthum, to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu as is attested to by the Shia scholars as well. Al Majlisi—an extremist Shia well known for cursing the Companions—writes in his book Hayat al Qulub transmitting from Ibn Babawayh with an ‘authentic’ chain of transmission:

 

Rasulullah’s’ salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam children from Khadijah were Qasim, ‘Abdullah nicknamed al Tahir, Umm Kulthum, Ruqayyah, Zainab, and Fatimah. ‘Ali married Fatimah, Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ah—who was from the Banu Umayyah—married Zainab[6] just as ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan married Umm Kulthum, who had passed away before the marriage was consummated. Thereafter when the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam intended on sending ‘Uthman to Badr, he married his daughter, Ruqayyah, to him.[7]

 

Al Himyari transmits the following report from Jafar ibn Muhammad who transmits from his father:

 

From the union between the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Khadijah, Qasim, Tahir, Umm Kulthum, Ruqayyah, Fatimah, and Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anhum were conceived.

‘Ali was married to Fatimah, Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ah—who was from Banu Umayyah—was married to Zainab, and ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan was married to Umm Kulthum who had passed away before their marriage was consummated. Thereafter Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married him to Ruqayyah.[8]

 

Al ‘Abbas al Qummi transmits a similar report in his book, Muntaha al Amal, from Jafar al Sadiq and al Mamaqani in Tanqih al Maqal.[9]

Al Shirri when attesting to what has been stated, writes:

 

‘Uthman did not fall short from Abu Bakr and ‘Umar in terms of companionship and precedence in Islam. Rather ‘Uthman was from the revered Muslims and also had the privilege of marrying more than one of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam daughters. He married Ruqayyah, the daughter of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and from that union ‘Abdullah was conceived who had passed away at the age of six, and his mother had passed on before him. Thereafter, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wedded Umm Kulthum to him, who was not in his care for long until she also passed on, which occurred in the lifetime of her father salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[10]

 

Al Mas’udi under the title, Mention of his salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam children, writes:

 

All the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam children were conceived by Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha with the exception of Ibrahim. Qasim was his eldest son. Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum were married to ‘Utbah and ‘Utaybah, the sons of Abu Lahab, who had both later divorced them. Thereafter ‘Uthman married the two of them in succession.[11]

 

These reports serve as evidence against those who question the fact that Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum were the biological daughters of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

We will now transmit some reports from al Kulayni, al ‘Arusi, and al Huwayzi, from the chapter, Mention of the children of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

 

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was in his twenties when he had married Khadijah and from that union Qasim, Ruqayyah, Zainab, and Umm Kulthum were born before he had received Nubuwwah. As for Tahir and Fatimah, they were born after he received Nubuwwah.[12]

 

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu attests to ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu marriage to the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the same manner that he attests to the faith of ‘Uthman, his accompanying the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, his knowledge, and early entry into Islam. This can be seen in the incident where ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was asked by the people to speak to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

‘Ali entered upon ‘Uthman and said, “The people are behind me, and they have made me an ambassador between you and themselves, but by Allah, I do not know what to say to you. I know nothing which you do not know, nor can I lead you to any matter of which you are not aware of. You certainly know what we know. We have not come to know anything before you which we could tell you; nor did we learn anything in secret which we should convey to you. You have seen as we have seen, and you have heard as we have heard. You sat in the company of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as we did. (Abu Bakr) Ibn Abi Quhafah and (‘Umar) Ibn al Khattab were no more responsible for acting righteously than you, since you are nearer than both of them to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam through kinship, and you also hold relationship to him by marriage which they do not. So (fear) Allah, in your own self; for, by Allah, you are not being shown anything as if you are blind or being apprised of anything as if you are ignorant.”[13]

 

Contemplate on what ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had said. Could one still possibly assume after the vindication and acknowledgment of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu that he was more virtuous and knowledgeable than ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, or that he was closer to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam than him through kinship?

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam equated ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to a heart in relation to a body. It has been transmitted that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

Abu Bakr is to me like that of the hearing, ‘Umar like that of the sight, and ‘Uthman like that of the heart.[14]

 

Glad tidings to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu! Indeed, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had equated him to that of a heart in relation to a body.

The grandson of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Hussain ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, would transmit hadith from him,[15] and so would Hassan ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[16] There are many other members of the Ahlul Bayt who had also excessively praised ‘Uthman, in addition to Hassan, Hussain, and their father ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

Al Kulayni transmits from Jafar ibn al Baqir (their sixth Imam) who had given glad tidings of Jannat to ‘Uthman and his followers. He states:

 

A caller calls out at the beginning of the day; “Behold! ‘Ali and his supporters are the successful ones”, and towards the latter part of the day, another caller calls out, “‘Uthman and his supporters are the successful ones.”[17]

 

Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhu speaks about the position ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu held by the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, his confidence in him, how the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had appointed him as a representative, as well as the unrivalled sincerity and obedience that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu showed towards the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He also recalls the day the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had placed his one hand in the other, when pledging allegiance on behalf of ‘Uthman, which took place before the peace treaty of Hudaybiyyah. This is a merit which belongs solely to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent for ‘Uthman and instructed him, “Go to the believers from among your people and give to them the glad tidings of what my Rabb has promised me regarding the conquest of Makkah.” When ‘Uthman left he met Aban ibn Sa’id and he was delayed from returning. Suhayl ibn ‘Amr sat next to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, whilst ‘Uthman sat in the barracks of the idolaters. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took a pledge from the Muslims, thereafter he clasped his hands together for ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Later the Muslims exclaimed, “Congratulations to ‘Uthman, he has made Tawaf of the Ka’bah, walked between Safa and Marwah, and came out of his ihram.” The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “He would not have done so.” When ‘Uthman returned, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam inquired from him, “Did you make Tawaf?” ‘Uthman replied, “I could not have made Tawaf whereas the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had not done so yet.”[18]

Look at the obedience of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, he enters the Haram and does not make Tawaf because his master, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, has not made Tawaf yet.

Al Majlisi has mentioned something similar in his book Hayat al Qulub:

 

When it reached the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that the polytheist had killed ‘Uthman, he said, “I will not move from here until we have fought those who have killed ‘Uthman.” He then reclined against the tree and took the pledge of allegiance[19] for ‘Uthman. Thereafter he mentions the entire incident.[20]

 

‘Ali pledging allegiance to ‘Uthman

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu considered ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu leadership, and Caliphate to be valid on account of the Muhajirin and the Ansar having concurred that he should be the Khalifah. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu also used to consider ‘Uthman’s Caliphate one which Allah was pleased with, and that nobody can deny his leadership, whether the person was present or not. He mentions in a letter to Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

Shura is the right of the Muhajirin and Ansar. Therefore, when they concur upon a man and call him the Imam that is consent from them. If someone defects from their choice on account of some criticism or bid’ah they will return from where he left. If he refuses they will fight him on account of his following other than the way of the believers. And Allah will give him what he deserves.[21]

 

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was also one of the six candidates appointed by ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu for the Caliphate. After ‘Abd al Rahman ibn ‘Awf had consulted the Ahl al Hall wa l ‘Aqd (decision makers) from the Muhajirin and Ansar, and reached the conclusion that they wanted none other than ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to be the Khalifah, he pledged allegiance to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and ‘Ali followed suit:

 

The first person to have pledged allegiance to ‘Uthman was ‘Abd al Rahman ibn ‘Awf, who was then followed by ‘Ali.[22]

 

‘Ali al Murtada radiya Llahu ‘anhu states:

 

When ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was wounded, he appointed me as the sixth candidate. I entered where he had entered me as I did not want to cause any disunity amongst the Muslims. Thus when you (Muslims) pledged allegiance to ‘Uthman, I too pledged allegiance.[23]

 

He further states:

 

You have certainly known that I am the most rightful of all others for the Caliphate. By Allah, as long as the affairs of the Muslims remain intact, and there is no oppression in it save on myself, I shall keep quiet seeking the reward thereof.[24]

 

Ibn Abi al Hadid comments under this:

 

‘Abd al Rahman ibn ‘Awf said to ‘Ali, “Pledge allegiance, or else you will be from among those who follow other than the way of the believers.”

‘Ali replied, “You know that I’m most deserving of it… thereafter he stretched out his hand, and pledged allegiance.”[25]

 

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was faithful, and had good will towards ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He also served as a councillor, and a judge in ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu Caliphate as was the case in the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.

The Shia scholars and historians dedicate an independent chapter to the legal rulings of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in the Caliphate of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Al Mufid writes in al Irshad under the title, The legal rulings of ‘Ali in the Caliphate of ‘Uthman, that a number of rulings given by ‘Ali were executed by ‘Uthman.

He writes:

 

A female who had married an elderly man fell pregnant. The man then refused having had conjugal relations with her, let alone impregnating her. The matter became difficult for ‘Uthman.

He asked the female, “Did the elderly man deflower you?” as she was a virgin.

She replied, “No.”

Thereafter ‘Uthman said, “Carry out the capital punishment on her.”

‘Ali said to him, “Females have two tracts, one for menstruation and the other for urine. Perhaps the semen of her husband entered her tract during foreplay, thus she was impregnated.”

‘Ali said, “Ask the man regarding it.”

The man was asked and he replied, “I would ejaculate without penetration.”

‘Ali concluded, “The child is his, and if he were to reject it, he should be punished.”

‘Uthman executed the verdict of ‘Ali and was astonished by him.[26]

 

Al Mufid also mentions:

 

A man had a slave girl whom he had impregnated. Thereafter he refrained from her, and married her to another slave of his. When the master passed away, she was freed on account of her son (from the master) having inherited her. Furthermore, her son had also inherited his mother’s (second) husband as part of the estate. When the son passed away, she inherited her husband. The matter was raised to ‘Uthman.

She claimed, “This is my slave.”

He said, “No, this is my wife, and we are not separated.”

‘Uthman said, “This is a problem!”

‘Ali was also present.

‘Ali suggested, “Ask her if they had sexual intercourse after she had inherited him?”

She replied, “No.”

‘Ali then said, “If I knew that he had, I would have punished him! Take him, as he is your slave, he has no right over you. If you wish you may keep him as a slave, set him free, or even sell him.”[27]

 

Al Kulayni in his Sahih, transmitting from Abu Jafar Muhammad al Baqir writes:

 

Walid ibn ‘Uqbah was accused of consuming wine. ‘Uthman said to ‘Ali, “Judge between him, and his accusers.”

‘Ali concluded that he was guilty. Thereafter he was given forty lashes with a whip that had two ends.[28]

 

Al Ya’qubi writes:

 

When Walid was brought to ‘‘Uthman, ‘Uthman asked, “Who will mete out the punishment?”

The people desisted on account of his kinship to ‘Uthman. He was the half-brother of ‘Uthman. ‘Ali then stood up and lashed him.[29]

 

These actions would only emanate from one who accepts and attests to the validity of one’s Caliphate, fulfils the command of the Khalifah and participates in his legal rulings. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, his children, and the Banu Hashim radiya Llahu ‘anhum were loyal to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu statement which is transmitted in one of their most sacred books clearly indicates to it. When the people wanted to pledge allegiance to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu after the unjust killing of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, he told them:

 

Leave me, and look for someone other than me. If you were to leave me, I would be one of you, and perhaps I would even be more obedient and adherent to the person you have elected.[30]

 

‘Uthman’s relationship with the Ahlul Bayt

Further proof of the harmonious relationship between ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Banu Hashim is that they would serve in governmental positions during the Caliphate of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Amongst them was:

 

Mughirah ibn Nawfal ibn Harith ibn ‘Abd al Muttalib, who had accepted a judging post,[31]

Harith ibn Nawfal as well,[32]

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, who accepted leadership of Hajj in 35 A.H.[33]

 

Furthermore, the Ahlul Bayt would join the armies sent out by ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu against the enemies of Islam. Amongst those who participated in those battles, and were sent to Africa in 26 A.H was none other than ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, the cousin of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[34]

Amongst the Ahlul Bayt who had formed part of the armies that were sent to the coastal area of Western Libya, Tunisia, and Eastern Algeria were:

 

Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhuma,

Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhuma,

‘Abdullah ibn Jafar ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhuma,

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.

All of them united under the leadership and banner of ‘Abdullah ibn Sa’d ibn Abi Sarh.[35]

 

Hassan, Hussain, and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhum also fought under the banner of Sa’id ibn al ‘As al Umawi in the Battles of Khorasan, Tabaristan, and Jurjan.[36]

‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu would award them gifts from the spoils of war, giving them slaves, servants, and wealth. Al Mamaqani transmits from al Rida (their eighth Imam):

 

When ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amir ibn Kurayz conquered Khorasan, the two daughters of Yazdegerd were taken captive, who he sent to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan. ‘Uthman then gifted one to Hassan and the other to Hussain, both of whom later passed away in their post-partum period.[37]

 

‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu loved and honoured Hassan and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. It should thus come as no surprise that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent his sons, Hassan and Hussain, to guard ‘Uthman when he was surrounded by the wrongdoers. He said to them:

 

Take your swords, protect the entrance to ‘Uthman, and do not allow anyone to reach him![38]

 

In fact, a number of Sahabah had sent their children to stop the wrongdoers from reaching ‘Uthman. Amongst those who guarded and defended ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, the cousin of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. When ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed him as the leader for Hajj in those challenging times, he replied:

 

By Allah, O Amir al Mu’minin, fighting these people is dearer to me than going for Hajj.

‘Uthman then made him take an oath that he should go.[39]

 

Similarly, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu personally assisted in guarding ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

He had been present many times driving away the oppressors. He then sent his two sons and nephew, ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar, to guard ‘Uthman.[40]

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu left after having physically and verbally protected him for periods at a time. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu left after he was no longer able to defend him.[41]

‘Ali used to resist them physically, verbally, and with his own children but it was to no avail.[42]

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu himself states:

 

By Allah I guarded ‘Uthman to such an extent that I thought I’d become a sinner.[43]

 

Due to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu having prevented them from guarding him. He said:

 

I beseech you to return. Laydown your weapons and remain in your homes.[44]

 

From among those who had guarded ‘Uthman were Hassan ibn ‘Ali, ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair, Muhammad ibn Talhah, and a number of the children from the Ansar, but ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu stopped them saying, “You are not to defend me.”[45]

From among those who were wounded from the Ahlul Bayt and the Ansar were Hassan ibn ‘Ali and ‘Ali’s freed slave, Qanbar.[46]

When the oppressors prevented water from reaching ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, ‘Ali said to them:

 

O People what you are doing does not resemble the actions of the believers in the least! Verily the Persians used to be taken captive and they would still be given to eat and drink. By Allah! Do not prevent water from the man. ‘Ali then sent to him a girl from the Banu Hashim with three filled water skins.[47]

 

Before concluding we would like to transmit from al Mas’udi[48] some of the trials and tribulations that had occurred.

 

When it reached ‘Ali that they were intending to kill ‘Uthman, he sent his two sons, Hassan and Hussain, and his freed slave with weapons in order to guard the door of ‘Uthman. He instructed that they should prevent anyone from reaching him. Zubair sent his son ‘Abdullah, and Talhah sent his son Muhammad. In fact, most of the Sahabah sent their children to protect his house as we have mentioned. Someone in their midst got shot by an arrow which was followed by a brawl. As a result, Hassan, Qanbar, and Muhammad ibn Talhah got injured. The perpetrators feared that the Banu Hashim and Banu Umayyah would take revenge, thus they stopped the fighting. A group of them went to the homes of the Ansar and climbed over the walls. From among those who had made it to ‘Uthman were Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and two others. ‘Uthman’s wife, freed slave, and other relatives were fighting them off. Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr took ‘Uthman by his beard.

‘Uthman remarked, “O Muhammad, by Allah, if your father were to see you, he would have disapproved of what you are doing.”

He then withdrew his hand, and left the house. The two men entered, found ‘Uthman, and killed him whilst he was reciting the Qur’an. His wife cried out, “The leader of the believers has been killed”. Hassan, Hussain, and others from the Banu Umayyah entered and found that he had been killed and began to weep. The news reached ‘Ali, Talhah, Zubair, Sa’d, and others from among the Muhajirin and the Ansar. They recited, “To Allah do we belong and unto Him shall we return.”

‘Ali entered the house grieved, and said to his sons, “How could the leader of the believers have been killed whereas the two of you were guarding the door?”

He slapped Hassan and struck Hussain in his chest. He rebuked Muhammad ibn Talhah and cussed ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair.[49]

 

Furthermore, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his family were among those who buried ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu at night and performed his funeral prayer. Ibn Abi al Hadid writes:

 

A small number of people from his family participated. Among those who were also present were Hassan ibn ‘Ali, Ibn Zubair, and Abu Jahm ibn Hudhayfah. This took place between Maghrib and ‘Isha. They performed his funeral prayer when they reached Hash Kawkab, an orchard in Madinah, which is situated outside Baqi’.[50]

 

The Ahlul Bayt loved ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to such an extent that they married their daughters to his sons. In fact, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married two of his own daughters to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The Ahlul Bayt would name their children after him as well.

Al Mufid writes:

 

‘Ali had a total of twenty-seven children… 1. Hassan 2. Hussain… 10. ‘Uthman, whose mother was Umm al Banin bint Hizam ibn Khalid ibn Waram.[51]

 

Al Isfahani states that ‘Uthman ibn ‘Ali was killed alongside his brother Hussain at Karbala’. ‘Uthman ibn ‘Ali was killed at the age of 21. Al Dahhak states:

 

Khawla ibn Yazid shot an arrow at ‘Uthman ibn ‘Ali which wounded him. Thereafter a man from Banu Aban ibn Darim gave him the final blow and severed his head from his body.[52]

 

This is ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the son in-law and beloved of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in this world and the next, the beloved cousin of the Ahlul Bayt. They loved him just as they loved Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. As was stated by ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

He was closer in kinship to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam than the two of them, as he was married to the daughters of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[53]

 

This is the attitude of the Ahlul Bayt towards ‘Uthman, Abu Bakr, and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhum; the three Rightly Guided Khalifas’.

All of these reports are to be found in their own Shia literature.

 

Addendum

 

Intermarrying between the Banu Hashim and Banu Umayyah

It becomes evident through these marital contracts that no hatred and animosity existed between the Banu Hashim and the Banu Umayyah, as contrived by the fabricators and enemies of Islam. Rather what we do see being exhibited is reciprocating love and strong family ties, sharing each other’s grievances and assisting one another.

Shia scholars and historians mention that Abu Sufyan who was the leader of the Banu Umayyah was one of the major supporters of ‘Ali and Banu Hashim on the Day of Saqifah. Al Ya’qubi writes:

 

From among those who had postponed pledging allegiance to Abu Bakr was Abu Sufyan ibn Harb who had asked, “O Banu ‘Abd Manaf! Are you satisfied that other than you are entrusted with this affair (Caliphate)?”

He then said to ‘Ali, “Extend your hand, so that I may pledge allegiance to you.”

 

With ‘Ali was Qusay who had said the following:

 

Banu Hashim do not give people ambition against you

In particular, Taym ibn Murrah (Abu Bakr) and ‘Adi (‘Umar)

As the matter of Caliphate is for none other than ‘Ali

O Abu al Hassan hold firmly on to it!

As you are cable for that which is hoped for

And whomsoever Qusay pursues

He is well protected and people keep their distance from an ascendant person.[54]

 

Ibn Babawayh mentions:

 

From among those who were loyal to ‘Ali were twelve males from the Muhajirin and the Ansar. Among them was Khalid ibn Sa’id ibn al ‘As al Umawi, who had said the following in a large gathering, “By Allah, the Quraysh know that I am the most superior in lineage and most eloquent. I have a good reputation and I am the most adherent to Allah and His Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”[55]

 

There was a very good relationship between Abu Sufyan and ‘Abbas, the uncle of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and the leader of the Banu Hashim. The Banu Hashim and Banu Umayyah intermarried prior to the advent of Islam and after it as well.

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had married three of his four daughters to men from the Banu Umayyah, viz. Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ and ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.

Furthermore, ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the grandson of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam paternal aunt. ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu maternal grandmother, Umm al Hakim al Bayda’ bint ‘Abd al Muttalib, and Nabi’ salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam father, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abd al Muttalib, were twins. Umm al Hakim had a daughter, Arwa bint Kurayz ibn Habib ibn ‘Abd al Shams, who was the mother of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[56]

‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu son, Aban ibn ‘Uthman, was married to Umm Kulthum bint ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar (al Tayyar) ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu from the Banu Hashim. Jafar (al Tayyar) ibn Abi Talib was the brother of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his son, ‘Abdullah, in addition to being the nephew of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu also had the honour of being his son-in-law, having wed Zainab—the daughter of ‘Ali and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. It was to the daughter of this very same ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar that Aban ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu was married.[57]

Sukaynah, the daughter of Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu and granddaughter of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, was married to Zaid ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, the grandson of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[58]

Fatimah, also the daughter of Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu and granddaughter of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, was married to the grandson of ‘Uthman, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr married Fatimah after Hassan ibn al  Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib passed away. (See Appendix 8)

The daughter of Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and granddaughter of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was married to the grandson of ‘Uthman, Marwan ibn Aban.

Umm al Qasim bint al Hassan (al Muthanna) ibn al Hassan was married to Marwan ibn Aban ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, and from that union Muhammad ibn Marwan was born.[59]

Umm Habibah, the daughter of Abu Sufyan—who was the chief of Banu Umayyah, was married to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the leader of the Banu Hashim and all the children of Adam.

Furthermore, Hind bint Abi Sufyan was married to Harith ibn Nawfal ibn Harith ibn ‘Abd al Muttalib ibn Hashim, and from this union came Muhammad.[60]

Lubabah bint ‘Ubayd Allah ibn ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al Muttalib was first married to ‘Abbas ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, and thereafter was wed by Walid ibn ‘Utbah (the nephew of Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan).[61]

Ramlah bint Muhammad ibn Jafar ibn Abi Talib was first married to Sulaiman ibn Hashim ibn ‘Abd al Muttalib and thereafter she got married to Abu al Qasim ibn Walid ibn ‘Utbah ibn Abi Sufyan.[62]

The daughter of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, Ramlah, was married to the son of Marwan ibn al Hakam ibn Abi al ‘As ibn Umayyah, Muawiyah ibn Marwan. (See Appendix 10) Ramlah bint ‘Ali’s mother was Umm Sa’id bint ‘Urwah ibn Mas’ud al Thaqafi.[63] Ramlah bint ‘Ali was first married to Abu al Hayyaj thereafter Muawiyah ibn Marwan ibn al Hakam ibn Abi al ‘As got married to her.[64]

Zainab bint al Hassan al Muthanna, the daughter of Fatimah bint al Hussain—having noble lineage from both sides, was married to ‘Abd al Malik ibn Marwan (al Umawi). (See Appendix 11)

Similarly did the great granddaughter of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu get married to Marwan al Hakam:

 

Nafisah bint Zaid ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib was married to ‘Abd al Malik ibn Marwan, in whose care she had passed away. Her mother was Lubabah bint ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas.[65]

 

Intermarriage between the Banu Hashim and the Banu Umayyah was a common occurrence. However, we will suffice with the above mentioned as it is sufficient for the seeker of the truth. As for the one who Allah has let go astray, then for him there is no guidance.

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu writes to Muawiyah in relation to the above mentioned:

 

The perpetual supremacy and superiority do not prevent us from making contact with human beings or with your clan. We have married amongst you and have established family connections with your clan, we married and we gave in marriage as equals would.[66]

 

Aside from the differences that resulted in fighting between ‘Ali, his sons—Hassan and Hussain—and Muawiyah and his son Yazid, how is possible for anyone to generalise that there was conflict, animosity, jealousy, and hatred between the Banu Hashim and the Banu Umayyah?

It is known that the Banu Hashim and the Banu Umayyah are children from the same father and branches from the same tree, prior to Islam and after; all of them having drunk from the same pure source, reaping the fruits from that religion which the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had brought, the one who had said, “There is no difference between the Arab and non-Arab, nor the white and the black; rather one is only considered to be more virtuous than the other based on piety.” Thus a person’s lineage being superior to the other was not from the teachings of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam states in his Farewell Hajj sermon as transmitted by the Shia:

 

People in Islam are equal, all being from the progeny of Adam and Hawwa. There is no virtue for an Arab over a non-Arab, nor for a non-Arab over an Arab; except through piety. Have I conveyed?

They replied, “Yes!”

He then said, “O Allah bear witness.”

Thereafter he said, “Do not come to me with your lineages rather, come and present to me your deeds…”

He said, “Muslims are brothers of one another, they do not deceive and backbite one another. Nor is spilling his blood and taking his wealth without his consent permissible. Have I conveyed?”

They replied, “Yes!”

He salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then remarked, “O Allah I make you witness.”[67]

 

NEXT⇒ The attitude of the Shia towards the three rightly guided Khalifas’


[1]  The Shia belief that the Imams are more virtuous than the Messengers

Muhammad ibn al Hassan al Saffar in Basa’ir al Darajat transmits from ‘Abdullah ibn al Walid al Samman:

Abu Jafar asked me, “O ‘Abdullah! What do the Shia have to say regarding ‘Ali, Musa, and ‘Isa?”

I replied, “May I be sacrificed in your stead, what in particular are you referring to?”

He replied, “I’m asking you with regards to their knowledge.”

I replied, “By Allah ‘Ali is more knowledgeable than the two of them.”

He then said, “O ‘Abdullah do they not say that ‘Ali knows that which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam knew.”

I said, “Yes.”

Thereafter he said, “Engage them with the verse in which Allah says regarding Musa, ‘And We wrote for him on the tablets [something] of all things,’ yet we know that Allah did not teach him everything. However, Allah says to Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, ‘We will bring you, [O Muhammad], as a witness over these [i.e. your nation]. And We have sent down to you the Book as clarification for all things.”

From ‘Ali ibn Ismail — from Muhammad ibn ‘Umar al Zayyat, he states:

Abu ‘Abdullah asked, “What do the Shia say regarding Musa, ‘Isa, and ‘Ali?”

I replied, “They claim that Musa and ‘Isa are more virtuous than ‘Ali.”

He asked, “Do they claim that ‘Ali knew that which Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam knew?”

I replied, “Yes, however, they do not give preference to anyone over the Ulul al ‘Azm from among the Messengers.”

Abu ‘Abdullah said, “Engage them using the Book of Allah.”

I then asked, “What in particular?”

He replied, “Allah said to Musa, ‘We wrote for him on the tablets [something] of all things,’ and He subhanahu wa ta ‘ala said to ‘Isa, ‘To make clear to you some of that over which you differ,’ whereas He subhanahu wa ta ‘ala said to Muhammad, ‘We will bring you, [O Muhammad], as a witness over these [i.e. your nation]. And We have sent down to you the Book as clarification for all things.’

From ‘Ali ibn Muhammad:

Abu ‘Abdullah said, “Allah has created the Ulul ‘Azm and has favoured them with knowledge, thereafter we inherited their knowledge, thus we became more virtuous than them. He subhanahu wa ta ‘ala then taught Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that which they did not know, which we were also taught thereafter together with the knowledge of the Ulu al ‘Azm.” Al Fusul al Muhimmah pg. 151 and 152 by al Hurr al ‘Amili.

Ibn Babawayh al Qummi in his book ‘Uyun Akhbar al Rida (vol. 1 pg. 225) transmits from Abu al Hassan ‘Ali ibn Musa al Rida — from his father — from his forefathers — from ‘Ali that Jibril came to Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and said:

O Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Allah says, “If I had not created ‘Ali your daughter Fatimah would not have had an equal from the time of Adam till the last person to come.”

Al SayedLajiwardi comments, “Some scholars use this statement as evidence that ‘Ali and Fatimah are more virtuous than even the Messengers.”

Al Hurr al ‘Amili inserts this report of Tusi in al Tahdhib under the heading, Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Twelve Imams are more virtuous than the entire creation along with the Messengers, Awsiya’, and Angels”. Al Fusul al Muhimmah pg. 151.

He further transmits some other reports from al Rida:

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said “Allah has not created anything more virtuous and honoured than I.”

‘Ali said, “I asked, O Rasulullah, are you more virtuous or Jibril?”

He salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied, “Allah has favoured the Messengers and the Prophets over his close angels, and He subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has favoured me over all the Messengers and Prophets. Thereafter virtue goes to you and the Imams to succeed you. The angels are our, and our Shia’s servants. (He then said :) Why can we not be more virtuous than them when we have surpassed them with the gnosis of our Rabb, His praise, glorification, and sanctification. Allah created Adam, and placed us in his back thereafter He ordered the angels to prostrate to him out of honour and glorification for us. Their prostration to Allah is that of worship, however, for Adam it was a gesture of honour due to our presence in his back. Hence we are more virtuous than the angels as all of them had prostrated to Adam.” Al Fusul pg. 153. ‘Uyun Akhbar al Rida vol. 1 pg. 262 under the heading, The virtue of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Imams over the angels and Messengers.

[2] Al Manaqib by al Khawarizmi, pg. 252-253; Kashf al Ghummah, vol. 1 pg. 359; Bihar al Anwar, pg. 39-40.

[3]Tarikh al Mas’udi, vol. 3 pg. 51; Nasikh al Tawarikh by Mirza Muhammad Taqi, vol. 5 pg. 144.

[4]Kashf al Ghummah, vol. 1 pg. 358; al Manaqib by al Khawarizmi, pg. 252; Bihar al Anwar, vol. 10 pg. 38.

[5]  Surah al Najm: 3

[6]  Refer to the Addendum at the end of this discussion for further examples of intermarriage between the Banu Umayyah and the Banu Hashim.

[7]Hayat al Qulub, vol. 2 pg. 588 Ch. 51.

[8] Qurb al Isnad, pg. 6-7.

[9] Al Muntaha, vol. 1 pg. 108; al Tanqih vol. 3 pg. 73.

[10]Kitab Amir al Mu’minin by Muhammad Jawwad al Shia under the heading: ‘Ali during the Caliphate of ‘Uthman pg. 256.

[11]Muruj al Dhahab vol. 2 pg. 298.

[12]Al Usul min al Kafi vol. 1 pg. 439-440; Nur al Thaqalayn vol. 3 pg. 303.

[13]Nahj al Balaghah pg. 234.

[14] ‘Uyun Akhbar al Rida vol. 1 pg. 303.

[15]‘Uyun Akhbar al Rida vol. 1 pg. 303.

[16]Tafsir al Hassan al ‘Askari; Ma’ani al Akhbar pg. 110.

[17]Al Kafi fi l-Furu’ vol. 8 pg. 209.

[18]Kitab al Rawdah min al Kafi vol. 8 pg. 325-326.

[19]  Thereafter the verses were revealed, “Certainly was Allah pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you, [O Muhammad], under the tree, and He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquillity upon them and rewarded them with an imminent conquest.” (Surah al Fath: 18) And also, “Indeed, those who pledge allegiance to you, [O Muhammad] – they are actually pledging allegiance to Allah. The hand of Allah is over their hands.” (Surah al Fath: 10)

[20]Hayat al Qulub vol. 2 pg. 424.

[21]Nahj al Balaghah, pg. 368

[22]Tabaqat ibn Sa’d, vol. 3 pg. 42; al Bukhari, chapter: the bay’ah and concurrence on ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.

[23]Al Amali, vol. 2 sec. 18 pg. 121.

[24]Nahj al Balaghah, pg. 102.

[25]  Ibn Abi al Hadid; Nasikh al Tawarikh, vol. 2 b. 2 pg. 449.

[26]Al Irshad pg. 112-113.

[27]  Ibid.

[28] Al Kafi fi l-Furu, vol. 7 pg. 213.

[29]Tarikh al Ya’qubi, vol. 2 pg. 165.

[30]Nahj al Balaghah, Tahqiq of Salih al Subhi pg. 136.

[31]Al Isti’ab; Usd al Ghabah; al Isabah.

[32]Tabaqat; al Isabah.

[33]Tarikh al Ya’qubi, vol. 2 pg. 176.

[34]Al Kamil, vol. 3 pg. 45.

[35]Tarikh ibn Khaldun, vol. 2 pg. 103.

[36]Tarikh al Tabari; al Kamil; al Bidayah wa l-Nihayah; Tarikh ibn Khaldun.

[37]Tanqih al Maqal fi ‘Ilm al Rijal, vol. 3 pg. 80.

[38]Ansab al Ashraf, vol. 5 pg. 68-69 by al Balathuri.

[39] Tarikh al Umam wa l-Muluk, the year 35.

[40]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah by Ibn Abi al Hadid, vol. 10 pg. 581.

[41]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah by Ibn Abi Maytham al Bahrani, vol. 4 pg. 354.

[42]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah by Ibn Abi al Hadid, under the heading: Baya’ani al Qawm allathina Baya’ahu Aba Bakr.

[43]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah by Ibn Abi al Hadid, vol. 3 pg. 286.

[44]Tarikh Khalifah ibn Khayyat, vol. 1 pg. 151-152.

[45]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah, under the heading: The besiege of ‘Uthman and preventing water from reaching him.

[46]Al Ansab, vol. 5 pg. 95; al Bidayah, under the title: killers of ‘Uthman.

[47]Nasikh al Tawarikh, vol. 2 pg. 531. A similar report in Ansab al Ashraf vol. 5 pg. 69 by al Balathuri.

[48]  He is Abu al Hassan ibn al Hussain ibn ‘Ali al Mas’udi born in Baghdad towards the latter part of the third century A.H. He travelled the East and Africa extensively. He died in 342 or 346 A.H. Muhsin al Amin lists him in his book on the Shia historians. He writes, “Al Mas’udi is an Imam in history, the author of Muruj al Dhahab and Akhbar al Zaman. (A’yan al Shia, vol. 1 Pg. 130) Al Qummi states that he is the leader of the historians and their support. He had also authored a book on Imamah. From among the books he authored are Ithbat al Wasiyyah li ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muruj al Dhahab. Al Najashi counts him from among the Shia transmitters. (al Kuna wa l-Alqab vol. 3 pg. 153) Al Khuwansari mentions a number of statements that Shia scholars had said in praise of him: “Honourable Sheikh, expert, reliable, protector of Hadith, and from the foremost scholars of the Imamiyyah. Contemporary of al Saduq. Furthermore, he is from among the senior and virtuous scholars of the Ithna ‘Ashariyyah.” (Rawdat al Jannat vol. 4 pg. 281)

[49]Muruj al Dhahab vol. 2 pg. 344.

[50]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah by Ibn Abi al Hadid, vol. 1 pg. 97.

[51]Al Irshad, pg. 186 under the title: Dhikr Awlad Amir al Mu’minin.

[52]Maqatil al Talibiyin, pg. 83; ‘Umdat al Talib, pg. 356; Tarikh al Ya’qubi, vol. 2 pg. 213.

[53]Nahj al Balaghah, pg. 234.

[54]Tarikh al Ya’qubi, vol. 2 pg. 126; Sharh Nahj al Balaghah by Ibn Abi al Hadid.

[55] Kitab al Khisal, pg. 361.

[56]  See Appendix 7.

[57]Al Ma’arif, pg. 86.

[58]Nasab Quraysh, vol. 4 pg. 120; al Ma’arif, pg. 94 of Ibn Qutaybah; Jamharat Ansab al ‘Arab, vol. 1 pg. 86 of Ibn Hazm; Tabaqat ibn Sa’d vol. 6 pg. 349.

[59]Nasab Quraysh, vol. 2 pg. 53; Jamharat Ansab al ‘Arab, vol. 1 pg. 58; Al Muhabbar, pg. 438 of al Baghdadi. See appendix 9.

[60]Al Isabah, vol. 3 pg. 58 -59; Tabaqat ibn Sa’d, vol. 5 pg. 15.

[61]Al Muhabbar, pg. 441; Nasab Quraysh, pg. 133; also in the marginal note of ‘Umdat al Talib pg. 43.

[62]Al Muhabbar, pg. 449.

[63]Al Irshad, pg. 186.

[64]Nasab Quraysh, pg. 45; Jamharat Ansab al A’rab, pg. 87.

[65]Tabaqat ibn Sa’d, vol. 5 pg. 234; ‘Umdat al Talib fi Ansab Al Abi Talib pg. 70.

[66]Nahj al Balaghah pg. 386-378.

[67]Tarikh al Ya’qubi, vol. 2 pg. 110-111, under the heading: The Farewell Hajj.