Second Module – Division of The Qur’an into Chapters

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Second Module

Division of The Qur’an into Chapters

A count of the chapters of the Qur’an

Though there is a difference of opinion regarding the number of chapters in the Qur’an with some opining for 113 by combining Surah al Anfal and Surah al Bara’ah, the more correct and widely accepted view is that there are 114 chapters in the Qur’an.[1]

Definition of a chapter

A Chapter or Surah is defined as a collection of verses, both linked and separated with the minimum verses being three in a chapter.[2]

The order of the chapters in the Qur’an

Is the current order of the Qur’anic chapters divine?

These are the following three views:

  1. The first view is that the order of the chapters in the Qur’an as we find it today is divine as placed by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam under the instruction of Jibril ‘alayh al Salam as per the order of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.

Most of the scholars have taken this view. The following erudite scholars of the Qur’anic sciences hold this view. Hereunder are their names and views:

Abu Bakr al Anbari (d. 228):

أنزل الله القرآن كله إلى سماء الدنيا ثم فرقه في بضع وعشرين سنة فكانت السورة تنزل لأمر يحدث والآية جوابا لمستخبر ويوقف جبريل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم على موضع الآية والسورة فاتساق السور كاتساق الآيات والحروف كله عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فمن قدم سورة أو أخرها فقد أفسد نظم القرآن

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala revealed the Qur’an to the first sky thereafter spreading its descent to the earth over 20 odd years. A chapter would be revealed as novel matters would unfold and a verse as an answer to a question posed. Jibril ‘alayh al Salam would instruct Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on the placement of the verse and chapter. Therefore, the order of the chapters are just as the order of the verses and words are: divine. Whoever brings front or pushes back a chapter has interfered with the order of the Qur’an.[3]

Al Kirmani (d. 502):

ترتيب السور هكذا هو عند الله في اللوح المحفوظ على هذا الترتيب وعليه كان صلى الله عليه وسلم يعرض على جبريل كل سنة ما كان يجتمع عنده منه وعرضه عليه في السنة التي توفي فيها مرتين وكان آخر الآيات نزولا (واتقوا يوما ترجعون فيه إلى الله) فأمره جبريل أن يضعها بين آيتي الربا والدين

The order of the chapters as they stand is divine from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala as is in the Protected Tablet. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would read it to Jibril ‘alayh al Salam every year all that was revealed. In his final year Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam recited it twice to Jibril ‘alayh al Salam. The last verse revealed was:

وَاتَّقُوْا يَوْمًا تُرْجَعُوْنَ فِيْهِ إِلَى اللَّهِ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُوْنَ

And fear a Day when you will be returned to Allah. Then every soul will be compensated for what it earned, and they will not be treated unjustly.[4]

Jibril ‘alayh al Salam instructed Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to place it between the verses of debt and interest.[5]

Al Tibi (d. 743):

أنزل القرآن أولا جملة واحدة من اللوح المحفوظ إلى السماء الدنيا ثم نزل مفرقا على حسب المصالح ثم أثبت في المصاحف على التأليف والنظم المثبت في اللوح المحفوظ

The Qur’an was initially revealed at once from the Protected Tablet to the first sky. It was then revealed as and when needed. Its order in the book form is just as it is in the Protected Tablet.[6]

Abu Jafar al Nahhas (d. 338):

المختار أن تأليف السور على هذا الترتيب من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لحديث واثلة أعطيت مكان التوراة السبع الطوال… الحديث قال فهذا الحديث يدل على أن تأليف القرآن مأخوذ عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وأنه من ذلك الوقت وإنما جمع في المصحف على شيء واحد لأنه قد جاء هذا الحديث بلفظ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على تأليف القرآن

The correct opinion regarding the order of the chapters in this manner is from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam based on the narration of Wathilah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, “I have been given the seven long ones in lieu of the Torah, instead of the Psalms the one hundreds, instead of the Gospel al Mathani, and I have been favoured with the mufassal.” This narration shows that the order of the Qur’an is directly from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This order was from his time till it was readied and gathered in a book from.[7]

Al Suyuti (d. 911):

مما يدل على أنه توقيفي كون الحواميم رتبت ولاء وكذا الطواسين ولم ترتب المسبحات ولاء بل فصل بين سورها وفصل بين طسم الشعراء وطسم القصص بطس مع أنها أقصر منهما ولو كان الترتيب اجتهاديا لذكرت المسبحات ولاء وأخرت طس عن القصص

The fact that the chapters beginning with حم [Ha Mim] and طس [Ta Sin] are in succession as opposed to those that begin with the glory of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, i.e. the Musabbihat and those that begin طسم [Ta Sin Mim] is an indication that the sequence of the chapters in the Qur’an is divine. If it was through human intervention the Musabbihat would have all been together and [Ta Sin] would have come after Surah al Qasas.[8]

This opinion, as reflected by the above-mentioned quotations, is more worthy and correct.

  1. The second view is that the sequence of the chapters are by divine knowledge, besides Surah al Anfal and Surah al Tawbah. Both were placed by the intervention of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu which the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were in conformity with. Al Bayhaqi radiya Llahu ‘anhu is amongst those who have opined for this. Their proof lies in the following narration:

قال ابن عباس : قلت لعثمان بن عفان رضي الله عنه : ما حملكم على أن عمدتم إلى الأنفال وهي من المثاني ، وإلى براءة وهي من المئين فقرنتم بينهما ، ولم تكتبوا بينهما سطر “ بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم “ , ووضعتموها في السبع الطول ، فما حملكم على ذلك ؟ فقال عثمان رضي الله عنه : كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مما يأتي عليه الزمان وهو ينزل عليه من السور ذات العدد ، وكان إذا نزل عليه الشيء دعا بعض من يكتب ، فيقول : “ ضعوا هذه في السورة التي يذكر فيها كذا وكذا “ . وإذا نزلت عليه آية ، يقول : “ ضعوا هذه الآية في السورة التي يذكر فيها كذا وكذا “ . وإذا نزلت عليه الآيات ، يقول : “ ضعوا هذه الآيات في السورة التي يذكر فيها كذا وكذا “ . وكانت الأنفال من أوائل ما نزل بالمدينة ، وكانت براءة من آخر القرآن ، وكانت قصتها شبيهة بقصتها ، وظننت أنها منها ، وقبض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ولم يبين لنا أنها منها ، فمن أجل ذلك قرنت بينهما ، ولم أكتب بينهما سطر بسم الله الرحمن , ووضعتها في السبع الطول

Ibn ‘Abbas said: I asked ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, “What moved you to put al Bara’ah which belongs to the mi’in (containing one hundred verses) and al Anfal which belongs to the Mathani in the category of al Sab’ al Tiwal (the seven lengthy Surahs) and you did not write, ‘In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful,’ between them?”

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan replied, “When the verses of the Qur’an were revealed to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he called someone to write them down for him and said to him, ‘Put this verse in the chapter in which such and such has been mentioned;’ and when one or two verses were revealed, he used to say similarly (regarding them). Al Anfal is the first chapter that was revealed at Madinah, and al Baraah was revealed last in the Qur’an, and its contents were similar to those of al Anfal. I, therefore, thought that it was a part of al Anfal. Hence, I put them in the category al Sab’ al Tiwal (the seven lengthy Surahs), and I did not write, “In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful,” between them.[9]

Comments

This narration indicates that the present sequence and placement of these two chapters was through the critical evaluation of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and not as per the instruction od Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The same narration also indicates that ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu followed the order of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the rest of the chapters.

This narration, however, seems lacking in strength to provide proof for this opinion. Imam al Tirmidhi rahimahu Llah; a narrator of this statement says, “This narration is hasan gharib and we do not know of it except through the chain; ‘Awf — from Yazid al Faris — from Ibn ‘Abbas. When Yahya ibn Ma’in was asked regarding Yazid al Faris, he said, “I do not know of him.”

Therefore, a man not known cannot be a considered a reliable source in a theory not mentioned elsewhere, especially since it is regarding a discussion as important as this.

  1. The third view is that the sequence and order of the chapters as it stands today was through the critical evaluation and placement of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. The following scholars have lent towards this view:
  • Imam Malik ibn Anas (d. 179.),
  • Abu Bakr al Baqillani (d. 403.) in one of his views and,
  • Abu al Hussain Ahmed ibn Faris (d. 395).[10]

They support their view by the fact that the copies of the Qur’an held by the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were not the same, i.e. in the same sequence of chapters.

Hereunder are some examples:

The copy of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu was in order of revelation, starting with Surah al ‘Alaq followed by Surah al Muddathir, Surah al Nun, Surah al Muzzammil, Surah al Lahab, and Surah al Takwir till the end of the Makki chapters. Thereafter going on to the Madani chapters as per the revelation.

The copy of ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud and Ubay ibn Ka’b radiya Llahu ‘anhuma began with Surah al Baqarah followed by Surah al Nisa, Surah Al ‘Imran, Surah al An’am, Surah al A’raf, Surah al Ma’idah, and so on.[11]

Their argument is, if the placement and order of the chapters were divine there would not be a difference of opinion in this manner.

Comments

This view does not hold much weight due to the following reasons:

I. These copies were made before the final rendition of the Qur’an took place. After the final rendition of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam the Qur’an remained in the sequenced ordered by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

II. The order of the chapters, as is clear, was by the instruction of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

III. The Khalifah ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu delegated the task of having the Qur’an bound in book form to some of the erudite Companions under the supervision of Zaid ibn Thabit radiya Llahu ‘anhu, a scribe of revelation and one present for the final rendition of the Qur’an. He thus had knowledge of the sequence and placement of the chapters directly from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

His placement of the chapters together with the acceptance of the remaining Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum leaves no doubt that this was the order taught to them by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

What is the wisdom behind separating the Qur’an into chapters?

Al Zarkashi (d. 794):

الحكمة في تسوير السورة تحقيق لكون السورة بمجردها معجزة وآية من آيات الله تعالى ، وسورت السور طوالا وقصارا وأوساطا تنبيها على أن الطول ليس من شرط الإعجاز ; فهذه سورة الكوثر ثلاث آيات ، وهي معجزة إعجاز سورة “ البقرة “ . ثم ظهرت لذلك حكمة في التعليم ، وتدريج الأطفال من السور القصار إلى ما فوقها يسيرا يسيرا ; تيسيرا من الله على عباده لحفظ كتابه ، فترى الطفل يفرح بإتمام السورة ، فرح من حصل على حد معتبر ، وكذلك المطيل في التلاوة يرتاح عند ختم كل سورة ارتياح المسافر إلى قطع المراحل المسماة مرحلة بعد مرحلة أخرى ; إلا أن كل سورة نمط مستقل فسورة “ يوسف “ تترجم عن قصته ، وسورة “ براءة “ تترجم عن أحوال المنافقين وكامن أسرارهم ، وغير ذلك

The wisdom in the chapters of the Qur’an is establishing that the chapters by themselves are standalone miracles of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Furthermore, the shorter and longer chapters show that it is not length that gives it its miraculous virtue. Surah al Kawthar though consisting of only three verses is as miraculous as Surah al Baqarah. Another wisdom in this is the angle of learning this noble book. Children are taken from shorter chapters to lengthier chapters gradually; a mercy unto mankind from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. As they complete a chapter, they reach a milestone which gives them joy. Similarly, one reciting lengthy portions of the Qur’an gains fervour to carry on after reaching the end of each chapter; having reached a milestone just as a traveller does on his journey. Together with this each chapter has its own subject matter, Surah al Yusuf speaks of the story of Yusuf ‘alayh al Salam and Surah al Baraah speaks of the conditions and hidden agendas of the hypocrites.[12]

Al Zamakhshari (d. 538.):

ان الجنس إذا انطوت تحته أنواع وأصناف كان أحسن وأفخم من أن يكون بابا واحدا ، ومنها أن القارئ إذا ختم سورة أو بابا من الكتاب ثم أخذ في آخره كان أنشط له وأبعث على التحصيل منه لو استمر على الكتاب بطوله

When a variety of subject matters are divided into chapters, it carries its worth in a better and more expressive form than having it under a single chapter. Similarly, when a reader completes one chapter he feels invigorated starting the next. This would not be the case had there been no chapters.[13]

Are the names of the chapters divinely selected?

Most of the scholars opine that the names of the chapters are by divine selection as named by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The following narrations give strength to this view:

من قرأ هاتين الآيتين من آخر سورة البقرة في ليلة كفتاه

These last two verses of Surah al Baqarah will suffice for one who recites them at night.[14]

اقرءوا الزهراوين البقرة وسورة آل عمران فإنهما تأتيان يوم القيامة كأنهما غمامتان تحاجان عن أصحابهما

Recite the two illuminated chapters, Surah al Baqarah and Surah Al ‘Imran for on the Day of Resurrection they will come as two clouds pleading for those who recited them.[15]

من حفظ عشر آيات من أول سورة الكهف عصم من فتنة الدجال

Whoever memorizes the opening ten verses of Surah al Kahf will be protected from the trial of Dajjal.[16]

كان النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم لا ينام حتى يقرأ الزمر و بني إسرائيل

‘Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha says, “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would not sleep until he had recited Surah al Zumar and Surah Bani Israil.[17]

من قرأ الدخان في ليلة الجمعة ؛ غفر له

Whoever recites Surah al Dukhan on the eve of Friday will be forgiven.[18]

من قرأ سورة الواقعة في كل ليله لم تصبه فاقة أبدا

Whoever recites Surah al Waqi’ah every night will not be afflicted with poverty.[19]

Comments on the names of the chapters

The names of the chapters are of two types; firstly, those that have only one name and are, as we have established, divinely selected. The following are of this type:

1. Nisa’ 38. Haqqah
2. An’am 39. Nuh
3. A’raf 40. Jinn
4. Yunus 41. Muzzammil
5. Hud 42. Muddathir
6. Yusuf 43. Qiyamah
7. Ra’d 44. Insan
8. Ibrahim 45. Mursalat
9. Hajar 46. Nazi’at
10. Maryam 47. ‘Abas
11. Ambiya’ 48. Takwir
12. Hajj 49. Infitar
13. Mu’minun 50. Mutaffifin
14. Nur 51. Inshiqaq
15. Furqan 52. Buruj
16. Qasas 53. Tariq
17. ‘Ankabut 54. A’la
18. Rum 55. Ghashiyah
19. Luqman 56. Fajr
20. Ahzab 57. Balad
21. Saba 58. Shams
22. Saffat 59. Layl
23. Sad 60. Duha
24. Shura 61. Sharh
25. Zukhruf 62. Tin
26. Dukhan 63. ‘Alaq
27. Ahqaf 64. Qadr
28. Fath 65. Bayyinah
29. Hujurat 66. Zulzilah
30. Dhariyat 67. ‘Adiyat
31. Tur 68. Qari’ah
32. Najm 69. Takathur
33. Waqi’ah 70. ‘Asr
34. Hadid 71. Humazah
35. Jumu’ah 72. Fil
36. Munafiqun 73. Quraysh
37. Qalam 74. Kawthar

 

Secondly, those that have more than one name. Hence one name will be divinely selected whilst the others will not be such. These added names were placed by the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum or the Tabi’in rahimahu Llah. The following are of this type:

1. Fatihah 21. Qaf
2. Baqarah 22. Iqtarabat
3. Al ‘Imran 23. Rahman
4. Ma’idah 24. Mujadalah
5. Anfal 25. Hashr
6. Baraah 26. Mumtahinah
7. Nahl 27. Saff
8. Isra 28. Talaq
9. Kahf 29. Tahrim
10. Taha 30. Mulk
11. Shu’ara 31. Sa’al
12. Naml 32. ‘Amm
13. Sajdah 33. Lam Yakun
14. Fatir 34. Ma’un
15. Yasin 35. Kafirun
16. Zumar 36. Nasr
17. Ghafir 37. Tabbat
18. Fussilat 38. Ikhlas
19. Jathiyah 39. Falaq
20. Muhammad 40. Nas

Hereunder is a detailed discussion on these chapters.

1. Surah al Fatihah

Many names have been given to this chapter. Imam al Suyuti has mentioned 25 such name.[20] I will suffice on mentioning the more accepted views.

  • Umm al Qur’an (Mother of the Qur’an).
  • Fatihah al Kitab (Beginning of the Book).
  • Al Sab’ al Mathani (The seven oft repeated).

هي أم القرآن وهي فاتحة الكتاب وهي السبع المثاني

Ibn Jarir al Tabari has narrated on the authority of Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “It is Umm al Qur’an, it is Fatihah, and it is al Sab’ al Mathani.”[21]

The reason for these naming’s are possibly due to it being the opening of the Qur’an, Islamic education, and recitation in prayer.

Al Mawardi (d. 450) says:

سميت بذلك لتقدمها وتأخر ما سواها تبعا لها لأنها أمته أي تقدمته ولهذا يقال لراية الحرب أم لتقدمها واتباع الجيش لها كما يقال لمكة أم القرى لتقدمها على سائر القرى

It has been named thus due it being at the beginning and therefore ‘Umm’. The war flag which is kept in the front of the army is also called ‘Umm’ for this reason. Similarly, Makkah is called Umm al Qura as it is the starting point of all other cities.[22]

Another reason given to calling it ‘Umm’ is due to it encompassing the principles of the Qur’an besides the knowledge and wisdom it holds in itself.

  • Al Qur’an al Azim

Al Bayhaqi (d. 458.) narrates:

عن أبي هريرة أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال لأم القرآن هي أم القرآن وهي السبع المثاني وهي القرآن العظيم

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said regarding Umm al Qur’an, it is Umm al Qur’an, al Sab’ al Mathani, and a-Qur’an al Azim.[23]

It has been named such since it has all the meanings of the Qur’an and being of seven verses. Others have mentioned that it is because each of the seven verses hold an etiquette of its own.

Al Mathani could be from the Arabic root word meaning ‘praise’, as it is filled with the praise of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.

A second possibility is that it is from the root word meaning ‘two’ as it is read twice in a complete unit of prayer. The following narration of al Tabari gives strength to this:

عن عمر قال السبع المثاني فاتحة الكتاب تثنى في كل ركعة

Al Sab’ al Mathani is the Opening of the Book (Surah al Fatihah). It is read in every unit of prayer.[24]

Another view is due it being revealed twice, once in Makkah and once in Madinah. Others have said due its having two themes; praise and prayer. Another opinion is, each time a verse is recited an answer to it comes directly from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala as mentioned in the ahadith.[25]

These five names that have been recounted are all divine.

As for those that are not divinely selected hereunder are a few together with the reasoning behind each name given.

a) Al Wafiyah

Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah (d. 198.) would call it this as it suffices as the entire Qur’an in the meaning it gives.

Al Tha’labi (d. 428) says:

لأنها لا تقبل التصنيف فإن كل سورة من القرآن لو قرئ نصفها في كل ركعة والنصف الثاني في أخرى لجاز و هذا بخلاف سورة الفاتحة لانه لا يجوز ذالك

This is due to it being complete without the ability to separate it. Every chapter in the Qur’an can be divided in the units of prayer besides Surah al Fatihah.[26]

b) Al Kafiyah

This is due to it being sufficient for the validity of prayer as opposed to any other chapter.

c) Al Munajat

This is due to a person pleading unto his Lord in this chapter:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِيْنُ

It is You we worship and You we ask for help.[27]

d) Al Du’a

Du’a is found in Surah al Fatihah as well:

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيْمَ

Guide us to the straight path -[28]

e) Al Tafwid

Surah al Fatihah speaks of giving oneself over to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and worshiping him with utmost sincerity:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِيْنُ

It is You we worship and You we ask for help.[29]

2. Surah al Baqarah

Many names have been mentioned of this chapter. I will mention the following:

a) Al Baqarah

It has been named thus due to the incident of the Cow beginning from the following verse:

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَنْ تَذْبَحُوْا بَقَرَةً ۖ

And [recall] when Moses said to his people, “Indeed, Allah commands you to slaughter a cow.”[30]

b) Sanam al Qur’an

Surah al Baqarah being the lengthiest chapter in the Qur’an alludes to many laws of monotheism, Islamic law, and Islamic etiquette. Thus, this chapter is considered elevated.

The above two names are divinely selected.

As for its other given names:

a) Fustat al Qur’an

Khalid ibn Ma’dan al Kala’i (d. 104.) would call it this referring to its great stature and laws contained in it not found elsewhere.[31]

3. Surah Al ‘Imran

a) Taybah:

روى سعيد بن منصور في سننه عن أبي عطاف قال اسم آل عمران في التوراة طيبة

Surah Al ‘Imran is referred to in the Tawrah as Taybah.[32]

b) Al Zahra’

في صحيح مسلم تسميتها والبقرة الزهراوين

This name is mentioned in Sahih Muslim.[33]

4. Surah al Ma’idah

a) Al Ma’idah (The Table spread with Food)

This name is due to the Ma’idah incident mentioned in this chapter:

إِذْ قَالَ الْحَوَارِيُّوْنَ يَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ هَلْ يَسْتَطِيْعُ رَبُّكَ أَنْ يُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْنَا مَائِدَةً مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ ۖ

[And remember] when the disciples said, “O Isa, Son of Maryam, can your Lord send down to us a table [spread with food] from the heaven.”[34]

b) Al ‘Uqud

This is due to the following verse:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا أَوْفُوْا بِالْعُقُوْدِ

O you who have believed, fulfil [all] contracts.

The above two names are the divinely selected ones.

Another name for it is al Munqidhah (the saviour), perhaps as one who acts upon its injunctions will be saved from the fire of hell.

5. Surah al Anfal

This is due to the laws of the spoils of war mentioned therein:

وَاعْلَمُوْا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُمْ مِّنْ شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ

And know that anything you obtain of war booty – then indeed, for Allah is one fifth of it[35]

This name is divine.

Surah al Badr is one of the other names for this chapter.

أخرج أبو الشيخ عن سعيد بن جبير قال قلت لابن عباس سورة الأنفال قال تلك سورة بدر

Sa’id ibn Jubayr (d. 95.) says, “I said to Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, Surah al Anfal.” He replied, “That is Surah al Badr.”[36]

This naming is due to the incident of Badr recounted therein:

وَإِذْ يَعِدُكُمُ اللَّهُ إِحْدَى الطَّائِفَتَيْنِ أَنَّهَا لَكُمْ وَتَوَدُّوْنَ أَنَّ غَيْرَ ذَاتِ الشَّوْكَةِ تَكُوْنُ لَكُمْ وَيُرِيْدُ اللَّهُ أَنْ يُحِقَّ الْحَقَّ بِكَلِمَاتِهِ وَيَقْطَعَ دَابِرَ الْكَافِرِيْنَ

[Remember, O believers], when Allah promised you one of the two groups – that it would be yours – and you wished that the unarmed one would be yours. But Allah intended to establish the truth by His words and to eliminate the disbelievers.[37]

6. Surah Bara’ah

This is its divine name.

‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu says:

عن عكرمة قال قال عمر ما فرغ من تنزيل براءة حتى ظننا أنه لا يبق منا أحد إلا سينزل فيه

The complete revelation had barely completed, and I thought each one of us would have verses revealed regarding him.[38]

Hereunder are some of its other names:

a) Surah al Tawbah:

Due to the following verse:

لَّقَدْ تَّابَ اللَّهُ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ

Allah has already forgiven the Prophet…[39]

b) Surah al Fadihah:

Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma says:

أخرج البخاري عن سعيد بن جبير قال قلت لابن عباس سورة التوبة قال التوبة بل هي الفاضحة ما زالت تنزل ومنهم ومنهم حتى ظننا ألا يبقى أحد منا إلا ذكر فيها

It is the chapter of exposure. As revelation continued descending saying so and so, [until] we thought no one would be left.[40]

c) Surah al Muthirah:

Qatadah (d. 118.) says:

عن قتادة قال كانت هذه السورة يقال لها المثيرة و ذالك لانها أثارت و كشفت عن بمثالب المنافقين وعوراتهم

This chapter was called al Muthirah as it exposed the evils and hidden intents of the hypocrites.[41]

There are other names of this chapter as al Suyuti has mentioned. Refer to what he has written for further reading.[42]

7. Surah al Nahl

This name was selected alluding to the mention of bees therein:

وَأَوْحَىٰ رَبُّكَ إِلَى النَّحْلِ أَنِ اتَّخِذِيْ مِنَ الْجِبَالِ بُيُوْتًا وَمِنَ الشَّجَرِ وَمِمَّا يَعْرِشُوْنَ

And your Lord inspired to the bee, “Take for yourself among the mountains, houses, and among the trees and [in] that which they construct.”[43]

a) Al Ni’am

قال قتادة تسمى سورة النعم لما عدد الله فيها من النعم على عباده

Qatadah said, “Another name given to this chapter is Ni’am (blessings) due to the recounting of blessings of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala upon his creation in it.”[44]

8. Surah al Isra’

This name was divinely selected indicating to the night journey of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the following verse:

سُبْحَانَ الَّذِيْ أَسْرَىٰ بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلًا مِّنَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ الْأَقْصَى

Exalted is He who took His Servant by night from al Masjid al Haram to al Masjid al Aqsa.[45]

It is also known as Surah Bani Israil as it speaks of them:

قَضَيْنَا إِلَىٰ بَنِيْ إِسْرَائِيْلَ فِيْ الْكِتَابِ

And We conveyed to the Children of Israel in the Scripture.[46]

9. Surah al Kahf

This divine name is due to mention of the cave at various places:

فَأْوُوْا إِلَى الْكَهْفِ يَنشُرْ لَكُمْ رَبُّكُمْ مِّنْ رَّحْمَتِهِ وَيُهَيِّئْ لَكُمْ مِّنْ أَمْرِكُمْ مِّرْفَقًا

Retreat to the cave. Your Lord will spread out for you of His mercy and will prepare for you from your affair facility.”[47]

It is also known as Ashab al Kahf as the incident of the People of the Cave is mentioned in this chapter:

أَمْ حَسِبْتَ أَنَّ أَصْحَابَ الْكَهْفِ وَالرَّقِيْمِ كَانُوْا مِنْ آيَاتِنَا عَجَبًا

Or have you thought that the companions of the cave and the inscription were, among Our signs, a wonder?[48]

10. Surah Taha

This is its divine name, perhaps due to it beginning with these letters.

Another name attributed to this chapter is Surah al Kalim, an indication to the conversation between Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and Musa ‘alayh al Salam. See the subject matter of the verses that follow:

وَهَلْ أَتَاكَ حَدِيْثُ مُوْسَىٰ

And has the story of Moses reached you?[49]

11. Surah al Shu’ara

This is its divine name, an indication to the same word in this chapter:

وَالشُّعَرَاءُ يَتَّبِعُهُمُ الْغَاوُوْنَ

And the poets – [only] the deviators follow them.[50]

Another name given to it is Surah al Jami’ah as it tells tales of many of the previous nations.[51]

12. Surah al Naml

This divine name alludes to the ‘ant’ mentioned in this chapter:

حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَتَوْا عَلَىٰ وَادِ النَّمْلِ

Until, when they came upon the valley of the ants.[52]

Another name given to it is Surah Sulaiman. This is an indication to the incident of Sulaiman ‘alayh al Salam we find in it:

وَحُشِرَ لِسُلَيْمَانَ جُنُودُهُ مِنَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنسِ وَالطَّيْرِ فَهُمْ يُوزَعُونَ

And gathered for Sulaiman were his soldiers of the jinn and men and birds, and they were [marching] in rows.[53]

13. Surah al Sajdah

This is its divine name, an indication to the same word in this chapter:

انَّمَا يُؤْمِنُ بِآيَاتِنَا الَّذِيْنَ إِذَا ذُكِّرُوْا بِهَا خَرُّوْا سُجَّدًا وَسَبَّحُوْا بِحَمْدِ رَبِّهِمْ وَهُمْ لَا يَسْتَكْبِرُوْنَ

Only those believe in Our verses who, when they are reminded by them, fall down in prostration and exalt [Allah] with praise of their Lord, and they are not arrogant.[54]

Another name by which it is referred to is Surah al Madaji’ referring to this word in the chapter:

تَتَجَافَىٰ جُنُوْبُهُمْ عَنِ الْمَضَاجِعِ يَدْعُوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُوْنَ

They arise from [their] beds; they supplicate their Lord in fear and aspiration, and from what We have provided them, they spend.[55]

14. Surah al Fatir

This is its divine name, an indication to the same word in this chapter:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ فَاطِرِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ

[All] praise is [due] to Allah, Creator of the heavens and the earth[56]

Another name of this chapter is Surah al Mala’ikah as the attributes of the angels are recounted in it:

جَاعِلِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ رُسُلًا أُولِي أَجْنِحَةٍ مَّثْنَىٰ وَثُلَاثَ وَرُبَاعَ

[Who] made the angels messengers having wings, two or three or four.[57]

15. Surah Yasin

There are two divine names of this chapter. Surah Yasin, as the chapter starts with these letters and Qalb al Qur’an (heart of the Qur’an) which is referred to in the following narration of Jami’ al Tirmidhi:

أخرج الترمذي من حديث أنس ان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم سماها قلب القرآن

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam named it Qalb al Qur’an.[58]

Al Dafi’ah and al Qadiyah are two other names used to refer to this chapter as it prevents evil from reaching its reciter and fulfils his needs.

16. Surah al Zumar

This is its divine name, an indication to the same word in this chapter:

وَسِيْقَ الَّذِيْنَ اتَّقَوْا رَبَّهُمْ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ زُمَرًا

But those who feared their Lord will be driven to Paradise in groups.[59]

Another name of this chapter is Surah al Ghuraf also an indication to the word in this chapter:

لَٰكِنِ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا رَبَّهُمْ لَهُمْ غُرَفٌ مِّن فَوْقِهَا غُرَفٌ مَّبْنِيَّةٌ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ

But those who have feared their Lord – for them are chambers, above them chambers built high, beneath which rivers flow.[60]

17. Surah al Ghafir

This is its divine name, an indication to the same word in this chapter:

غَافِرِ الذَّنبِ وَقَابِلِ التَّوْبِ شَدِيْدِ الْعِقَابِ ذِيْ الطَّوْلِ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ إِلَيْهِ الْمَصِيْرُ

The forgiver of sin, acceptor of repentance, severe in punishment, owner of abundance. There is no deity except Him; to Him is the destination.[61]

Other names of this chapter are, Surah al Tawl and Surah al Mu’min also an indication to the following words in this chapter:

شَدِيْدِ الْعِقَابِ ذِيْ الطَّوْلِ

Severe in punishment, owner of abundance.[62]

وَقَالَ رَجُلٌ مُّؤْمِنٌ

And a believing man said.[63]

18. Surah al Fussilat

This is its divine name, an indication to the same word in this chapter:

كِتَابٌ فُصِّلَتْ آيَاتُهُ

A Book whose verses have been detailed.[64]

Another name of this chapter is Surah al Sajdah due to following verse:

لَا تَسْجُدُوْا لِلشَّمْسِ وَلَا لِلْقَمَرِ وَاسْجُدُوْا لِلَّهِ الَّذِيْ خَلَقَهُنَّ

Do not prostrate to the sun or to the moon, but prostate to Allah, who created them.[65]

19. Surah al Jathiyah

This is its divine name, an indication to the same word in this chapter:

وَتَرَىٰ كُلَّ أُمَّةٍ جَاثِيَةً

And you will see every nation kneeling [from fear].[66]

Another name of this chapter is Surah al Shari’ah due to following verse:

ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَاكَ عَلَىٰ شَرِيْعَةٍ مِّنَ الْأَمْرِ

Then We put you, [O Muhammad], on an ordained way concerning the matter [of religion].[67]

 

20. Surah al Muhammad

This is its divine name, an indication to the same word in this chapter:

وَالَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا وَعَمِلُوْا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَآمَنُوْا بِمَا نُزِّلَ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ

And those who believe and do righteous deeds and believe in what has been sent down upon Muhammad.[68]

Another name of this chapter is Surah al Qital due to following verse speaking of fighting the disbelievers:

فَإِذَا لَقِيْتُمُ الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْا فَضَرْبَ الرِّقَابِ

So when you meet those who disbelieve [in battle], strike [their] necks.[69]

21. Surah Qaf

This is its divine name by which the chapter begins:

ق وَالْقُرْآنِ الْمَجِيْدِ

Qaf. By the honoured Qur’an.[70]

Another name of this chapter is Surah al Basiqat due to following verse:

وَالنَّخْلَ بَاسِقَاتٍ لَّهَا طَلْعٌ نَّضِيْدٌ

And lofty palm trees having fruit arranged in layers.[71]

22. Surah Iqtarabat

This is its divine name due to the following verse:

اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ

The Hour has come near.[72]

Another name of this chapter is Surah al Qamar as the incident of the splitting of the moon is mentioned in this chapter:

وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ

And the moon has split [in two].[73]

23. Surah al Rahman

This is its divine name by which the chapter begins:

الرَّحْمَٰنُ عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ

The Most Merciful. Taught the Qur’an.[74]

Another name of this chapter is ‘Urus al Qur’an. Al Bayhaqi (d. 458.) has narrated the following:

سميت في حديث عروس القرآن أخرجه البيهقي عن علي مرفوعا

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates that it is called ‘Urus al Qur’an.

24. Surah al Mujadalah

This is its divine name which refers to the incident of zihar that took place between Aws ibn Samit and his wife Khawlah bint Tha’labah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:

قَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّهُ قَوْلَ الَّتِيْ تُجَادِلُكَ فِيْ زَوْجِهَا

Certainly has Allah heard the speech of the one who argues with you, [O Muhammad], concerning her husband.[75]

Another name of this chapter is Surah al Zihar as the laws of zihar were explained in this chapter:

الَّذِيْنَ يُظَاهِرُوْنَ مِنْكُمْ مِّنْ نِّسَائِهِمْ

Those who pronounce zihar among you [to separate] from their wives.[76]

25. Surah al Hashr

This is its divine name, an indication to the same word in this chapter:

هُوَ الَّذِيْ أَخْرَجَ الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ لِأَوَّلِ الْحَشْرِ

It is He who expelled the ones who disbelieved among the People of the Scripture from their homes at the first gathering.[77]

Another name of this chapter is Surah Bani Nadir. Imam al Bukhari (d. 256) has narrated the following:

أخرج البخاري عن سعيد بن جبير قال قلت لابن عباس سورة الحشر قال قل سورة بني النضير

Sa’id ibn Jubayr says, “I mentioned the name Surah al Hashr to Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. He said, ‘Say it is Surah Bani Nadir.’”[78]

It is the Bani Nadir who are meant in the afore-mentioned verse of this chapter.[79]

26. Surah al Mumtahinah

This is its divine name. Ibn Hajar (d. 852.) says:

المشهور في هذه التسمية أنها بفتح الحاء وقد تكسر فعلى الأول هو صفة المرأة التي نزلت السورة بسببها وعلى الثاني هي صفة السورة كما قيل لبراءة الفاضحة

The more common pronunciation is with a Fath (vowel) on the letter Ha, an indication to the characteristics of the woman mentioned therein, though sometimes it is read with a Kasrah, a description of the chapter as is the case with Surah al Bara’ah being called Surah al Fadihah.[80]

Another name of this chapter is Surah al Mawaddah as the word appears in this chapter:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا لَا تَتَّخِذُوْا عَدُوِّيْ وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ تُلْقُوْنَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَقَدْ كَفَرُوْا بِمَا جَاءَكُمْ مِّنَ الْحَقِّ

O you who have believed, do not take My enemies and your enemies as allies, extending to them affection while they have disbelieved in what came to you of the truth[81]

27. Surah al Saff

This is its divine name, an indication to the same word in this chapter:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الَّذِيْنَ يُقَاتِلُوْنَ فِيْ سَبِيْلِهِ صَفًّا كَأَنَّهُم بُنْيَانٌ مَّرْصُوْصٌ

Indeed, Allah loves those who fight in His cause in a row as though they are a [single] structure joined firmly.[82]

Another name of this chapter is Surah al Hawariyyin due to the same word appearing in it:

قَالَ عِيْسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ لِلْحَوَارِيِّيْنَ كَمَا

As when Isa, the son of Maryam, said to the disciples…[83]

28. Surah al Talaq

This is its divine name.

Surah al Nisa’ al Qusra is another name used to refer to this chapter as Imam al Bukhari has narrated from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[84] The reason for this is perhaps the mention of those laws which pertain to women.

29. Surah al Tahrim

This is divine name which indicated to the reason of revelation. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had relations with his slave girl Mariyah Qibtiyah in the home of his honourable consort Hafsah radiya Llahu ‘anha whilst she was not there. Not at ease, he then took an oath of prohibition from Mariyah. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala then revealed this chapter:

قَدْ فَرَضَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ تَحِلَّةَ أَيْمَانِكُمْ

Allah has already ordained for you [Muslims] the dissolution of your oaths.[85]

Another name of this chapter is Surah Lima Tuharrim due to the same word appearing in it:[86]

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ لِمَ تُحَرِّمُ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكَ

O Prophet, why do you prohibit [yourself from] what Allah has made lawful for you.[87]

30. Surah Tabarak

This is its divine name by which the chapter begins. Al Suyuti has mentioned a few other divine names of this chapter. I will recount the following two:

Surah al Mulk, as this word appears in it:

تَبَارَكَ الَّذِيْ بِيَدِهِ الْمُلْكُ

Blessed is He in whose hand is dominion.[88]

Surah al Mani’ah/al Munjiyah as the following narrations explain:

وأخرج الترمذي من حديث ابن عباس مرفوعا هي المانعة هي المنجية تنجيه من عذاب القبر

Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma says, “It is al Mani’ah/al Munjiyah as it saves a person from the punishment of the grave.[89]

عن أنس أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم سماها المنجية

Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam named it al Munjiyah.[90]

عن ابن مسعود قال كنا نسميها في عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم المانعة

‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu says, “We would refer to it as al Mani’ah in the era of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”[91]

31. Surah Sa’ala

This is its divine name as the chapter begins with this word:

سَأَلَ سَائِلٌ بِعَذَابٍ وَاقِعٍ

A supplicant asked for a punishment bound to happen.[92]

Another name of this chapter is Surah al Ma’arij indicating to the same word in it:

مِّنَ اللَّهِ ذِيْ الْمَعَارِجِ

[It is] from Allah, owner of the ways of ascent.[93]

32. Surah ‘Amma

This is its divine name as the chapter begins with this word:

عَمَّ يَتَسَاءَلُوْنَ

About what are they asking one another?[94]

Other names of this chapter include Surah al Naba’ and Surah al Tasa’ul referring to these two words appearing in the chapter:

عَنِ النَّبَإِ الْعَظِيْمِ عَمَّ يَتَسَاءَلُوْنَ

About what are they asking one another? About the great news.[95]

33. Surah Lam Yakun

This is its divine name by which the chapter starts:

لَمْ يَكُنِ الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَالْمُشْرِكِيْنَ مُنفَكِّيْنَ

Those who disbelieved among the People of the Scripture and the polytheists were not to be parted [from misbelief].[96]

Other names of this chapter include Surah al Bayyinah due to the word appearing in it:

حَتَّىٰ تَأْتِيَهُمُ الْبَيِّنَةُ

until there came to them clear evidence.[97]

34. Surah Ara’ayta

This is its divine name by which the chapter starts:

أَرَأَيْتَ الَّذِيْ يُكَذِّبُ بِالدِّيْنِ

Have you seen the one who denies the Recompense?[98]

Other names of this chapter include Surah al Din due to the word appearing in it.[99]

35. Surah al Kafirun

This is its divine name due to the word appearing in it:

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا الْكَافِرُوْنَ

Say, “O disbelievers…[100]

Other names of this chapter include Surah al ‘Ibadah due to words with its root letters appearing in the chapter at various places.[101]

36. Surah al Nasr

This is its divine name due to the word appearing in it:

إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللَّهِ وَالْفَتْحُ

When the victory of Allah has come and the conquest.[102]

Other names of this chapter include Surah al Tawdi’[103], an indication to the time of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on this earth coming to an end.

37. Surah al Tabbat

This is its divine name due to the chapter beginning with this word.

Other names of this chapter include Surah al Masad due to the word appearing in it:

فِيْ جِيْدِهَا حَبْلٌ مِّنْ مَّسَدٍ

Around her neck is a rope of [twisted] fiber.[104]

38. Surah al Ikhlas

This is its divine name, perhaps due to it showing the slave the path of pure monotheism.

Other names of this chapter include Surah al Asas as it speaks of monotheism the foundation of faith.

39. Surah al Falaq

This is its divine name due to the word appearing in it:

قُلْ أَعُوْذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ

Say, “I seek refuge in the Lord of daybreak.”[105]

40. Surah al Nas

This is its divine name due to the word appearing in it:

قُلْ أَعُوْذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ

Say, “I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind.”

Amongst the other names of these last two chapters is Al Mu’awidhatan,[106] as both these chapters teach man how to seek refuge in Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala from such evil which they have been commanded to seek refuge from.

NEXT⇒ Third Module – Division of The Chapters of the Qur’an


[1] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 184.

[2] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 150; Mabahith ‘Ulum al Qur’an, 129; al Burhan, vol. 1 pg. 264.

[3] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 176; Tarikh al Mushaf, pg. 123.

[4] Surah al Baqarah: 281.

[5] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 177; Tarikh al Mushaf, pg. 123.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 178; Tarikh al Mushaf, pg. 123; al Burhan, vol. 1 pg. 258.

[8] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 179; Tarikh al Mushaf, pg. 125.

[9] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 172; Tarikh al Mushaf, pg. 122.

[10] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 179; Tarikh al Mushaf, pg. 130.

[11] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 181; Tarikh al Mushaf, pg. 120; Mabahith ‘Ulum al Qur’an, 142.

[12] Tarikh al Mushaf, pg. 131; al Burhan, vol. 1 pg. 264.

[13] Tarikh al Mushaf, pg. 131; al Burhan, vol. 1 pg. 265.

[14] Sahih al Bukhari; Sahih Muslim.

[15] Sahih Muslim.

[16] Jami’ al Tirmidhi.

[17] Ibn Wahab.

[18] Sahih Muslim.

[19] Jami’ al Tirmidhi.

[20] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pgs. 150-155.

[21] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 151.

[22] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 152.

[23] Ibid.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Ibid.

[26] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 152.

[27] Surah al Fatihah: 5.

[28] Surah al Fatihah: 6.

[29] Surah al Fatihah: 5.

[30] Surah al Baqarah: 67.

[31] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 155.

[32] Ibid.

[33] Ibid.

[34] Surah al Maidah: 112.

[35] Surah al Anfal: 41.

[36] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 155.

[37] Surah al Anfal: 7.

[38] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 156.

[39] Surah al Bara’ah: 117.

[40] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pgs. 155-156.

[41] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 156.

[42] Ibid.

[43] Surah al Nahl: 68.

[44] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 156.

[45] Surah al Isra: 1.

[46] Surah al Isra: 4.

[47] Surah al Kahf: 16.

[48] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 157.

[49] Surah Taha: 9.

[50] Surah al Shu’ara: 224.

[51] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 157.

[52] Surah al Naml: 18.

[53] Surah al Naml: 17.

[54] Surah al Sajdah: 15.

[55] Surah al Sajdah: 16.

[56] Surah al Fatir: 1.

[57] Ibid.

[58] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 157.

[59] Surah al Zumar: 73.

[60] Surah al Zumar: 20.

[61] Surah al Ghafir: 3.

[62] Surah al Ghafir: 3.

[63] Surah al Ghafir: 28.

[64] Surah al Fussilat: 3.

[65] Surah al Fussilat: 37.

[66] Surah al Jathiyah: 28.

[67] Surah al Jathiyah: 18.

[68] Surah al Muhammad: 2.

[69] Surah al Muhammad: 4.

[70] Surah Qaf: 1.

[71] Surah Qaf: 10.

[72] Surah Iqtarabat: 1.

[73] Surah Iqtarabat: 1.

[74] Surah al Rahman: 1-2.

[75] Surah al Mujadalah: 1.

[76] Surah al Mujadalah: 2.

[77] Surah al Hashr: 2.

[78] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 158.

[79] The meaning of Hashr here is the expulsion of the Bani Nadir to Sham. See Tafsir Jalalayn, 463.

[80] Ibid.

[81] Surah al Mumtahinah: 1.

[82] Surah al Saff: 4.

[83] Surah al Saff: 14.

[84] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 158.

[85] Surah al Tahrim: 2.

[86] See Tafsir Jalalayn, 476.

[87] Surah al Tahrim: 1.

[88] Surah al Mulk: 1.

[89] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 158.

[90] Ibid.

[91] Ibid.

[92]Surah Sa’ala: 1.

[93] Surah Sa’ala: 3.

[94] Surah al Naba’:1.

[95] Surah al Naba’: 1-2.

[96] Surah al Bayyinah: 1.

[97] Surah al Bayyinah: 1.

[98] Surah al Ma’un: 1.

[99] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 159.

[100] Surah al Kafirun: 1.

[101] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 159.

[102] Surah al Nasr: 1.

[103] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 159.

[104] Surah al Tabbat: 5.

[105] Surah al Falaq: 1.

[106] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 159.