The Imams

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The Imams

 

Fabrications are inseparable from Shi’ism and in their efforts of fabrication they have attributed divine qualities to the Imams. The Shia believe that the Imams share in the affairs and decisions of Allah. Al Kulayni writes regarding ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

I have been endowed with such traits which none has ever been endowed with—not even the Messengers—I have been taught the deaths, calamities, and lineages. Indeed, the knowledge of that which occurred did not miss me nor is that which is still to occur concealed from me.[1]

 

Despite the Qur’an clearly stating:

 

وَمَا تَدْرِيْ نَفْسٌ بِأَيِّ أَرْضٍ تَمُوْتُ إِنَّ اللّٰهَ عَلِيْمٌ خَبِيْرٌ

No soul perceives in what land it will die. Indeed, Allah is All Knowing and All Acquainted.[2]

 

And from among the exclusive qualities of Allah are:

 

لَا يَعْزُبُ عَنْهُ مِثْقَالُ ذَرَّةٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا أَصْغَرُ مِن ذٰلِكَ وَلَا أَكْبَرُ إِلَّا فِيْ كِتَابٍ مُّبِيْنٍ

Not absent from Him is an atom’s weight within the heavens or within the earth or [what is] smaller than that or greater, except that it is in a clear register.[3]

 

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has also commanded the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to say:

 

قُلْ لَّا يَعْلَمُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ الْغَيْبَ إِلَّا اللّٰهُ

Say, “None in the heavens and earth knows the unseen except Allah.”[4]

 

The Shia did not stop at attributing divine qualities to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu only, rather, they have also attributed it to the rest of the Imams, thus opposing the Qur’an and Sunnah. Al Kulayni dedicates an independent chapter titled, The Imams knows the past and present, in fact nothing is concealed from them. He then falsely transmits from Jafar al Sadiq:

 

I have knowledge of that which is on the earth and in the skies, in heaven and hell, and I know the pass and the future.[5]

 

Just as they have falsely transmitted from his father, Muhammad al Baqir:

 

By Allah! A person cannot be knowledgeable and ignorant at the same time.

Thereafter he said, “Allah is far too Exalted, Honoured, and Benevolent to make it incumbent to follow someone and then conceal from him the knowledge of the Heavens and earth.”

He then concluded, “He does not conceal it from him”.[6]

 

Furthermore, they state that Abu al Hassan was sitting one day with a person by the name of Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar, one of his Shia, entered upon him:

 

Abu al Hassan said to him, “O so-an-so, repent and do good deeds as you have only one month left to live.”

Ishaq stated, “I then thought to myself: How astonishing is it, it is as if he is telling us that he knows when the Shia will die.”

He then looked at me angrily and said, “O Ishaq do you deny that… O Ishaq there will be great discord and insolvency in your family.”[7]

 

Whereas Allah states in the Qur’an:

 

وَعِنْدَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا إِلَّا هُوَ

And with Him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them except Him.[8]

 

Jafar al Sadiq attested to the above verse and rejected the misconception that he or any member of the Ahlul Bayt had knowledge of the unseen. The Shia themselves transmit the report from Sudayr:

 

Abu Basir, Yahya al Bazar, Dawood ibn Kathir, and I were in the company of Abu ‘Abdullah. He entered upon us enraged and then sat down.

He then said, “How strange is it? People claim that we (the Ahlul Bayt) know the unseen. None other than Allah knows the unseen, I intended to strike my slave girl when she escaped from me, and I do not know in which room she is hiding.”[9]

 

A similar report is mentioned in Rijal al Kashshi, when Abu ‘Abdullah was asked with regards to knowing the unseen.

 

Abu al Khattab, his student, said to him, “You know the unseen and yet you said that to him?”

Jafar replied, “As for him saying I know the unseen, by Allah who has no partner, I do not know the unseen! May Allah not recompense me for the (patience that I have endured) for my dead, and may He not bless my relatives and offspring if I had said so.”

 

The transmitter further explains:

 

There was a small black slave girl crawling and stumbling in front of him.

Jafar then said, “It has been decreed that she will be born. If I had known the unseen, I would not have had her. Furthermore, I distributed some land between ‘Abdullah and I. ‘Abdullah was allotted the arable lands and water sources, on the other hand I was allotted the highlands. Had I known the unseen I would have taken the former.”[10]

 

Abu Basir transmits from Muhammad al Baqir:

 

I asked Abu Jafar, “Are you (the Ahl Bayt) able to give life to the dead and cure the blind and leper?”

He replied, “Yes with the permission of Allah.”

Thereafter he said, “O Abu Muhammad [Abu Basir]! Come closer and I went closer.”

He wiped his hand over my face and eyes, and now I could see the sun, the sky, the earth, and the houses, in fact everything in the city.

Thereafter he asked, “Would you like to remain like this or do you wish to return to your normal state and for you will be Jannat?”

I replied, “My normal state.”

He again wiped his hand over my face and I returned to my normal state.[11]

 

The Shia also believe that their Imams have all the previous scriptures and that they know all the different languages in which it were revealed.[12]

 

The Imams knows when they will die. In fact, they die by their choice.[13]

If the Imams were allowed, they would have informed each and every individual about what good or bad awaits him.[14]

The angels enter the homes of the Imams, tread their carpets, and bring to them information.[15]

The Imams possess such knowledge which no close angel nor any sent Messenger possess.[16]

No utterance is concealed from the Imam, be it that of humans, animals, or anything that has life in it.[17]

 

The appearance of the Long Awaited al Mahdi

The Shia attribute many reports to the Ahlul Bayt, regarding a person from the progeny of Hassan al ‘Askari who has not yet been born. They say regarding him that he will give life to all the enemies of the Ahlul Bayt and then kill them. Al Kulayni transmits from Sallam ibn al Mustanir:

 

I have heard Abu Jafar saying, “When the Imam will make his appearance, he will present iman to every Nasibi (those who used oppose the Ahlul Bayt). He who rejects, will be killed; or made to pay Jizyah (tax) like the Ahl al Dhimmah (non-Muslims under Muslim rule). Furthermore he will be harsh on them, remove them from the cities, and send them to the outskirts.[18]

 

Al Kashani, the Shia exegete, transmits from Jafar:

 

When the Qa’im will make his appearance he will kill the progeny of the killers of Hussain on account of what their forefathers did.[19]

 

Killing their children will not suffice hence he will give life to their forefathers and kill them too. Al Mufid transmits from Jafar ibn Baqir:

 

When the Qa’im from the family of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam will make his appearance, he will give life to five hundred members of Quraysh and kill them. He will then give life to another five hundred and kill them too. Thereafter he will give life to another five hundred members from Quraysh and kill them. He will do this six times.[20]

 

Al ‘Ayyashi states that Yazid and his comrades will also be killed:

 

Abu ‘Abdullah states, “The first people to be brought back to life will be Hussain and his companions, and Yazid and his companions. Thereafter Hussain will kill each one of them.”[21]

 

All these fabrications did not quench the thirst of the Shia. They further transmit from Muhammad al Baqir:

 

When our Qa’im will make his appearance, he will bring back Humaira’ [Aisha] so that he can carry out the capital punishment on her. He will also take revenge from her on behalf of Fatimah, the daughter of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

It was asked, “Why will he lash her?”

He replied, “Due to her slandering Umm Ibrahim.”

Thereafter he was asked, “Why is Allah delaying the coming of the Qa’im…?”

He replied, “Allah sent the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as a mercy, and He will send the Qa’im as punishment.”[22]

 

We will mention one last fabrication. Abu Jafar al Baqir states:

 

It is as if I am with the Qa’im on the hills of Kufah which he had travelled to from Makkah with five thousand angels. Jibril on his right, Mika’il on his left, and the believers in front of him, despatching the armies into different lands. The first to have pledged allegiance to him was Jibril.[23]

 

Anomalous Masa’il

The following report is falsely attributed to Abu ‘Abdullah Jafar ibn al Baqir, from ‘Umar ibn Zaid:

 

I took a Ghusl in Madinah on the day of Jumu’ah, got dressed, and applied perfume. Safiyyah[24] passed by and we engaged in intercrural relations and she ejaculated and I pre-ejaculated. I was troubled by it and thus asked Abu ‘Abdullah about it; he replied, “You do not need to take ablution nor does she need to take a ghusl.”[25]

 

Furthermore, they state that Jafar al Sadiq saw Hanan ibn Sudayr wearing black sandals:

 

Jafar said to him, “What is it with you and these black sandals? Do you not know that it has three disadvantages?”

Hanan said, “May I be sacrificed in your stead, what are they?”

Jafar replied, “It weakens the eyesight and penis, and it causes distress. Moreover, it is the clothing of the tyrants. You should rather wear yellow sandals, because in it there are three advantages.”

Hanan then asked “What are they”

Jafar replied, “It strengthens the eyesight and penis, and repels distress.”[26]

 

One might ask what is the connection between sandals and the potency of a male.

The Shia transmit from Abu al Hassan al Awwal (their seventh Imam):

 

Looking at a beautiful or handsome face strengthens the eye sight.[27]

 

They also transmit from his father, Jafar:

 

There are four things that cannot have enough of each another, the earth from rain, the eyes from sight, and a female from the penis.[28]

 

They also transmit from him saying:

 

There are enjoyment in ten things… eating, drinking, looking at a beautiful women, and sexual intercourse.[29]

 

What religion commands its followers to look at beautiful women, speak about erections, and encourages them to eat, drink, and have sexual intercourse? Is this picture they wish to portray of the venerable members of the Ahlul Bayt? And there are many other such fabrications which a layman will refuse to entertain, let alone the infallible Imams.

It has also been transmitted from Imam Jafar:

 

Looking at the private part of a disbeliever is like looking at the private part of a donkey.[30]

 

As for the private part of a Muslim, the following has been transmitted from Abu al Hassan al Awwal Musa al Kazim:

 

The private parts are two: the vagina and the anus. As for the anus it is covered by the buttocks, and as for the vagina, cover it with your hand.[31]

 

Like this there are many other even worse reports, such as what they attribute to Abu Jafar (Muhammad al Baqir):

 

Al Baqir said, “He who believes in Allah and the Last Day should not enter the bathroom without a covering.”

One day he entered the bathroom, his body shining—after applying lime oil upon his body—and he cast aside the covering when he applied the oil.

His slave then said to him, “May my parents be sacrificed in your stead, you advise us to wear a covering yet you are casting it aside?”

He replied, “Do you not know that the lime oil covers the private parts?”[32]

 

They have also transmitted from ‘Obaidullah al Dabiqi:

 

I entered a bathroom in Madinah and there was an elderly person who took care of the bathroom.

I then asked, “O old man who does this toilet belong to?”

He replied, “Abu Jafar.”

I then asked, “Would he use it?”

He replied in the affirmative.

Thereafter I asked, “How did he use it?”

The old man replied, “He would enter and then coat (with lime oil) his pubic region and that which is adjacent to it. After that he would cover a side of his privates and call me. I would then apply (lime oil) to the rest to his body. One day I said to him, ‘I have just seen that which you would dislike for me to see,’ and he replied, ‘No, the lime oil covers it!’”[33]

 

Anomalous and Bizarre

The Shia state that Muhammad al Baqir had the following to say regarding a person who had sexual intercourse with his mother in-law, step daughter, or his sister in-law:

 

The act does not render his wife unlawful for him.[34]

 

They also transmit from him:

 

If a person had intercourse with his step mother or his father’s slave girl. His stepmother and the slave girl will not be rendered unlawful for his father.[35]

 

And like this there are many more examples such as the following strange report they attribute to Jafar:

 

It is permissible to perform Salat al Janazah without wudhu (ablution).

He was asked, “Is it permissible for a person to perform Salat al Janazah without wudhu?”

He replied, “Yes, it is allowed.”[36]

 

The commentator then adds:

 

According to us there is consensus that one is not required to have ablution when performing Salat al Janazah.

 

He then transmits from al Tadhkirah:

 

Cleanliness is not a pre-requisite rather it is permissible for one who is in a state of minor impurity, menstruation, or even he who is in a state of major impurity to perform Salat al Janazah, even if water and sand is accessible. This is the opinion of our scholars upon which they have concurred.[37]

 

The Shia transmit from Abu Jafar Muhammad al Baqir:

 

It is allowed for a female who has menses to perform the Salat al Janazah.[38]

 

They also transmit from Abu Jafar Muhammad al Baqir and his son, Jafar:

 

They were asked, “We buy clothing that is stained with wine and a pig saliva, can we perform salah therein after having scrapped it off prior to washing it?”

They replied, “It is allowed. Allah has only prohibited its consumption not wearing, touching, or performing salah on it.”[39]

 

Furthermore, they used to manufacture rope with swine hairs and thereafter they would use the rope to draw water from a well. They would consider it permissible to perform wudu with that water. Zurarah states:

 

I asked Abu ‘Abdullah if is was permissible to perform wudu with water that was drawn up by a rope made from swine hair and he replied, “It is allowed.”[40]

 

The Shia transmit from Jafar:

 

‘Ali was asked with regards to a pot in which a rat was found while cooking and he [allegedly] replied, “Its gravy should be poured out, and the meat can be rinsed and eaten.”[41]

 

They further transmit from Abu Jafar that he was asked with regards to a mouse and dog that had fallen into butter and was removed alive and he replied, “There is no problem in eating it,”[42] while on the other hand they fanatically state:

 

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has made unlawful the consumption of an animal that was slaughtered while it was in a state lust.[43]

 

This is a burden which none can bear since who knows whether the bull that was slaughtered was in a state of lust or not?

The Shia then further transmit that Jafar ibn al Baqir said regarding two flowing sprouts, one of it being urine, the other water when they combine and comes into contact with you it is overlooked”.[44]

 

Tragicomedies

The Shia transmit from Imam Jafar:

 

When the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was conceived he remained without milk for a number of days. Abu Talib then held him against one of his breasts and Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala caused milk to flow. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam suckled from him for a few days until Abu Talib came across Halimah al Sa’diyyah and entrusted him to her.[45]

 

They also transmit a similar report regarding Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

Hussain was not breastfed by Fatimah nor by any other female, rather he used to be brought to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would then place his thumb in Hussain’s mouth from which he suckled. That would suffice him for two to three days.[46]

 

Look at these fabrications which are discernible for even a child, let alone a sane and intelligent person. When will they realise? They transmit from Baqir ibn Zayn al ‘Abidin:

 

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was asked why he kisses Fatimah, often visits her, keeps her close, and treats her in a manner in which he does not treat his other daughters.

He replied, “Jibril presented me with an apple from Jannat which I ate. It transformed into semen in my back, after which I had conjugal relations with Khadijah, and thus Fatimah was conceived. I continue to smell on her the fragrance of Jannat.[47]

 

And since that is the status of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, it was necessary that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu be of a similar stature. Thus they have fabricated similar reports in praise of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Al Fattal[48] writes:

 

Abu Talib was presented with a tray of fruits from Jannat on which were ripe dates and a pomegranate. Abu Talib took the pomegranate. He then got up happily, and went home. He ate it and it turned into semen, thereafter he had conjugal relations with Fatimah bint Asad, and thus ‘Ali was conceived.[49]

 

Al Saduq has written:

 

Jafar was asked, “Why didn’t any progeny of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam remain behind?”

He replied, “Because Allah had created Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as the Messenger, and ‘Ali as the Heir. If the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would have had any progeny they would have been more entitled to be the heir than ‘Ali, thus it would not have been given to ‘Ali.[50]

 

From amongst the lies and fabrications the Shia attribute to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

 

The door of Jannat will have a bell made of red corundum, which will be suspended over golden plates. When the bell will be knocked against the gold, it will say, “O ‘Ali.”[51]

 

A contemporary Shia states:

 

If it was not for the sword of Ibn Muljim, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib would have lived forever.[52]

 

After ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had reached such heights, it becomes necessary that his partisans and Shia have a share in that pride and glory. Thus they have fabricated the following reports in the name of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to ‘Ali, “Allah has burdened me with the sins of your followers, thereafter he has pardoned me.”[53]

 

They falsely attribute to Abu ‘Abdullah that he was asked with regards to the location of the earth:

 

I asked, “Where is the earth located?”

He replied, “It is located on a whale.”

I then asked, “Where is the whale located?”

He replied, “On water.”

I asked, “Where is the water situated?”

He replied, “On a boulder.”

I then asked, “Where is the boulder situated?”

He replied, “On the horn of a sleek ox.”

I asked, “Where is the ox located?”

He replied, “On soil.”

I asked, “Where is this soil situated?”

He replied, “This is where the knowledge of scholars seizes.”[54]

 

We will suffice with what we have mentioned, however, we could have written an entire volume on these fabrications, as their existence is based on it.

Ibn Babawayh al Qummi writes that Abu al Hassan was asked with regards to metempsychosis and he replied:

 

The elephant was originally a fornicating homosexual king, thus he was deformed. The bear was originally an immoral man. The rabbit was originally a female who had deceived her husband, i.e. she would not take a bath after menstruation. The bat was originally a man who would steal the dates of people. Canopus [a star] was man in Yemen who would collect the tithe. Planet Venus was originally the woman who Harut and Marut were tested with. The apes and swine were originally Jewish tribes who had transgressed on a Saturday. The puppy and the lizard were also originally Jews. The scorpion was originally a tale-bearer, and lastly the wasp was originally a butcher who used cheat people when weighing.[55]

 

We complete this study with the complaints of the Imams about these liars, and how many weren’t there? There was not an Imam from the Ahlul Bayt except that there was a person who would fabricate such reports in his name which none but them could think of. The books of the Shia are filled with these complaints of the Imams against these liars. Al Kashshi transmits from Ibn Sinan:

 

Abu ‘Abdullah said, “We the Ahlul Bayt are truthful, however, we have not been spared from liars who fabricate in our names and tarnish our integrity amongst the people (thereafter he mentioned many such stories)…”

He stated, “The Ptophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was the most truthful and Musaylamah ascribed lies to him. ‘Ali was the most truthful after the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’—may allah curse him—ascribed lies to him. Abu ‘Abdullah al Hussain ibn ‘Ali was tested with Mukhtar.”

He them mentioned Abu ‘Abdullah al Harith al Shami and Banan, and said, “The two of them would ascribe lies to ‘Ali ibn Hussain.”

Thereafter he mentioned Mughirah ibn Sa’id, Buzaygh, Sirri, Abu al Khattab, Ma’mar, Bashhar al Ash’ari, Hamzah al Yazidi, and Sa’ib al Nahdi (his companions), and said, “May Allah curse all of them!”

We are not absolved from fabricators and the lies that they attribute to us—Allah is sufficient for us against the fabricators—and He made them experience the heat of the sword.[56]

 

Abu al Hassan al Rida, his grandson, also complains about them:

 

Banan would ascribe lies to ‘Ali ibn al Hussain and Allah made him experience the heat of the sword. Mughirah ibn Sa’id ascribed lies to Ibn Jafar and Allah made him experience the heat of the sword. Muhammad ibn Bishr ascribed lies to Abu al Hassan ‘Ali ibn Musa al Rida and Allah made him experience the heat of the sword. Abu al Khattab would ascribe lies to Abu ‘Abdullah and Allah made him experience the heat of the sword, similarly is the one who ascribes lies to Muhammad ibn al Furat.[57]

 

For that reason, Jafar ibn al Baqir used to say:

 

When the Imam will make his appearance he will first start with liars among the Shia and kill them.[58]

 

How well did Jafar express it when he stated:

 

We do not have greater enemy than those who proclaim our love.[59]

 

This is what the Shia and their Imams have to say. May Allah protect us from their lies and fabrications.

 

NEXT⇒ The impudence of the Shia towards the Ahlul Bayt


[1] Al Usul min al Kafi. vol. 19 pg. 197.

[2] Surah Luqman: 34

[3] Surah Saba’: 3

[4] Surah al Naml: 65

[5] Al Usul min al Kafi, vol. 1 pg. 261.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Rijal al Kashshi, pg. 248, under the biography of Ishaq ibn ‘Amar.

[8] Surah al An’am: 59

[9] Kitab al Hujjah min al Kafi, vol. 1 pg. 257.

[10] Rijal al Kashshi, pg. 248.

[11] Kitab al Hujjah min al Kafi, vol. 1 pg. 470.

[12] Al Usul min al Kafi, vol. pg. 227.

[13] Ibid, pg. 258.

[14] Ibid, pg. 264.

[15] Al Usul min al Kafi, vol. 1 pg. 393.

[16] Ibid, pg. 402.

[17] Qurb al Isnad, pg. 146.

[18] Al Rawdah min al Kafi, vol. 8 pg. 227.

[19] Tafsir al Safi, Surah al Baqarah, vol. 1 pg. 172.

[20] Al Irshad, pg. 364.

[21] Tafsir al Ayyashi, vol. 2 pg. 280; al Burhan, vol. 2 pg. 280; al Safi, vol. 1 pg. 959.

[22] Tafsir al Safi, vol. 2pg. 108.

[23] Rawdat al Waizin, vol. 2 pg. 364, 365; al Irshad, pg. 364.

[24] Presumably his wife or concubine.

[25] Wasa’il al Shia, Kitab al Taharah, vol. 1 pg. 198.

[26] Kitab al Khisal, vol. 1 pg. 99.

[27] Kitab al Khisal, vol. 1 Ch. 3 pg. 92.

[28] Ibid, vol. 1 pg. 221.

[29] Ibid, vol. 2 pg. 443.

[30] Al Furu min al Kafi, vol. 6 pg. 501.

[31] Ibid.

[32] Ibid, vol. 6 pg. 502-503.

[33] Ibid, vol. 6 pg. 503.

[34] Ibid, vol. 5 pg. 416.

[35] Ibid, pg. 419

[36] Ibid, vol. 3 pg. 178; Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih, vol. 1 pg. 170.

[37] Al Furu min al Kafi, vol. 3 pg. 178.

[38] Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih, vol. 1 pg. 170

[39] Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih, vol. 1 pg. 248.

[40] Tahdhib al Ahkam, vol. 1 pg. 248.

[41] Al Furu min al Kafi, vol. 3 pg. 7.

[42] Ibid, vol. 2 pg. 161.

[43] Ibid, vol. 6 pg. 260.

[44] Al Furu min al Kafi, vol. 3 pg. 12-13; Tahdhib, vol. 1 pg. 42.

[45] Al Usul min al Kafi, kitab al Hujjah, vol. 1 pg. 458.

[46] Al Usul min al Kafi, vol. 1 pg. 465 .

[47] Ilal al Shara’i’, vol. 1 pg. 183.

[48] He is Muhammad ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Ali.

[49] Rawdat al Waizin, vol. 1 pg. 87.

[50] Ilal al Shara’i’, vol. 1 pg. 131.

[51] Rawdat al Waizin, vol. 1 pg. 111.

[52] Asl al Shia wa Usuluha, pg. 112.

[53] Al Burhan, vol. 2 pg. 442.

[54] Tafsir al Qummi, vol. 2 pg. 59.

[55] Ilal al Shara’i’.

[56] Rijal al Kashshi, pg. 257-258.

[57] Rijal al Kashshi, pg. 256.

[58] Ibid.

[59] Ibid.