The Four Daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam

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Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam had Four Daughters

 

The Shi`ah claim that Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha was the only daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. A claim in conflict with the Qur’an, ahadith of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, and the statements of the A’immah of the Ahl al-Bayt. It is also a denial of all the Shi`i scholars from the early eras until the fourteenth century. There was no reputable Shi`i scholar before this century, according to our knowledge, who denied the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam nor is it proven in any reliable and authentic work. A number of references from Shi`i literature will be presented to the readers, which will convince the readers that this assertion of the Shi`ah contradicts both the Qur’an and ahadith of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. They do not even accept the clear texts of their A’immah — whom they claim to be more virtuous than the ambiya’ — and the consensus of the founding fathers of the Shi`ah religion. Their creed is such that whenever the facts contradict their beliefs, they invent precepts and incorporate it into their faith, even if it is not proven from their A’immah, this includes all the various mourning rituals, processions, parading horses, etc. Whichever Shi`i scholar attempted to bring to the fore the statements of the A’immah, being in agreement with the Ahl al-Sunnah, were rejected and scorned. The issue of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam having four daughters, the truthfulness and of the al-Khulafa’ al-Rashidin, completion of the shari`ah upon Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, the veracity of the Ahl al-Sunnah, as well as other aspects, are of this nature.

 

Proof of the Daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam from the Qur’an

 

In Surah al-Ahzab, Allah says:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاء الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ

O Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to bring down over themselves (part) of their outer garments.[1]

 

In this verse, there are three words joined to each other. Wives, daughters — who are linked only to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, and the believing women. All three words are plural and the translation is also plural. In Arabic, the plural is used for more than two. We learn from this that just as the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam were more than two; history and sirah proving that they were eleven in total, similarly, the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam are also more than two, which history and sirah proves to be four. If a person accepts only one wife of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and denies the rest, he will be classified as a denier of the Qur’an and a disbeliever. Similarly, if a person accepts one daughter and denies the rest, or, may Allah save us, says that they had another father, he will be classified as a person who denies the Qur’an and a disbeliever.

The wife’s daughter from a previous husband is termed Rabibah, Allah says:

 

وَرَبَائِبُكُمُ اللاَّتِي فِي حُجُورِكُم مِّن نِّسَآئِكُمُ اللاَّتِي دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ

Your stepdaughters under your guardianship (born) of your wives with whom you have consummated.[2]

 

Therefore, to say that the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam from Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu `anha were her children from her previous husband opposes the words of the Qur’an. Similarly, to claim that the word daughters actually refer to granddaughters is also baseless and false. This is because in Arabic the word “بنت” refers to one’s biological daughter. A granddaughter is called “بنت الابن” (literally son’s daughter) or “بنت البنت” (daughter’s daughter). If they are referred to as “بنت” then it is metaphorical (which cannot be implied here as the words before it, wives and believing women, have their literal meaning and are not metaphorical). Moreover, the instruction to veil oneself applies to those who have reached puberty and at the time when this verse was revealed, the granddaughters were definitely not born yet, let alone them being of age for such an injunction to apply to them. In addition, the girls of the ummah cannot be implied by daughters, since Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam was their spiritual father, because the third address is to the “believing women”, who are his spiritual daughters (which would imply that there is redundancy in the Qur’an, Allah forbid). In essence, it is resolutely proven from the Qur’an that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam had a number of daughters and this is a fact that the Shi`ah cannot deny. Assuming that all the Shi`ah literature proved that there was only one daughter, which it does not and instead also proves that they were four, then too it would become obligatory to deny all these narrations and surrender to the words of the Qur’an, and accept that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam had more than one daughter; this is on condition that the Shi`ah truly believe in the Qur’an.

 

Statements of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam

a. The seal of the Shi`i scholars, Baqir Majlisi writes that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

May Allah have mercy upon Khadijah, she bore me Tahir and Mutahhir, his name was `Abd Allah. She also gave me Qasim and my daughters, Fatimah, Ruqayyah, Zaynab and Umm Kulthum.[3]

 

b. It is narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir rahimahu Llah that the people said to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam: “Why do you kiss Fatimah more, take her into your lap, call her to you and show so much affection to her, and so much affection is not shown to the other daughters?” Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said: “I ate the apple of Jannah, the seed was created from it and Fatimah was born from it.”[4]

 

c. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said with regards to the virtue of Sayyiduna Hasan radiya Llahu `anhu and Sayyiduna Husayn radiya Llahu `anhu:

Their maternal aunt is the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, Zaynab radiya Llahu `anha.[5]

 

Statements of Sayyiduna `Ali

Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu said to Sayyiduna `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu when giving him counsel:

 

وصحبت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كما صحبنا وما ابن أبي قحافة ولا ابن الخطاب باولى بعمل الحق منك وأنت أقرب إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وشيجة رحم منهما وقد فلتكم صهره ما لم ينالا

You had the company of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam as we had, and Abu Bakr and `Umar radiya Llahu `anhu were not more bound to practice upon the truth than you when you are closer to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam in terms of blood relations. You also had the honour of being the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam which they did not have.[6]

 

Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu declared that Sayyiduna `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu was the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, married to his other daughters, besides Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha. Like Abu Bakr and `Umar radiya Llahu `anhuma before him, he also practised upon the truth, but the method of address does show that he had a difference of opinion in a few issues and reform was the objective.

 

Statement of Sayyidah Fatimah

At the time of her demise, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha made a bequest to Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu that he should marry Umamah bint Abu al-`As radiya Llahu `anha, the daughter of her sister Zaynab radiya Llahu `anha.

When the illness of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha increased, she said to Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu:

I bequest you to marry the daughter of my sister Zaynab, Umamah.[7]

 

Sayyidah Fatimah curses those who deny the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha said:

 

اللهم صل على رقية بنت نبيك والعن من آذى نبيك فيها اللهم صل عل أم كلثوم بنت نبيك والعن من آذى نبيك فيها

O Allah, send mercy upon Ruqayyah, daughter of Your Nabi and send curses upon those who give difficulty to Your Nabi with regards to her, O Allah, send mercy upon Umm Kulthum, daughter of Your Nabi and send curses upon those who give difficulty to Your Nabi with regards to her.[8]

 

Statement of Sayyiduna Husayn

1. When departing from Madinah Munawwarah, Sayyiduna Husayn radiya Llahu `anhu made a bequest to the Banu Hashim to adopt patience and gave a comparison of the day of his martyrdom with the previous days of grief saying:

And that day was a day of calamity, the day that Ruqayyah, Zaynab and Umm Kulthum — the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam — passed away.[9]

 

2. In another narration the comparison of the tragedy of Karbala’ was compared such:

It was like the day that Fatimah, Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha — the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam — left this world.[10]

 

One will find clear proof of the four daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam in the following works:

  1. Tuhfah al-`Awwam p. 112
  2. Hayat al-Qulub vol. 2 p. 718
  3. Usul al-Kafi p. 278
  4. Safi, Kitab al-Hujjah vol. 3 p. 147
  5. Mir’at al-`Uqul Sharh al-Usul wa l-Furu` vol. 1 p. 352
  6. Tahdhib al-Ahkam vol. 1 p. 154
  7. Al-Istibsar vol. 1 p. 245
  8. Tarikh al-A’immah p. 6 from Ahl al-Sunnah Pocket Book p. 141
 

Statements of Imam al-Baqir and Imam Ja`far

1. It is narrated from one of them:

When Ruqayyah, the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, passed away, then Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said: “O Ruqayyah, join our pious companion `Uthman ibn Maz`un and his companions.” Fatimah was sitting at the edge of the grave and her tears were falling on the grave and Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam was fanning her with a cloth, he stood and supplicated: “O Allah, I know her weakness, save her from the horrors of the grave.”[11]

 

2. It is narrated from Imam al-Sadiq rahimahu Llah that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam had the following children from Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu `anha:

Tahir, Qasim, Fatimah, Umm Kulthum, Ruqayyah and Zaynab. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam married Fatimah to `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu. He married Umm Kulthum to `Uthman, and upon her demise, he married Ruqayyah to him.[12]

 

3. Mulla Baqir Majlisi writes:

Ibn Babuwayh narrates with a reliable chain of narration from Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam that the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam from Khadijah were: Qasim, Tahir — whose name was `Abd Allah, Umm Kulthum, Ruqayyah, Zaynab and Fatimah.[13]

 

4. Shaykh al-Saduq narrates from Imam Ja`far al-Sadiq rahimahu Llah that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam had the following children from Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu `anha: Qasim, Tahir, i.e. `Abd Allah, Umm Kulthum, Ruqayyah, Zaynab and Fatimah radiya Llahu `anhum. Sayyiduna `Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu `anhu married Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha. Abu al-`As ibn Rabi` radiya Llahu `anhu, from the Banu Umayyah, married Sayyidah Zaynab radiya Llahu `anha. Sayyiduna `Uthman ibn `Affan radiya Llahu `anhu married Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha. When she passed away on the occasion of Badr, then Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam married Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha off to him. Then Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said: “O `A’ishah, wait, Allah has placed blessing in the one that loves and gives children. Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu `anha gave birth to Tahir, i.e. `Abd Allah, Mutahhir, Qasim, Fatimah, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum and Zaynab.”[14]

 

5. The work ‘attested’ to by Imam al-Mahdi, al-Kafi of al-Kulayni, states in the chapter of the birth of Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam:

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam married Khadijah when he was above twenty years of age. Before nubuwwah, his children from her were: Qasim, Ruqayyah, Zaynab and Umm Kulthum, and after nubuwwah Tayyib, Tahir and Fatimah were born. It is also narrated that after nubuwwah, only Fatimah was born, whilst Tayyib and Tahir and the others were born before nubuwwah.[15]

 

It has been proven, clearer than daylight, from Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and the statements of the ‘infallible’ A’immah of the Shi`ah that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam had four biological daughters from Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu `anha. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam had personally married them off to Sayyiduna Abu al-`As radiya Llahu `anhu, Sayyiduna `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu and Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu. Hence, to say that they were children from a previous husband is open denial of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and the A’immah. May Allah guide the Shi`ah to the truth. Amin

 

6. In Qurb al-Asnad, there is a narration from Imam al-Sadiq rahimahu Llah that the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam from Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu `anha were: Tahir. Qasim, Fatimah, Umm Kulthum, Ruqayyah and Zaynab radiya Llahu `anhum. Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha was married to Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu, Sayyidah Zaynab radiya Llahu `anha was married to Sayyiduna Abu al-`As ibn Rabi` Umawi radiya Llahu `anhu and Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anhu was married to Sayyiduna `Uthman ibn `Affan radiya Llahu `anhu. After her demise, Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha was married to him. Then, Shaykh `Abbas al-Qummi says that the Shi`i historians have written that Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha married Sayyiduna `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu after the demise of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha in 2 A.H, on the occasion of Badr.[16]

 

Statements of the Shi`i Mujtahidin

1. Mulla Baqir Majlisi says:

Abu al-`As radiya Llahu `anhu was the son in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. (On account of sending grain to the valley of Abu Talib during the boycott), Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam used to say: “Abu al-`As has fulfilled the right of being our son in-law in an excellent manner.”[17]

 

2. Hayat al-Qulub (p. 591, 592) makes mention of the biography of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha in detail:

Ibn Idris, with an authentic chain narrates from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir rahimahu Llah that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, (we seek the protection of Allah), married his daughters to two hypocrites, one was Abu al-`As ibn Rabi` and the other was `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu. Al-`Ayyashi has narrated that the people asked Imam al-Sadiq rahimahu Llah if Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam gave his daughter to Sayyiduna `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu and he said, “Yes.” The narrator asked, “He gave the next daughter,” and again he said, “Yes.”[18]

 

3. Shaykh al-Tusi has narrated in Amali that the marriage of Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu to Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha took place 16 days after the demise of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha. It took place after returning from the Battle of Badr.[19]

 

4. Why did Sayyiduna Husayn radiya Llahu `anhu go to Karbala’ despite having knowledge of his martyrdom? In reply to this question, Baqir Majlisi says:

The Imam is bound to the apparent laws of shari`ah, he is not responsible for the inner dimension of things. When the people of Kufah made the claim of Tashayyu` and faith, he had to go. If this was the case (i.e. the apparent laws of Islam and iman does not have to be considered), then Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam would not have given his daughters to `Uthman, and he would not have married `A’ishah and Hafsah. When this happened, then in accordance to the apparent system, Imam Husayn radiya Llahu `anhu was bound to wage war against the hypocrites.[20]

 

It is a cause of great regret that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam only considered the apparent iman and Islam of Sayyiduna `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu, Sayyidah `A’ishah radiya Llahu `anha and Sayyidah Hafsah radiya Llahu `anha and formed family relations with the pleasure of Allah; and could not ascertain their inner condition. Let the Shi`ah acknowledge their hypocrisy and faithlessness, we on the other seek the protection of Allah (from such blasphemous statements).

 

5. Baqir Majlisi writes:

Amongst those who migrated to Abyssinia was `Uthman and his wife, Ruqayyah — the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. Other Sahabah like Zubayr ibn `Awwam, `Abd Allah ibn Mas`ud, and `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf were also present.[21]

 

6. It is mentioned in Tadhkirat al-Ma`sumin:

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam married Khadijah when he was just over twenty years of age. Before he was granted nubuwwah, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, and Zaynab were born from her.[22]

 

7. Majalis al-Mu’minin states:

If Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam gave his daughter to `Uthman, then the wali of the Nabi (`Ali radiya Llahu `anhu) followed Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and gave his daughter Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha in marriage to `Umar.[23]

 

8. Shi`i scholars acknowledge:

Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum were married to `Uthman ibn `Affan, one after the other.[24]

 

9. It is stated in Masalik al-Afham Tanqih Shara’i` al-Islam:

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam married two of his daughters off to `Uthman ibn `Affan.[25]

 

10. The famous Shi`i literary work, I`lam al-Wara bi A`lam al-Huda of `Allamah al-Tabarsi states:

 

Zaynab was married to Abu al-`As ibn Rabi` and a daughter, Umamah radiya Llahu `anha, was born from this union. After the demise of Fatimah, `Ali married her. Zaynab passed away in Madinah in 7 A.H. The marriage of Ruqayyah, i.e. the proposal and acceptance, was done with the cousin of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, `Utbah ibn Abi Lahab. However, he divorced her before they could consummate the marriage. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam supplicated against him. Subsequently, a lion pounced upon him and dragged him away. Ruqayyah was then married to `Uthman ibn `Affan and a son `Abd Allah was born. He passed away during childhood (at the age of six). During the time of Badr, Ruqayyah passed away. On account of tending to her and her shrouding and burial, `Uthman could not participate in the Battle of Badr. When `Uthman migrated to Abyssinia, then it was Ruqayyah who was with him. Umm Kulthum was then married to `Uthman and she also passed away after some time. Fatimah will be mentioned separately.[26]

 

11. `Ali ibn `Isa Arbili writes:

أمامة بنت أبي العاص وهي بنت بنت رسول الله تزوجها بعد موت خالتها البتول علي عليه السلام

The daughter of Abu al-`As was Umamah, was the granddaughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. `Ali married her after her maternal aunt, Fatimah passed away.[27]

 

12. Kitab al-Muhbir of Ibn Habib states:

فولدت خديجة للنبي القاسم وزينب وأم كلثوم وفاطمة وعبد الله وهو الطاهر والطيب إسم واحد

Khadijah gave birth to Qasim, Zaynab, Umm Kulthum, Fatimah and `Abd Allah, who is called Tahir and Tayyib.[28]

 

The thirteenth century Shi`i research scholar, Shaykh `Abbas al-Qummi has written a poem on the children and forefathers of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam in his work Muntaha al-Amal vol. 1 p. 118.

 

13. Abu Nasr Farahi said with regards to the children and forefathers of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam:

If you want to be educated, then learn the names of the four daughters.

 

14. Majma` al-Bayan records:

وقد زوج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بنته من أبي العاص بن الربيع قبل أن يسلم

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam married off his daughter to Abu al-`As ibn al- Rabi` radiya Llahu `anhu before he accepted Islam.[29]

 

Addressing Shi`i Propaganda

 

Respected readers, these are the proofs that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam had four biological daughters as proven from the works of the Shi`ah — which they consider reliable — besides the proofs from the Qur’an. If all the references were to be sourced, the result would be a dense volume. The clear statements of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidah Fatimah, Sayyiduna `Ali, Sayyiduna Hasan, Sayyiduna Husayn, Sayyiduna al-Baqir, Sayyiduna Ja`far radiya Llahu `anhum and all the Shi`i scholars have been presented before you. Denial of them is considered to be kufr in the Shi`i faith and turning away from them is the end of the Shi`i creed.

However, destruction be to stubbornness, fanaticism and enmity for the khulafa’. In the presence of such conclusive proof how can one still fail to accept the truth? Every reference quoted above is resolutely proven, and cannot be denied. It is from the canonical Shi`i works, but I feel that the masses and elite of the Shi`ah will read it and still not turn to the truth. They will not accept four daughters and begin to honour their exemplary husbands. This is because their faith is in the sinful and wicked orators and poets who do not perform salah or adhere to the shari`ah. They also believe in the pseudo scholars who are deprived of countenances and dress that conforms to the shari`ah. These people have spread amongst the masses of the Shi`ah that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam had only one daughter. A common Shi`ah will go against the Qur’an, sunnah and statements of the A’immah (clearly belying it), but he will never accept the error or the deviation of his orator, materialistic scholars and Sayyid; at whose hands he abandoned the Islam of Muhammad salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and adopted Shi`ism. We learn from this reality the true worth of the Shi`i faith and its criterion, i.e. the more firm a Shi`i is the more devoted he is to his religious leader, orator and sayyid, who he believes is incapable of error. The Shi`ah will deny everything in the face of the statement of his leader, it can be the issue of the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, the prohibition of the mourning processions in the name of Sayyiduna Husayn radiya Llahu `anhu, the question of the honour of the Ummahat al-Mu’minin who were the blessed spouses of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, the rank and status of the son-in-laws of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and the al-Khulafa’ al-Rashidin. He will deny all, even if hundreds of statements are brought before him from the Qur’an, the ahadith of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, the statements of the Ahl al-Bayt as well as the utterances of the Shi`i elders. Sometimes he will not believe these true proofs because believing them will necessitate his present orator and ‘guide’ to be in error and this will not be accepted by a Shi`ah at any cost. In essence, faith and sacrifice for it is only specific for the orators and their innovations. The names of the Ahl al-Bayt are only a trap and snare to lure the ignoramuses. Now, one will realise what proof; narrative or logical, the Shi`ah have with regards to the issue under discussion, in front of which, the Qur’an, Sunnah and honour of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, the statements of the A’immah and consensus of their scholars should be sacrificed. You can be convinced that in this issue, the Shi`ah do not have a verse of the Qur’an, hadith of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, nor do they have a statement of the infallible imam. They only have the babble of their orators of the fourteenth century.

 

The First Misrepresentation

The Ahl al-Sunnah only take the name of one daughter in their khutbah.

 

Answer

The rank of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha is higher than the other three daughters in light of authentic proof, and the iman of the Ahl al-Sunnah is upon this, that is why the name of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha is clearly mentioned and an indication is made to the rest by means of the word “بناته” (his daughters). Not taking their names in the khutbah can never be a proof for negating their genealogy. It is unanimously accepted that Sayyiduna Qasim, Sayyiduna Tahir and Sayyiduna Ibrahim radiya Llahu `anhum are the sons of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, but their names are not taken in the khutbah. It lecturers of the Ahl al-Sunnah should take the names of all four daughters so that no misunderstanding may arise.

 

The Second Misrepresentation

Some claim that if Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam did indeed have four daughters then he would have brought them as well on the day of Mubahalah.

 

Answer

The Mubahalah incident took place in 9 A.H, which did not actually come to fruition. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam prepared the people of the cloak to participate, while his other daughters had passed away before this incident took place. Hayat al-Qulub (vol. 2 p. 719) states that the demise of Sayyidah Zaynab radiya Llahu `anha was 7 A.H or 8 A.H. Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha passed away in the year that the Battle of Badr took place and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha passed away in 7 A.H.

 

The Third Misrepresentation

The Zaynab who is mentioned among the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam was actually step-daughter.

 

Answer

This is an appalling error. Sayyidah Zaynab radiya Llahu `anha was the biological daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu `anha. Numerous references have been cited which state that she was married to Sayyiduna Abu al-`As ibn Rabi` radiya Llahu `anhu. Denial of this necessitates denial of the ‘infallible’ A’immah and the sinless Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam did indeed have a step-daughter by the name of Zaynab, but she was the daughter of Umm al-Mu’minin Sayyidah Umm Salamah radiya Llahu `anha. Her father’s name was Sayyiduna Abu Salamah radiya Llahu `anhu. Our scholars refer to her as Zaynab Rabibat al-Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. The mother of Sayyidah Zaynab bint Muhammad radiya Llahu `anha was Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu `anha.[30] Sayyidah Khadijah al-Kubra radiya Llahu `anha is the mother of the Queen of Jannah. It is with regards to this very same Zaynab bint al-Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

هي خير بناتي أصيبت في

She is the most virtuous of my daughters who suffered on account of me.[31]

 

The Fourth Misrepresentation

She was the daughter Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu `anha from her previous husband, and some say that she was the daughter of Halah, the sister of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu `anha.

 

Answer

This is a clear fabrication. There was no daughter from a previous husband in the house of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. Read the statements of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and the statements of Sayyiduna Ja`far al-Sadiq rahimahu Llah again, and bid farewell to the lies of the Shi`ah. Al-Isti`ab states that the historians unanimously agree that all of them were born after marriage to Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu `anha in the home of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. So, we seek the protection of Allah, how could they be from a previous husband? `Allamah Majlisi mentions these two views and says:

The reliable narrations show that these two views are incorrect.

 

The Fifth Misrepresentation

If there were four, then they would be equal in rank and status

 

Answer:

May Allah not let the five fingers be the same. One commonly witnesses the differences in various ways among the children of the same parents. If Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha was outstanding in a few matters, as compared to her sisters, then from where has the meaning come that the other daughters did not exist? May Allah save us from such deviated methodology.

 

The Sixth Misrepresentation

If Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam had a number of daughters, then their virtues would have been narrated.

 

Answer

The amount of virtues is something involuntary and divinely bestowed. Despite this, there are a number of virtues narrated for them as well.

 

The Rank and Status of Sayyidah Zaynab

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said that Sayyidah Zaynab radiya Llahu `anha was the most virtuous daughter that was troubled by the disbelievers on account of migrating to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. Habbar ibn Aswad and another person caused her animal to jump or they chased it, because of which she fell and lost her unborn child. It was this injury that later led to her illness and she passed away in 7 A.H or 8 A.H.[32]

Allah  says:

فَالَّذِيْنَ هَاجَرُوْا وَأُخْرِجُوْا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَأُوْذُوْا فِيْ سَبِيْلِيْ وَقَاتَلُوْا وَقُتِلُوْا لَأُكَفِّرَنَّ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَلَأُدْخِلَنَّهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِيْ مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُۚ   ثَوَابًا مِّنْ عِنْدِ اللّٰهِؕ   وَاللّٰهُ عِنْدَهُ حُسْنُ الثَّوَابِ

So those who emigrated or were evicted from their homes or were harmed in My cause or fought or were killed — I will surely remove from them their misdeeds, and I will surely admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow as reward from Allah, and Allah has with Him the best reward.[33]

 

Under this verse, who can say that she will not be a leader of the women of Jannah? Sayyidah Zaynab radiya Llahu `anha defended Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam from the oppression and tyranny of the male disbelievers. In Mu`jam Tabrani, it is narrated that on one occasion, the disbelievers swore at Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, they spat in his face and then threw sand on him. A girl brought water and washed the blessed face and hands of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. This was his daughter Sayyidah Zaynab radiya Llahu `anha. Bukhari has also recorded this hadith briefly, with his chain of narration. In al-Isabah (vol. 3 p. 465), it is further written that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam addressed Sayyidah Zaynab radiya Llahu `anha and said:

O daughter, do not fear on account of your father being disgraced and overpowered.[34]

 

She too was beloved to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, and the image of her mother, Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu `anha. When she sent her necklace as ransom of her husband, Sayyiduna Abu al-`As radiya Llahu `anhu, then Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam began crying the moment he saw it. The images of Sayyidah Zaynab radiya Llahu `anha and Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu `anha flashed before his eyes and he returned the necklace and freed Sayyiduna Abu al-As radiya Llahu `anhu without any ransom.

This was the very same Sayyidah Zaynab radiya Llahu `anha who was beloved to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. Hafiz Ibn `Abd al-Barr rahimahu Llah writes:

 

كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم محبا فيها أسلمت وهاجرت حين أبى زوجها ولدت من أبي العاص غلاما يقال له علي وجارية إسمها أمامة

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam had great love for her. She accepted Islam and migrated, and her husband Sayyiduna Abu al-`As radiya Llahu `anhu refused (at first but later on accepted Islam). A boy by the name of `Ali and a daughter named Umamah were born from her.[35]

 

This was the same Sayyidah Zaynab radiya Llahu `anha whose daughter, Sayyidah Umamah radiya Llahu `anha, would be lifted by Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam on his shoulders and when he would go into sajdah, he would take her down. When he would stand up, he would pick her up. Umm al-Mu’minin Sayyidah `A’ishah radiya Llahu `anha narrates that a gift was given to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, in which was a pearl necklace. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said;

I shall give it to the most beloved girl of my household.

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam then called Umamah bint Zaynab radiya Llahu `anha and placed the necklace on her neck.

 

Another narration of Sayyidah `A’ishah radiya Llahu `anha states that Najashi rahimahu Llah, the king of Abyssinia, gave a gift of jewellery to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. There was a gold ring in it. The stone was cornelian. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam gave it to Sayyidah Umamah radiya Llahu `anha. Ibn `Abd al-Barr rahimahu Llah says that after Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha, Sayyidah Umamah radiya Llahu `anha was married to Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu. Sayyiduna Zubayr ibn `Awwam radiya Llahu `anhu wedded them, because her father Sayyiduna Abu al-`As radiya Llahu `anhu made this bequest.[36]

This means that Sayyidah Zaynab radiya Llahu `anha became the mother-in-law of Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu. They call themselves Shi`ah of `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu yet and hate the mother-in-law of Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu? May Allah save every Muslim from such a religion and beliefs.

 

The Rank and Status of Sayyidah Ruqayyah

Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha was also among the early Muslims and had also migrated in the path of Allah. When she was going with her husband, Sayyiduna `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu, to Abyssinia, then news did not reach Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam about them for a number of days. Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam became uneasy until a woman came to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and said that she saw them. He then said:

 

فقال منحهما الله أن عثمان أول من هاجر بأهله من هذه الأمة وفي رواية والذي نفسي بيده أنه أول من هاجر بعد إبراهيم ولوط

May Allah send the rains of His mercy upon husband and wife. Undoubtedly, `Uthman is the first person of this ummah who migrated with his wife.[37]

 

One narration states:

By Allah, He in Whose control is my life, after Nabi Ibrahim `alayh al-Salam and Nabi Lut `alayh al-Salam, the first to migrate with his wife was `Uthman.

 

At the time of the Battle of Badr, Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha fell ill. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam left Sayyiduna `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu in Madinah Munawwarah to look after her. However, Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha passed away in this illness. Sayyiduna Zayd ibn Harithah radiya Llahu `anhu, whilst mounted on the camel of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, called Jad`a, brought glad tidings of the victory for Islam just as Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha was being buried. When Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam returned, he immediately went to the grave of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha where he wept and supplicated for her.

It has been mentioned before, with reference to Furu` al-Kafi that when Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha was being buried, then Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha was seated at the edge, weeping, while Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam was wiping her tears. It should be noted that this incident occurred on the demise of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha, who was younger than Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha and it is known that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam was not present at the burial of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha.

 

The Rank and Status of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum

Ibn Sa`d rahimahu Llah says that Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha migrated to Madinah Munawwarah, along with the family of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha and the others. Moreover, it is narrated from Sayyiduna Anas radiya Llahu `anhu that he saw Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam at the grave of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha and tears were flowing from his eyes. He said: “The one who did not have relations this night should go into the grave.” Abu Talhah radiya Llahu `anhu said: “I am such.” Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam then told him to go down.[38]

 

`Allamah Ibn `Abd al-Barr rahimahu Llah writes:

 

I do not know of any difference of opinion with regards to Zaynab being the eldest daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. Yes, there is a difference of opinion among the scholars of sirah with regards to Ruqayyah, Fatimah and Umm Kulthum. Most scholars are of the view of this sequence (i.e. Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha was the youngest and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha was elder than her).

 

It is narrated from Jurjani that Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha was the youngest. It is also said that Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha was the youngest.[39]

Besides precedence in iman, migration and good character, there are virtues of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha narrated with an unbroken chain. Umm `Ayyash radiya Llahu `anha, the freed slave of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha says: “I heard from Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam:

 

يقول ما زوجت عثمان أم كلثوم الا بوحي من السماء قال ابن مندة لا يعرف إلا بهذا الاسناد بروايت ابن مندة

I married off Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha to `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu upon revelation from the heavens.

 

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah radiya Llahu `anhu says that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

Jibril `alayh al-Salam came to me and said: “Allah commands you to marry off Umm Kulthum to `Uthman with the same dowry as that of Ruqayyah, and to give her into that family.[40]

 

The Seventh Misrepresentation

The Shi`ah claim that since Sayyidah Ruqayyah and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anhuma were (first) married to `Utbah and `Utaybah, the sons of Abu Lahab, there is no significance if Sayyiduna `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu married them thereafter.

 

Answer

This is a foolish assumption. They were wedded to the sons of Abu Lahab — the uncle of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam — before the message of nubuwwah began, in accordance to the tribal norms of that time. The scholars of sirah referred to this as a contract and nikah, but the marriage was not consummated. They did not move in with their prospective husbands either. This is because a few days after Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam was deputed as a nabi, Surah Lahab was revealed and it is not certain that they came of age when the proposed marriage was broken off.

Most of the scholars say that Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha was elder than Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha. According to the explanation of al-Kafi, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha was born after Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam was deputed as a Nabi and she married Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu in 2 A.H, after the Battle of Badr. At that time, Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha was not yet married, in the home of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. A little while later, Sayyiduna `Umar radiya Llahu `anhu wanted Sayyiduna `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu to marry his daughter, Sayyidah Hafsah radiya Llahu `anha. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said: “I shall give a better wife than Hafsah to `Uthman radiya Llahu `anha and I shall give a better husband to Hafsah than `Uthman.” Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam subsequently married Sayyidah Hafsah radiya Llahu `anha and he gave his youngest daughter, Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha, to Sayyiduna `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu in 3 A.H.[41]

If Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha was elder than Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha, then she would have been married to Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu. According to the view of the Shi`ah, it is against the common practice to marry off the youngest, whilst the elder one sits behind for a few years, yet she is of age. In terms of this, the age of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha was about three or four years old in the third year of Nubuwwah, when Surah Lahab was revealed. If we assume Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha to be three or even six years elder, then too, it was not the age for marriage or to be sent to the home of her husband. Waqidi has written:

When Surah Lahab was revealed, Abu Lahab said: “There is no relation between us until you do not leave the daughters of Muhammad.

So they left Nabi’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam daughters before they were sent to the homes of their husbands and before any relations took place.

Hafiz Ibn Hajar rahimahu Llah gives a better explanation and says that in following Ibn Sa`d, it is better than the explanation of Ibn `Abd al-Barr, in which it is stated that before being deputed as a Nabi, Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anhu and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha were said to be married. This is because Abu `Amr has mentioned the unanimous decision of the historians that Sayyidah Zaynab radiya Llahu `anhu was the eldest daughter. She was born ten years before Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam was deputed as a Nabi, so how could the marriage with those younger than her have occurred? Yes, if it is proven, then this nikah contract was an engagement in young age and the separation occurred before the marriage itself. Ibn Mandah says that `Utbah died before Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha could be sent to his home, or before he had any relations with her.[42]

In the light of this research, when the marriage itself did not occur, and both of them did not see each other, then this does not affect the rank and status of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu `anha at all. Sayyiduna `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu acquired the fortune of becoming the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, twice, in succession, just as Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu acquired this good fortune nine years later in 2 A.H.

Through this research, the doubt of the Shi`ah is also debunked, that how could the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam have been married to disbelievers? This is because the differentiation of disbelief and Islam occurred after nubuwwah and at that time the talk of engagement was broken off from the side of the disbelievers. They referred to this as divorce only on account of its similarity.

Besides this, the prohibition of nikah between Muslim and non-Muslim came later on, only around 7 A.H, in Madinah Munawwarah. There was no differentiation before this. Marriages continued to be made.

 

The Rank and Status of Sayyidah Fatimah

Besides having the joint virtues of precedence in iman, migration, abstinence, worship, generosity and other qualities, undoubtedly, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha had a many special virtues.

 

1. Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha is among the people of the cloak. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam placed Sayyiduna `Ali, Sayyidah Fatimah, Sayyiduna Hasan and Sayyiduna Husayn radiya Llahu `anhum under the cloak, referred to them as his Ahl al-Bayt and supplicated for them to be purified and for filth to be removed from them.[43]

 

2. In his final illness, Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam informed Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha of his imminent demise and she cried. Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam then told her that she will soon meet him, so she laughed. Despite this, she remained grieved and Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam consoled her:

 

يا فاطمة ألا ترضين أن تكوني سيدة نساء أهل الجنة أو نساء المؤمنين

O Fatimah, are you not pleased to be the leader of the women of Jannah, or the leader of the believing women?[44]

 

3. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

 

فاطمة بضعة مني فمن أغضبها أغضبني

Fatimah is a part of me, whoever angers her, angers me.[45]

 

4. Sayyidah `A’ishah radiya Llahu `anha was asked: “Who was most beloved to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam?

 

قالت فاطمة فقيل من الرجال قالت زوجها وفي رواية أنه كان ما علمته صواما قواما

“Fatimah.” She was then asked: “And from the men?” She replied: “Her husband.”[46] Another narration states: “According to my knowledge, he used to fast and stand in worship.”

 

5. At the time of their marriage, Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam performed wudu and sprinkled water on Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha and made the following supplication for them:

 

اللهم بارك فيهما وبارك عليهما وبارك في نسلهما

O Allah, bless them, and grant blessings upon them and bless them in their progeny.[47]

 

6. Sayyiduna Anas radiya Llahu `anhu narrates that there are four perfect women of the world:

Maryam bint `Imran, Asiyah — the wife of Fir`own, Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, and Fatimah bint Muhammad.[48]

 

In a similar narration of Bukhari (vol. 1 p. 5320 after Maryam bint `Imran and Asiyah, the words are: “And the virtue of `A’ishah over all women is like the virtue of Tharid over all foods.”

 

Reasons for the Special Virtues

If we study deeply, then these virtues were mentioned in specific circumstances and had such conditions been in the lot of the other three daughters, then they would have also been covered by divine praise. The incident of Mubahalah and the cloak, and the verses regarding them were revealed later on. This incident took place in 9 A.H, whereas Sayyidah Ruqayyah, Sayyidah Umm Kulthum and Sayyidah Zaynab radiya Llahu `anhum had already reached Jannah in 2 A.H, 6 A.H, and 7 A.H or 8 A.H.

The title of being the leader of the women was also given towards the end of the life of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, when she was grieved over hearing the news of his imminent demise. This was narrated by Sayyidah `A’ishah radiya Llahu `anha. By means of this narration the entire ummah was informed of it and it became our belief, otherwise, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha was informed of this in solitude, as a secret. The love and affiliation between Sayyidah `A’ishah radiya Llahu `anha and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha is clear from this. May the curse of Allah be upon those who believe that there was hatred and jealousy between this mother and daughter.

The reason behind the utterance, “Fatimah is from me,” as narrated with Tawatur in the history books and the books of the Shi`ah, was that Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu intended to marry Fatimah bint Abi Jahal, which upset Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha. This was then uttered upon the complaint of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha, and it was mentioned a number of times. The other three daughters are also part of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, but there was no need for it to be said when looking at the peaceful lives they had with their husbands. Sayyiduna Abu al-`As radiya Llahu `anhu was said to be the best son-in-law, one who fulfilled the rights of being a son-in-law. It was said with regards to Sayyiduna `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu: “If I had another daughter, then I would have married her off to `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu too,” as discussed previously.

With regards to the fourth narration, it is said that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, Sayyidah `A’ishah, Sayyidah Fatimah, Sayyiduna `Ali, Sayyiduna Hasan and Sayyiduna Husayn radiya Llahu `anhum, all of them were most beloved to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. They could not explain their beloved nature to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, others did. For example: Sayyiduna Anas, Sayyiduna `Amr ibn al-`As, Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah radiya Llahu `anhum and others have narrated with an unbroken chain the love of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam for Sayyidah `A’ishah and Sayyiduna Abu Bakr radiya Llahu `anhuma. Similarly, Sayyidah `A’ishah radiya Llahu `anha explained the love between Sayyiduna `Ali and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anhuma. There is no contradiction between them. It is also clear from here that Sayyidah `A’ishah radiya Llahu `anha had great faith in the household of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. This hadith reflects this. She did not have any ill-feelings towards Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu, as she clearly said that he was a person who used to fast and stand up in worship at night. May Allah be pleased with them all.

Allah decreed that the progeny of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam will carry on and remain through the children of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha, thus Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam make the above mentioned supplication on the occasion of her marriage. Some have the view that Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu `anha had children. Sayyidah Khadijah, Sayyidah `A’ishah or Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anhum, all of them were the coolness of the eyes of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, the joy of his heart, the beauty of his home, the nurtured teachers of religion, the treasure of the honour of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, the mothers of all the believers and the light of their hearts. May Allah grant one and all love in their hearts for these luminaries and may He destroy those who speak ill of them and have enmity for them. May Allah be pleased with all of them.

We have kept a vigilant eye on the research and study of both the old and new works of the Shi`ah, looking for a verse, or statement of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, statement of an Imam, or even a verdict of Shi`i scholars; stating that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam had only one daughter, but we have not yet found such a thing. However, we have found two things. Ponder over them in the light of the misrepresentations explained above.

 

The Eighth Misrepresentation

In Arjah al-Matalib, with reference from Firdows Daylami and Musnad `Ali Rida, there is a narration that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam mentioned a virtue for Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu that surpasses his own virtue.

 

أوتيت صهرا مثلي ولم أوت أنا مثلي

You have acquired a father-in-law like me and I did not get a father-in-law like myself.

 

In this statement, there is testimony that Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu has the most unique and highest ranking father-in-law, however there is no negation of the others not being the sons-in-laws of the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. This forms part of the unique virtues of Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu that in addition to being wedded to a blessed spouse such as Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu `anha, and having noble sons such as Sayyiduna Hasan and Husayn radiya Llahu `anhuma; he also has the honour of having a father-in-law as Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. This narration should be considered in light of all the reported material and in no way was it meant to negate the virtue of any other (rather its purpose was to award virtue only).

 

The Ninth Misrepresentation

Sayyiduna Lut `alayh al-Salam had two daughters. The Qur’an uses the plural form for them. In the same way, the plural was used for one in Surah al-Ahzab.

 

Answer:

Firstly, it is improper to present assumptions in argument to clear verse of the Qur’an, sunnah and mutawatir historical proofs. The daughters of Nabi Lut `alayh al-Salam were referred to in the plural form in many instances in the noble Qur’an, it is utter maltreatment of the Qur’an to rely upon a lone opinion and discard what it explicitly implies; and claim that he had only two daughters. Such an act will open the doors for every deviated group to discard the apparent implications of the Qur’an and to take the meaning of singular to be plural and vice versa at every place. We seek the protection of Allah.

Secondly, the reason why this view is incorrect is that there were two main chiefs in the nation of Nabi Lut `alayh al-Salam. Nabi Lut intended to give two of his daughters to them in marriage so that they would refrain from their evil practice, which will inevitably result in the common masses following suit. To now deduce from this that he only had two daughters is absurd, especially when there were others also guilty of this crime and it is clearly mentioned that he intended to wed his daughters to them also (in order to safeguard the honour of his guests).

Thirdly, the scholars of tafsir have rejected the view of two daughters. Tafsir Ghara’ib al-Qur’an of Nishapuri, with the footnotes of Tafsir Tabari (vol. 12 p. 58) states:

One view is that there were two leaders of the nation. He wanted to wed two of his daughters to them. Another view is that he had more than two daughters. It could also be that he did not want to give his daughters in marriage in reality, but wanted them to take lesson and put them to shame.

 

Fourthly, daughters is indeed plural (and so is its implication), there are two explanations for this:

The married women of the nation of Lut `alayh al-Salam is meant, that he is the spiritual father of the nation.

His biological daughters are meant. This is the view of Qatadah.[49]

 
 
 

[1]  Surah al-Ahzab: 59

[2]  Surah al-Nisa’: 23

[3]Hayat al-Qulub p. 87

[4]Jila’ al-`Uyun p. 87

[5]  Op. cit. p.231, 291

[6]Nahj al-Balaghah p. 494

[7]Jila’ al-`Uyun p.149, 153, 156

[8]Tahdhib al-Ahkam vol. 1 p. 154, al-Istibsar vol. 1 p. 245, Zad al-Ma`ad (Majlisi) p. 24, from Damad `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu wa Damad Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallamp. 6

[9]Jila’ al-`Uyun p.353

[10]Muntaha al-Amal vol. 1 p. 300

[11]Furu` al-Kafi vol. 1 p. 241

[12]Hayat al-Qulub vol. 2 p. 588, Iran

[13]  Ibid

[14]Khisal, Shaykh Saduq vol. 2 p. 167

[15]Al-Kafi vol. 1 p. 439

[16]Muntaha al-Amal vol. 1 p. 108

[17]Hayat al-Qulub vol. 2 p. 311

[18]  Op. cit. p. 592

[19]Jila’ al-`Uyun p. 112

[20]Jila’ al-`Uyun p. 418

[21]Hayat al-Qulub vol. 2 p. 305, Hijrat Habshah, Mafatih al-Jinan, Shaykh al-Qummi, Tuhfah al-`Awwam p. 113

[22]Tadhkirah al-Ma`sumin p. 6

[23]Majalis al-Mu’minin p. 88

[24]Al Amjad p. 9, Shifa’ al-Sudur wa l-Kurub vol. 2 p. 8, Muntaha al-Amal vol. 1 p. 100

[25]Masalik al-Afham Tanqih Shara’i` al-Islam p. 532

[26] I`lam al-Wara

[27]Kashf al-Ghummah p. 132, `Ali ibn `Isa Arbili

[28] Kashf al-Asrar p. 22

[29]Tafsir al-Majma` vol. 3 p. 184

[30]Usd al-Ghabah vol. 5 p. 468

[31]Tahawi vol. 2 p. 45, Dhakha’ir al-`Uqba p. 158

[32]Al-Isti`ab vol. 4 p. 312, with the footnotes of al-Isabah

[33]  Surah Al `Imran, 195

[34]  Al-Bukhari in his Tarikh, Tabrani, Abu Nu`aym. Abu Zur`ah Dimashqi rahimahu Llah says that this hadith is authentic, Kanz al-`Ummal vol. 6 p. 306, Sirat al-Mustafa vol. 1 p. 155

[35]Al-Isti`ab

[36]Al-Isabah vol. 4 p. 236

[37]Al-Isabah vol. 4 p. 305

[38]Al-Isabah vol. 4 p. 489

[39]Al-Isti`ab and al-Isabah vol. 4 p. 304

[40]  Ibn Mandah says: “Gharib.” al-Isabah

[41]Al-Isti`ab

[42]Al-Isabah vol. 4 p. 489

[43]Tirmidhi

[44]Bukhari, Muslim

[45]  Ibid

[46]Tirmidhi

[47]Al-Isabah

[48]Tirmidhi

[49]Majma` al-Bayan vol. 3 p. 184