Letter 15 and 16

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Letter 15

Thul-Qi’da 1329

 

I. A Flash of the Truth

II. Requesting Details on Sunnis Relying on Shi’a Authorities

 

1) Your latest letter has been perfect in organization, clear in expression, sweet, great in benefit, easily accessible, vast in sphere, far­sighted, well­supported. I have looked into it keenly, and from among its contents indications of your success have flashed, and signs of your victory shone.

 

2) When you stated that Sunnis rely on Shi’as, however, you were very brief. You did not elaborate on your statement in this regard. It would have been better had you mentioned those men by their names and quoted Sunni texts indicating that those men were Shi’as and that they nevertheless relied on them. Could you please provide it so that the flags of truth may be seen and the lights of certainty shine? Peace be with you.

 

Sincerely,

S

 
 

Letter 16

A Hundred Shi’a Authorities Relied upon by Sunnis

Thul-Qi’da 1329

 

Yes. I will provide you in a hurry with what you have requested, confining myself to some of those personalities who were visited by people from far and wide, on the condition that I will not be required to elaborate on them, since there is no room for that in this brief exposition. Here are their names and the names of their fathers arranged alphabetically:1

 

1 Aban ibn Taghlib

He was a Kufi] reciter of the Holy Qur’an. Al­Thahbi has recorded his biography in his own Mizan saying, “Aban ibn Taghlib, MAW, of Kufa, is a persistant Shi’a. He, nevertheless, is truthful; so, we will rely on his truthfulness, and let him be punished for his innovation.” He has also said that Ahmed ibn Hanbal, Ibn Ma’in and Abu Hatim put their trust in him. Ibn ‘Adi quotes him and says that he is “extremist in Shi’ism.” Al­Sa’di describes him as “an open deviator.”

Ibn al­Thahbi goes on to describe the man’s credentials, counting him as an authority relied upon by Muslim and authors of the four Sunan books, namely Abu Dawood, al­Tirmithi, al­Nisa’i and Ibn Majah, marking his name with the latter’s initials.

Refer to his narration of hadith in Muslim’s Sahih, in the four Sunan books through al­Hakam and al­A’mash, in addition to Fudayl ibn ‘Umar. Sufyan ibn ‘Ayinah, Shu’bah, and Idris al­Awdi quote him as recorded in Muslim’s book. He died, may Allah have mercy on him, in 141 A.H.

 

2 Ibrahim ibn Yazid

His name is Ibrahim ibn Yazid ibn ‘Umar ibn al­Aswad al­Nakh’i al­Kufi, the faqih. His mother is Malika daughter of Yazid ibn Qais al­Nakh’i and sister of al­Aswad, Ibrahim, and ‘Abdel­Rahman, sons of Yazid ibn Qais. Like their uncles ‘Alqamah and Ubay, sons of Qais, they were all among the most reliable and authoritative among all Muslims. Authors of the six sahih books, as well as others, have all relied upon their authority while keeping in mind their being Shi’as.

As regarding our man Ibrahim ibn Yazid, he has been included among Shi’a dignitaries by Ibn Qutaybah] on page 206 of his work Al Ma’arif where he enumerates a few Shi’a dignitaries, taking his reliability for granted. Refer to his hadith in Bukhari’s and Muslim’s Sahih books as quoted by the mother of his uncle ‘Alqamah ibn Qais, and by Humam ibn al­Harith, Abu ‘Ubaidah ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, ‘Ubaidah, al­Aswad ibn Yazid, his uncle.

Refer also to his hadith in Muslim’s Sahih through his uncle from his mother’s side, ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Yazid, and through Sahm ibn Munjab, Abu Mu’ammar, ‘Ubaid ibn Nadlah, and ‘Abis. In the two sahihs, he is quoted by Fudayl ibn ‘Umar, al­Mughirah, Ziyad ibn Kulayb, Wasil, al­Hassan ibn ‘Ubaidullah, Hammad ibn Abu Sulaiman, and by Sammak. Ibrahim was born in 50 A.H., and he died at the age of either 95 or 96, four months after al­Hajjaj’s death.

 

3 Ahmed ibn al Mufdil

He is Ahmed ibn al­Mufdil ibn al­Kufi al­Hafri. Abu Zar’ah and Abu Hatim quote him and rely upon him while being fully aware of his status among Shi’as. In Ahmed’s biography, as stated in Al Mizan, Abu Hatim highlights this fact by saying: “Ahmed ibn al­Mufdil is one of the Shi’a chiefs, and he is truthful.” Al­Thahbi mentions him in his book Al Mizan, putting on his name Abu Dawood’s and al­Nisa’i’s initials, indicating thereby that they consider him an authority. Refer to his hadith in their sahih through al­Thawri. He narrates through Asbat ibn Nasir and Isra’i.

 

4 Isma’il ibn Aban al Azdi al Kufi al Warraq

He is mentor of al Bukhari, as the latter indicates in his Sahih. Al Thahbi mentions him in his Mizan. This proves that both al Bukhari and al Tirmithi rely on him in their Sahih books. It has also been said that both Yahya and Ahmed cite him, and that al Bukhari said this about him: “He is truthful,” yet others say that the man used to follow the Shi’ite faith. He died in 286 A.H./899 A.D., but al Qaisarani states that his year of demise was 216 A.H./831 A.D. Al Bukhari quotes him directly in more than one place of his Sahih, as al Qaisarani‎ and others have stated.

 

5 Isma’il ibn Khalifah al Malla’i al Kufi “Abu Isra’il”

He is more famous by his kunya, nickname, “Abu Isra’il” whereby he is identified. Al Thahbi mentions him in a chapter about nicknames in his Mizan saying, “He was a contemptible Shi’ite, one of the extremists who regard Othman as kafir, apostate.” He quotes many of his statements in this sense which we do not have to cite here.

Despite all of this, al Tirmithi quotes him in his Sahih and so do many authors of Sunan books. Abu Hatim considers his hadith as good. Abu Zar’ah says this about him: “He is truthful. There is extremism in his views.” Ahmed says, “He used to write down his ahadith.”2

Ibn Ma’een said once about him, “He is trustworthy.” Al Fallas has said, “He is not one of those who tell lies [in narrating hadith, as is the case with Abu Hurayra, for e.g.]. You can refer to his hadith in al Tirmithi’s Sahih and elsewhere which he narrates through the venues of ‘Utaybah and Attiyah al ’Aufi. He is quoted by Isma’il ibn ‘Amr al Bajali and a group of renowned men from their class. Ibn Quraybah has counted him among Shi’ite men in his Al Ma’arif book.

 

6 Isma’il ibn Zakariyya al Assadi al Khalliqani al Kufi

In his Mizan, al Thahbi records his biography. He says, “Isma’il ibn Zakariyya (peace with Prophet Zakariyya) al Khalliqani al Kufi is a truthful Shi’ite,” regarding him as one of those on whom the authors of the six Sahih books rely, placing on his name a symbol indicative of their consensus in this regard. Refer to his hadith in al Bukhari’s Sahih through the venue of Muhammed ibn Sawqah and ‘Ubaidullah ibn Omar3, and to his hadith in Muslim’s Sahih through the venue of Suhayl, Malik ibn Maghul and others. As regarding his hadith about ‘Asim al Ahwal, it exists in both Sahih books. He is quoted by both men through the venue of Muhammed ibn al Sabah and Abu al Rabee’, and through that of Muhammed ibn Bakar by Muslim. He died in Baghdad in 174 A.H./791 A.D.

His being a Shi’ite is well known, so much so that this statement was attributed to him: “The servant of Allah who was called upon from the side of the Tur (Mount Sinai) was Ali ibn Abu Talib,” and that he used to say, “The first, the last, the manifest and the hidden is Ali ibn Abu Talib.” All these statements are lies circulated by liars against this man only because he was a follower of Ali, those who preferred Ali over others. While detailing his biography, al Thahbi says the following in his Mizan after citing all these lies about him, “Such talk has never been proven with regard to al Khalliqani; it is the speech only of zindeeqs زنادقة, irreligious folks.”

 

7 Isma’il ibn ‘Abbad

His full name is Isma’il ibn ‘Abbad ibn al Abbas al Taleqani (Abul-Qasim) better known as al Sahib ibn ‘Abbad. Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his book Al Mizan putting “DT” on his name to indicate that both Dawood and al Tirmithi rely on him in their sahih books4. Then he goes on to describe him as “a talented Shi’a a man of letters”. His being Shi’a is a matter which cannot be doubted by anyone. For this reason he and his father earned high marks of prestige and greatness in the Buwayhid state.

He is the first person among their government ministers to be called “sahib” (companion, friend), since he was since his adolescence a companion of Mu’ayyed al Dawlah ibn Buwayh. This title followed him as he grew up till he was known thereby. Later on it was used for anyone who held the same reins of responsibility in the government. First he was minister to Mu’ayyed al Dawlah Abu Mansur ibn Rukn al Dawlah ibn Buwayh.

After the latter’s demise in Sha’ban of 373 in Jurjan Abul-Hassan Ali better known as Fakhr al Dawlah brother of Mu’ayyed seized authority and retained Sahib’s position. Fakhr al Dawlah held Sahib in high esteem and fulfilled his wishes in the same way his own father Abu ‘Abbad ibn al Abbas did while he was in the service of Fakhr al Dawlah’s father Rukn al Dawlah.

When at the age of 59 as-Sahib died on Thursday night 24th of Safar 385 in Rayy the city of Rayy closed down its shops as a sign of mourning and people gathered in front of his mansion awaiting his coffin. Fakhr al Dawlah accompanied by government ministers and commanders of the army went there too wearing mourning clothes. When his coffin came out of his house people cried “Allahu Akbar!” in unison kissed the ground in glorification and Fakhr al Dawlah followed the coffin on foot with the crowd and sat with them during the three days’ mourning period.

Poets read eulogies and scholars held commemorative ceremonies in his honour and he was praised by all those who could not attend his funeral. Abu Bakr al Khawarizmi said: “Al Sahib ibn ‘Abbad grew up in the ministry’s lap learned how to crawl and walk within its precincts was nursed from the most excellent of its bosoms and inherited it [ministry from his own forefathers.” Abu Sa’id al Rustami composed these verses in his praise: He inherited ministry: a link in a chain A great man he was heir of great men.

About the ministry of al Abbas does ‘Abbad narrate while from ‘Abbad does Isma’il Narrate.

In his biography of Sahib al Tha’alibi says: “I can find no words to fairly describe Sahib’s lofty status in knowledge and arts or the prestige he enjoys for being benevolent and generous or his unique virtues and possession of various merits. The best statement I can make on his behalf falls short of doing justice to the least among his virtues and eminence and my best description falls short of being fair to his virtues and characteristics.”

Sahib has written many precious books including Al Muhit in Language in seven volumes; its chapters are arranged alphabetically. He collected an unmatched library. Nuh ibn al Mansur one of the kings of Sam’an wrote to him once to invite him to be in charge of running his cabinet of ministers and managing the affairs of his kingdom. He apologized to him saying that he needed four hundred camels just to transport the contents of his library. This much about him should suffice.

 

8 Isma’il ibn ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Abu Karimah al Kufi

Better known as al Suddi he is the renowneded interpreter of the Holy Qur’an. Stating his biography al Thahbi describes him as “charged with Shi’ism.” Hussain ibn Waqid al Maruzi discusses him claiming that he heard him once cursing Abu Bakr and ‘Omar. In spite of all these charges he is quoted by al Thawri and Abu Bakr ibn ‘Ayyash and many in such class of writers.

Muslim and authors of the four sahih books consider him an authority while Ahmed grants him his full confidence. Ibn ‘Adi says that he is truthful. Yahya al Qattan says there is nothing wrong with the ahadith he narrates. Yahya ibn Sa’id says: “I never heard anyone speaking ill of al Suddi; none has deserted him.” Ibrahim al Nakh’i once passed by al Suddi while the latter was interpreting the Holy Qur’an.

Ibrahim said that al Suddi was interpreting the Holy Qur’an according to the commonly used methods. If you read about al Suddi in Mizan al I’tidal you will find more details about what we have stated above. Refer to al Suddi’s hadith in Muslim’s Sahih from Anas ibn Malik Sa’d ibn ‘Ubaidah and Yahya ibn ‘Abbad. Abu ‘Awanah al Thawri Hassan ibn Salih Za’idah and Isra’il have all quoted him being their mentor as stated in the four sahih books. He died in 127 A.H./744 A.D.

 

9 Isma’il ibn Musa al Fazari al Kufi

Al Thahbi’s Al Mizan quotes Ibn ‘Uday saying “People despised his extremist Shi’a views.” Al Mizan also quotes ‘Abdan saying: “Hammad and Ibn Abu Shaybah opposed our visiting him.” He asked him once how he fared with “that immoral who curses our ancestors.”

In spite of all of this both Ibn Khuzaimah and Abu ‘Arubah quote him being the instructor of their class. He is in the same category with Abu Dawood and al Tirmithi who quote him and rely on his authority in their sahihs. Abu Hatim mentions him and calls him “trustworthy.” Al Nisa’i says “he is alright.” All of this is stated in the man’s biography in al Thahbi’s Al Mizan.

Refer to his hadith in al Tirmithi’s Sahih and Abu Dawood’s Sunan as narrated by Malik Sharik and ‘Umar ibn Shakir a friend of Anas. He died in 245. He was a son of al Suddi’s daughter although he might have denied that and Allah knows best.

 

10 Talid ibn Sulaiman al ­Kufi al ­A’raj

Ibn Ma’in mentioned him and said: “He used to curse ‘Uthman. Some of ‘Uthman’s followers heard that. They threw a rock at him which broke his leg, hence his nickname “al­A’raj,” the lame. Abu Dawood has mentioned him and said he is Rafidi who curses Abu Bakr and ‘Uthman.

In spite of all of this, Ahmed and Ibn Namir rely on his authority despite their knowledge of his Shi’a beliefs. Ahmed has said, “Talid is a Shi’a, yet we could not find anything wrong with what he narrated.” Al­Thahbi has mentioned him in his book Al Mizan, quoting statements about him made by learned men as stated above. He puts al Tirmithi’s initials on his name to indicate that the latter considers him an authority. Refer to his hadith in al Tirmithi’s Sahih through ‘Ata ibn al­Sa’ib and ‘Abdel­Malik ibn ‘Umair.

 

11 Thabit ibn Dinar

Thabit is better known as Abu Hamzah al­Thamali. His being Shi’a is as clear as the sun. Author of Al Mizan mentions him, stating that the name of ‘Uthman was mentioned once in Abu Hamzah’s presence. The latter sarcastically asked: “Who is ‘Uthman?!”

It also states that al­Sulaimani includes Abu Hamzah among the Rafidis. Al­Thahbi puts al Tirmithi’s initials on Abu Hamzah’s name as an indication of his being an authority. Waki’ and Abu Na’im quote him and use him as their authority. Refer to his hadith in al Tirmithi’s sahih through Anas and al­Sha’bi and others of the same calibre. He died, may Allah have mercy on his soul, in 150 A.H.

 

12 Thuwayr ibn Abu Fakhita

He is better known as Abu Jahm al­Kufi, a freed slave of Ummu Hani’, daughter of Abu Talib. Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his Al Mizan and quoted Yunus ibn Abu Ishaq’s allegation that he was Rafidi. Nevertheless, both Sufyan and Shu’bah have quoted him, and al Tirmithi has produced some of his ahadith in his own Sahih through the authority of Ibn ‘Umar and Zaid ibn Arqam.

During the time of Imam al Baqir ‘alayh al Salam, he maintained his loyalty to the Imam, and he came to be known as such. In this regard, he made quite a few interesting dialogues with ‘Amr ibn Tharr, the judge, his contemporary Ibn Qais, and al Salt ibn Bahram testifying to this fact.

 

13 Jabir ibn Yazid ibn al Harith al Ju’fi al Kufi

Al Thahbi has narrated his biography in his own Al Mizan, describing him as one of the Shi’a ‘ulema. He has quoted Sufyan saying that he heard Jabir saying that the knowledge with the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was transferred to ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam, then to al Hassan ‘alayh al Salam, and so on till it reached Imam Ja’far al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam, who was one of his contemporaries.

Muslim has mentioned him in one of the first chapters of his Sahih, quoting al Jarrah who has heard Jabir saying that he knew seventy thousand ahadith of the Prophet all narrated through the authority of the father of Imam Ja’far al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam (i.e. Imam Muhammad al Baqir, peace be upon him). He has also quoted Zuhayr saying, “I know fifty thousand ahadith none of which I have narrated yet.”

One day, he quoted one hadith and said, “This is one of the fifty thousand ahadith.” According to his biography in al Thahbi’s Al Mizan, whenever Jabir narrated hadith through al Baqir ‘alayh al Salam, he says: “The successor of the successors of the Prophet related to me that…” In his biography in the Al Mizan, Ibn ‘Uday says: “Commoners alleged that he [Jabir] used to believe in the return.”

Relying on the authority of Za’idah, al Thahbi has included his biography in his Al Mizan and said: “Jabir al Ju’fi is a Rafidi who curses…” In spite of that, both al Nisa’i and Abu Dawood rely on his authority.

Refer to the hadith which he narrates concerning accidental prostrations in both sahihs. Shihab, Abu ‘Awanah, and many of their calibre, quote him. Al Thahbi, who mentions him in his Al Mizan, has put the initials of both Abu Dawood and al Tirmithi on his name to indicate their reliance on his authority. He also quotes Sufyan saying that Jabir al Ju’fi is God-fearing while narrating hadith, and that he has said: “I have never seen anyone more pious than him [Jabir].”

He also quotes Shu’bah saying that Jabir is truthful, and “Whenever Jabir narrated hadith, we listened, since he is the most trustworthy of all men.” Waki’ used to say, “If doubt entertains your mind, you may doubt anyone other than Jabir al Ju’fi,” and that Ibn ‘Abdul Hakam heard al Shafi’i once saying that Sufyan al Thawri said once to Shu’bah: “If you ever cast doubt about Jabir, that will signal the end of our friendship.” Jabir died in either 127 or 128 Hij., may Allah have mercy on his soul.

 

14 Jarir ibn ‘Abdel-Hamid al Dabi al Kufi

In his work Al Ma’arif, Ibn Qutaybah includes him among Shi’a dignitaries, while al Thahbi mentions him in Al Mizan, marking his name to denote the consensus of the sahihs in relying on his authority. He has praised him saying: “He is the learned man of the Rayy on whose authority many authors rely,” testifying to the consensus of opinion regarding his reliability.

Refer to his hadith in Bukhari’s and Muslim’s Sahihs narrated through A’mash, Mughirah, Mansur, Isma’il ibn Abu Khalid and Abu Ishaq al Shaybani. Qutaybah ibn Sa’id, Yahya ibn Yahya and ‘Uthman ibn Abu Shaybah have all quoted his ahadith as stated in both sahihs. He died, may Allah rest his soul in peace, in Rayy in 187 Hij. at the age of 77.

 

15 Ja’far ibn Ziyad al Ahmar al Kufi

Abu Dawood has mentioned him saying: “He is a truthful Shi’a.” Al Jawzjani has said: “He has deviated from the path,” meaning from al Jawzjani’s path to that of the Prophet’s Progeny ‘alayh al Salam. Ibn ‘Adi has described him as a pious Shi’a.

His grandson al Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Ja’far ibn Ziyad has said: “My grandfather Ja’far was one of the chiefs of Shi’as in Khurasan.” Abu Ja’far al Dawaniqi ordered collars5 to be put around his neck and the necks of a group of other Shi’as and be pulled like dogs; then he kept all of them in dungeons for quite a long time.

Ibn ‘Ayinah, Waki’, Abu Ghassan al Mahdi, Yahya ibn Bishr al Hariri and Ibn Mahdi have all quoted his ahadith, being their mentor. Ibn Ma’in and others have considered him an authority on the Prophet’s hadith. Ahmed describes his hadith as “sahih,” authentic, accurate. Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his Al Mizan and narrated what is stated above, putting the initials of both al Tirmithi and al Nisa’i on his name as an indication of both men’s reliance on him. Refer to his hadith as they quote it in their sahihs through Bayan ibn Bishr and ‘Ata’ ibn al Sa’ib. He is quoted through other men of the same calibre. He died, may Allah have mercy on his soul, in 167 Hij.

 

16 Ja’far ibn Sulaiman al Dab’i al Basri (Abu Sulaiman)

On page 206 of his Ma’arif, Ibn Qutaybah includes him among Shi’a dignitaries. Ibn Sa’d has mentioned him and emphasized his being a Shi’a and a trustworthy narrator of hadith. Ahmed ibn al Miqdam has charged him of being “Rafidi.” Ibn ‘Adi has mentioned him saying: “He is a Shi’a. There is nothing wrong with his narration; his ahadith are by no means refutable, and I consider him as one whose hadith is acceptable.”

Abu Talib has said: “I have heard Ahmed saying that there is nothing wrong with the ahadith narrated by Ja’far ibn Sulaiman al Dab’i.” It was said to Ahmed, “But Sulaiman ibn Harb says that he did not write down al Dab’i’s ahadith.” Ahmed replied by saying that Ibn Harb did not object that anyone should write down al Dab’i’s ahadith, and that [ibn Harb’s prejudice was simply because] al Dab’i was a Shi’a who quoted ahadith regarding ‘Ali [ibn Abu Talib].”

Ibn Ma’in has said: “I have heard certain talk from ‘Abdul-Razzaq which testified to the man’s “sectarian beliefs.” I said to him: “Your mentors, such as Mu’ammar, Ibn Jurayh, al Awza’i, Malik, and Sufyan, are all Sunnis. Where did you learn this [Shi’a] sect from?” He answered: “One day, Ja’far ibn Sulaiman al Dab’i visited us, and I saw him to be virtuous, pious, and from him did I learn this sect.” I guess Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr al Muqaddami saw contrariwise! He openly used to say that Ja’far learned “Rafidism” from ‘Abdul-Razzaq; therefore, he used to curse the latter and say: “Nobody corrupted Ja’far’s beliefs other than he [‘Abdul-Razzaq].”

Quoting Sahl ibn Abu Khadouthah, al Aqili has said: “I said to Ja’far ibn Sulaiman: ‘I have heard that you curse Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.’ He replied: ‘Cursing I do not; but hating, you can say whatever you will.’”

Relying on Jarir ibn Yazid ibn Harun, Ibn Haban has said in his Thiqat, “My father sent me once to Abu Ja’far al Dab’i. I said to the latter: ‘I have heard that you curse Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.’ He replied: ‘I do not curse them. But if you want to say that I despise them, feel free;’ therefore, I concluded that he was Rafidi.”

In his biography of Ja’far in Al Mizan, al Thahbi has included all the above and emphasized as well the fact that the man was a pious ‘alim “in spite of being a Shi’a.” Muslim relies on him in his Sahih and quotes some of his unique ahadith which are published nowhere else as al Thahbi himself testifies when he narrates Ja’far’s biography. Refer to his hadith in the sahih narrated through Thabit al Banani, al Ja’d ibn ‘Uthman, Abu ‘Umran al Jawni, Yazid ibn al Rashk and Sa’id al Jariri. Qatan ibn Nasir, Yahya ibn Yahya, Qutaybah, Muhammad ibn ‘Ubaid ibn Hasab, Ibn Mahdi and Musaddid have all quoted his ahadith.

For example, he has said: “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, dispatched a division of the Muslim army under ‘Ali’s command, etc.” Another hadith he has narrated states: “What do you want of ‘Ali? ‘Ali is of me, and I am of him. He is the wali (master) after me of every believer,” as quoted in al Nisa’i’s Sahih and transmitted through Ibn ‘Adi from al Nisa’i. Al Thahbi has stated the above while discussing Ja’far in his Al Mizan. He died in Rajab of 178 Hij.; may Allah be merciful unto him.

 

17 Jami’ ibn ‘Umairah ibn Tha’labah al Kufi al Taymi (Taymullah)

Abu Hatim has mentioned his biography in his own Al Mizan at the conclusion of which he states: “Al Kufi is one of the Shi’a nobility whose hadith is authentically narrated.” Ibn Haban has mentioned him and stated, as indicated in Al Mizan, that he is “Rafidi.” I say that al ’Ala’ ibn Salih, Sadaqah ibn al Muthanna, and Hakim ibn Jubair have all derived their knowledge from him, being their mentor.

The Sunan books quote him thrice. Al Tirmithi has acclaimed his hadith, as al Thahbi’s Al Mizan testifies. He is one of the tabi’in. He learned hadith from Ibn ‘Umar and ‘Ayesha. One of the ahadith which he learned from Ibn ‘Umar states that the latter heard the Messenger of Allah addressing ‘Ali thus: “You are my brother in this life and the life hereafter.”

 

18 Al Harith ibn Hasirah Abul No’man al Azdi al Kufi

Abu Hatim al Razi describes him as one of the Shi’a nobility. Abu Ahmed al Zubairi has attributed to him the belief in the return. Ibn ‘Adi mentions him saying: “His hadith is written down in spite of the weakness I have seen therein. He is one of the Kufis who will be burned in the Fire because of their Shi’ism.” Thanij has said: “I once asked Jarir: ‘Have you met al Harith ibn Hasirah?’ He answered, ‘Yes, indeed, I have. I met him as an old man who used to stay silent most of the time, and he insisted on something quite magnanimous.’”

Yahya ibn Ma’in has mentioned him and said: “He is trustworthy [though] Khashbi

.” Al Nisa’i, too, trusts him. Al Thawri, Malik ibn Maghul, ‘Abdullah ibn Namir, and a group of their calibre, have all quoted him, since he was their mentor in whom they put their trust.

Al Thahbi has narrated his biography in his Al Mizan stating all the above. Refer to his hadith in the Sunan through Zaid ibn Wahab, ‘Ikrimah, and a group of their class. Al Nisa’i quotes ‘Abbad ibn Ya’qub al Rawajni who quotes a chain of narrators including ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdul-Malik al Mas’udi that al Harith ibn Hasirah, according to Zaid ibn Wahab, reported that ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam was heard once saying: “I am the servant of Allah and the brother of His Messenger; nobody else can say so except a liar.”

Al Harith ibn Hasirah narrates through Abu Dawood al Subai’i, through ‘Umran ibn Hasin, saying: “I was sitting once in the presence of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, with ‘Ali sitting beside him. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, recited ‘Or who else [other than Allah] that would respond to the one in dire need for help, remove his distress, and make ye vicegerents on earth?’ ‘Ali was shaken and moved a great deal; thereupon, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, patted ‘Ali’s shoulder and said: ‘Nobody loves you except a true believer [a mu’min], and nobody hates you except a hypocrite till the Day of Judgment.’”

Traditionists such as Muhammad ibn Kuthayyir and others have quoted the hadith cited above from Al Harith ibn Hasirah. Al Thahbi has transmitted it while stating the biography of Nafi’ ibn al Harith through the same chain of narrators. When he comes to Al Harith ibn Hasirah, he comments saying, “He is truthful; but he is also Rafidi.”

 

19 Al Harith ibn ‘Abdullah al Hamadani

He was one of the close friends of the Commander of the Faithful ‘alayh al Salam and one of the best tabi’in. His being a Shi’a needs no proof. He is the first of those counted by Ibn Qutaybah in his Ma’arif as Shi’a dignitaries. Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his Al Mizan, admitting that he was one of the most highly recognized ‘ulema among the tabi’in; then he quotes Ibn Haban’s statement saying that he was “extremist” in his Shi’a beliefs. After that, he states a great deal about some people’s anger with him because of his Shi’a beliefs.

In spite of all this, he also records their consensus that the man is the most knowledgeable, pious, and best informed about rituals. He has also admitted that the ahadith narrated by al Harith are in existence in the four books of sunan. He declares the fact that Nisa’i, in spite of his prejudice, has strongly relied on the authority of al Harith, admitting that the public, in spite of belittling the man, kept quoting his ahadith in all religious matters, and that al Sha’bi called him a liar, then he turned around and quoted him!

Al Thahbi states the following in his Al Mizan: “Obviously, al Nisa’i falsifies him when it comes to the latter’s tone and tale; but when the man narrates hadith, he does not disbelieve in him.” Al Mizan quotes Muhammad ibn Sirin saying: “There were five well-known companions of Ibn Mas’ud. I came to know four of them, but I missed al Harith whom I never saw. He was the best among them.”

A great deal of controversy exists regarding which of the other three, namely Alqamah, Masruq, or ‘Ubaidah, is the best. I say that Allah has enabled trustworthy traditionists to do justice to al Sha’bi and prove him a liar. This has been pointed out by Ibn ‘Abdul Birr in his book Jami’’ Bayanul ‘Ilm which quotes the frank statement made by Ibrahim al Nakh’i belying al Sha’bi, adding verbatim: “I think that al Sha’bi has received his fair punishment for saying the following about al Harith al Hamadani: ‘Al Harith, one of the liars, informed me that…, etc.’”6

Ibn ‘Abdul Birr has said: “Al Harith has shown no indication of being a liar; some people have borne grudge against him simply because he loved ‘Ali so much and preferred him over others. This is the reason why al Sha’bi has called him a liar, since al Sha’bi favours Abu Bakr, stating that the latter was the first to embrace Islam, and he favours ‘Umar, too.”

Among those who bore grudge against al Harith was Muhammad Ibn Sa’d who included al Harith’s biography in Volume 6 of his Tabaqat, saying that al Harith speaks “maliciously.” He does not do al Harith, nor any other Shi’a notable, any justice even when it comes to knowledge or feats. The “malicious” talk Ibn Sa’d is referring to is nothing other than allegiance to Muhammad’s progeny and his taking them for guides in all matters, as Ibn ‘Abdul Birr has admitted in his above-quoted statement. Al Harith’s demise took place in 65 Hij.; may Allah have mercy on his soul.

 

20 Habib ibn Abu Thabit al Asadi al Kahili al Kufi

He was one of the tabi’in. Qutaybah, in his Ma’arif, and Shahristani, in his Al Milal wal Nihal, have both included him among Shi’a dignitaries. Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his Al Mizan, marking his name with the indication that authors of the six sahihs rely on his authority without any hesitation. Yahya Ibn Ma’in and a group of other scholars have all trusted him.

Al Dawalibi, however, has spoken ill of him and classified his traditions as “weak” just because of his being a Shi’a. What truly amazes me is the attitude of Ibn ‘Awn who was unable to find any pretext to cast doubt about Habib’s traditions, in spite of his ardent desire to do so; therefore, he had to look down at him and call him “a’war,” one-eyed. One’s real handicap is sinning and speaking ill of others, not in losing an eye.

Refer to Habib’s traditions in Bukhari’s and Muslim’s Sahihs as narrated through Sa’id ibn Jubair and Abu Wa’il. His hadith narrated through Zaid ibn Wahab is recorded only in Bukhari’s Sahih. In Muslim’s Sahih, his hadith is narrated through Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, and through Tawus, al Dahhak al Mashriqi, Abu ‘Abbas ibn al Sha’ir, Abu al Minhal ‘Abdul-Rahman, ‘Ata’ ibn Yasin, Ibrahim ibn Sa’d ibn Abu Waqqas, and through Mujahid.

In both sahihs, Misar, al Thawri, and Shu’bah have quoted his traditions. In Muslim’s Sahih, his ahadith are quoted by Sulaiman al A’mash, Hasin, ‘Abdul-’Aziz ibn Sayah and Abu Ishaq al Shaybani. He died, may Allah have mercy on his soul, in 119 Hij.

 

21 Al Hassan ibn Hayy

Hayy’s full name is Salih ibn Salih al Hamadani, brother of ‘Ali ibn Salih. Both men, who were born twins, are on the top of the list of Shi’a nobility. ‘Ali was born only one hour earlier. Nobody has ever heard his brother calling him by his first name; instead, he used to always refer to him as “Abu Muhammad.”

This has been mentioned in Vol. 6 of Ibn Sa’d’s Tabaqat, in the chapter dealing with al Hassan. The author states: “Al Hassan was one of the dignitaries, but he is inflicted with Shi’ism. He did not participate in the Jum’a prayers, and he preached denunciation of unjust rulers.” He also mentions the fact that the man never invoked Allah’s mercy on ‘Uthman.

Ibn Sa’d has mentioned him in Vol. 6 of his Tabaqat, saying, “He is trustworthy; he narrates many ahadith, and he is a Shi’a.” Imam Ibn Qutaybah has included his name among other narrators of hadith in his Ma’arif, highlighting his being a Shi’a. At the conclusion of his book, he lists al Hassan among such narrators. Muslim and authors of the sunan books have all relied on his authority.

Refer to his hadith in Muslim’s Sahih as narrated by Sammak ibn Harb, Isma’il al Sadi, ‘Asim al Ahwal, and Harun ibn Sa’d. ‘Ubaidullah ibn Musa al ’Abasi, Yahya ibn Adam, Hamid ibn ‘Abdul-Rahman al Rawasi, ‘Ali ibn al Ja’d, Ahmed ibn Yunus and all renowned men of their intellectual calibre have learned hadith from him.

In his biography in Al Mizan, al Thahbi indicates that Ibn Ma’in and others have trusted his [al Hassan’s] hadith. He adds saying that ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmed has quoted his father saying that al Hassan is more authentic than Sharik. Al Thahbi also states that Abu Hatim has said: “He is a trust; he has a sound and authentic memory,” and that Abu Zar’ah has said: “He has combined in him accomplishment, fiqh, piety, and asceticism,” and that Nisa’i has trusted him.

He also quotes Abu Na’im saying: “I have quoted eight hundred traditionists; I have found none better than al Hassan ibn Salih,” and that he has also said: “I have come across nobody who did not err other than al Hassan ibn Salih.”

He quotes ‘Ubaidah ibn Sulaiman saying: “Allah is too shy to harm al Hassan ibn Salih.” He quotes Yahya ibn ‘Ali Bakir asking al Hassan ibn Salih: “Describe to us how to conduct the ceremonial bathing of the deceased;” he could not do so because of being overcome by tears.

He quotes ‘Ubaidullah ibn Musa saying: “I used to recite the holy Qur’an in the presence of ‘Ali ibn Salih. Having finished reciting ‘Exercise patience [O Muhammad]!; We have granted them a respite only for an appointed time,’ his brother fell down snorting like a wounded bull; so, ‘Ali lifted him up, wiped and washed his face then supported him against falling again,” and that Waki’ has said: “Al Hassan and ‘Ali sons of Salih and their mother divided night-time among them into three parts: each alternates in his portion thereof in keeping vigil, spending it in prayers and adoration. When their mother died, they split it into equal halves. Then ‘Ali died; therefore, al Hassan used to stay all night long worshipping.”

Abu Sulaiman al Darani has said: “I have never seen anyone more awe-stricken than al Hassan son of Salih who stood up one night to recite Chaper 78 of the Holy Qur’an and fainted yet continued reciting till dawn.” He was born, may Allah have mercy upon him, in 100 Hij. and he died in 169.

 

22 Al Hakam ibn ‘Utaybah al Kufi

Ibn Qutaybah has indicated the fact that al Hakam ibn ‘Utaybah was a Shi’a in his Ma’arif and included him among Shi’a nobility. Both Bukhari and Muslim rely on his authority. Refer to his hadith in their sahihs as narrated by Abu Jahifah, Ibrahim al Nakh’i, Mujahid, and Sa’id ibn Jubair.

In Muslim’s Sahih, it is narrated by ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Abu Layla, al Qasim ibn Mukhaymarah, Abu Salih, Tharr ibn ‘Abdullah, Sa’id ibn ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn ‘Abzi, Yahya al Jazzar, Nafi’ (a slave of Ibn ‘Umar), ‘Ata’ ibn Abu Rabah, ‘Imarah ibn ‘Umair, ‘Arrak ibn Malik, al Sha’bi, Maimun ibn Mahran, al Hassan al ’Arni, Mus’ab ibn Sa’d and ‘Ali ibn al Hussain.

In both sahihs, his ahadith are quoted by Mansur, Misar and Shu’bah. Particularly in Bukhari’s Sahih, his ahadith are narrated by ‘Abdul-Malik ibn Abu Ghaniya. In Muslim’s Sahih, his ahadith are narrated by al A’mash, ‘Amr ibn Qais, Zaid ibn Abu Anisa, Malik ibn al Maghul; Aban ibn Taghlib, Hamzah al Zayyat, Muhammad ibn Jehada, Mutraf and Abu ‘Awanah. He died in 115 Hij. at the age of 65.

 

23 Hammad ibn ‘Isa al Jehni

He drowned at Juhfa. Abu ‘Ali has mentioned him in his book Muntahal Maqal. Al Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Dawood abridged the said article in his own concise Mukhtasar, in a chapter dealing with biographies of notables, a group of Shi’a ‘ulema and authors of biographies and dictionaries who regard him as most trustworthy, a follower of the rightly-guided Imams, peace be upon them. He learned from Imam al Sadiq, peace be upon him, seventy ahadith by the holy Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, but he did not relate more than twenty of them. He has authored a few books with which followers of our faith are familiar.

Once he entered in the presence of Imam Abul-Hassan al Kazim, peace be upon him, and said: “May my life be sacrificed for you! Please pray Allah to bless me with a house, a wife, a son, a servant, and a pilgrimage every year.”

The Imam said: “Lord! I invoke Thee to send blessings unto Muhammad and the progeny of Muhammad, and to bless this man with a house, a wife, a son, a servant, and a pilgrimage for fifty years each.”

Hammad said: “When he prayed for my performing the pilgrimage fifty times, I became sure I would never live beyond that. I have performed the annual pilgrimage forty-eight times; this is my house with which Allah has blessed me; yonder there is my wife behind the curtain listening to me; this is my son, and this is my servant; I have been blessed with all of these.”

Two years later, and having performed the pilgrimage fifty times, he accompanied Abul ‘Abbas al Nawfali al Qasir on his fifty-first pilgrimage. When he reached the place where pilgrims put on the ihram garb, he entered the Johfa river for a bath, but the torrent overwhelmed him, and he drowned before being able to perform his 51st pilgrimage. His death, may Allah have mercy on his soul, took place in 209 Hij. His birth-place is Kufa, but he resided in Basrah. He lived over seventy years. We have conducted a thorough research of his biography in our book Mukhtasar al Kalam fi Mu’allifi al Shi’a min Sadr al Islam [A Brief Discourse of Shi’a Authors of Early Islam].

Al Thahbi has mentioned him and put “TQ” on his name as a reference to those among the authors of the Sunan who have quoted him [Tirmithi] and Dar Qutni, and mentioned the fact that he drowned in 208 Hij., and that he narrated hadith through Imam al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam.

The author has shown his grudge towards this man, calling his hadith “weak” for no reason other than his beliefs being Shi’a. Strange enough, Dar Qutni calls his hadith “weak” on one hand, while on the other he uses him as an authority in his own Sunan – thus indeed do some people behave!

 

24 Hamran ibn ‘Ayinah

He is brother of Zurarah. Both men were among the most reliable Shi’as, custodians of the shari’a, oceans of the knowledge about Muhammad’s progeny ‘alayh al Salam. They were lanterns that shone in the dark and pillars of guidance. They frequented Imams al Baqir and al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam and enjoyed a lofty status in the eyes of the Imams among the Prophet’s descendants.

Al Thahbi mentions Hamran in his Al Mizan, marking his name with Q to indicate who among the compilers of the sunan relies upon his authority [i.e. Dar Qutni. Then al Thahbi adds: “He has narrated hadith from Abul Tufayl and others. Hamzah has recited the holy Qur’an to him, and he himself is used to recite it with perfect accuracy.” Ibn Ma’in considers his hadith “negligible,” while Abu Hatim hails him as a mentor. Yet Abu Dawood labels him “Rafidi.”

 

25 Khalid ibn Mukhlid al Qatwani

Also known as Abul-Haytham al Kufi, he is one of Bukhari’s mentors, as the latter states in his Sahih. Ibn Sa’d mentions him on page 283, Vol. 6, of his Tabaqat, saying, “He was a staunch Shi’a. He died in Kufa in mid-Muharram of 213 A.H. during the reign of al Ma’mun. He was extremist in his Shi’a beliefs, and writers have documented this fact.”

Abu Dawood mentions him saying: “He is truthful; but he follows Shi’ism.” Al Jawzjani says the following about him: “He never ceases denouncing [certain persons], publicly propagating his corrupt sect.” Al Thahbi narrates his biography in his own Al Mizan, quoting the views of both Abu Dawood and Jawzjani stated above.

Yet both Bukhari and Muslim have relied upon his authority in several chapters of their respective sahihs. Refer to his hadith as in Bukhari’s Sahih as narrated from al Mughirah ibn ‘Abdul-Rahman, and in Muslim’s Sahih by Muhammad ibn Ja’far ibn Abul Kathir, Malik ibn Anas, and Muhammad ibn Musa. Both sahihs quote his Al Mizan from Sulaiman ibn Bilal and ‘Ali ibn Mushir.

Al Bukhari quotes his hadith in several places of his Sahih, without referring to any chain of narrators, quoting two of his ahadith from Muhammad ibn ‘Uthman ibn Karamah. Muslim narrates his hadith as transmitted by Abu Karib, Ahmed ibn ‘Uthman al ’Awdi, al Qasim ibn Zakariyyah, ‘Abd ibn Hamid, Ibn Abu Shaybah, and Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Namir. Authors of the sunan have all relied on the authority of his hadith, while being aware of his sect.

 

26 Dawood ibn Abu ‘Awf (Abul-Hijab)

Ibn ‘Adi has mentioned him saying, “I cannot rely upon his authority due to his being a Shi’a. The majority of the ahadith he narrates are related to the virtues of Ahlul Bayt.”

Consider with amazement such a statement! No harm, indeed, can reach Dawood from these Nasibis since both Sufyans quote his ahadith, in addition to ‘Ali ibn ‘Abis and others belonging to the elite among their peers. Both Abu Dawood and al Nisa’i have relied upon his authority, and so have Ahmed and Yahya.

Al Nisa’i has said the following about him: “There is nothing wrong with his ahadith.” Abu Hatim has said: “His hadith is sound.” Al Thahbi has quoted such testimonies in his Sahih. Refer to his hadith in Abu Dawood’s Sunan, in al Nisa’i’s through Abu Hazim al Ashja’i, ‘Ikrimah, and others.

 

27 Zubaid ibn al Harith ibn ‘Abdul-Karim al Yami al Kufi

Also known as Abu ‘Abdul-Rahman, he is mentioned in al Thahbi’s Al Mizan where the author says: “He is a trustworthy tabi’i who inclines towards Shi’ism.” Then he quotes statements to prove that Zubaid’s hadith has been verified by al Qattan, and that there are other renowned critics and verifiers who regard him trustworthy. Abu Ishaq al Jawzjani has included a crude statement about him which is typical of his attitude and that of other Nasibis, stating,

“Among the residents of Kufa, there is a faction whose faith is not appreciated [by Nasibis], yet they happen to be masters of hadith. Among them are: Abu Ishaq, Mansur, Zubaid al Yami, al A’mash and other peers. People have tolerated them for no reason other than their truth in narrating hadith, and their narrations testify to the authenticity of one another,”

Up to the conclusion of his statement which truth has dictated to him to reveal. Often, truth is spoken by the fair minded just as it is by the stubborn and obstinate. What harm can reach these lofty pillars of knowledge, the masters of hadith in Islam, if such a critic does not appreciate their holding in high esteem the holy Prophet’s kin who are the gates of salvation, the protectors of all humans on earth after the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself, his nation’s ark of salvation? What harm can befall them from the critic who has no choice except to pursue his quest till reaching their door steps, and no option but to beg their own favours?

If dignitaries of my tribe are pleased with me,

Then let its villains chafe and be angry.

These authorities do not pay any attention to al Jawzjani or others like him, having been held trustworthy by the authors of the sahih books and by those of all sunan as well. Refer to Zubaid’s hadith in both Bukhari’s and Muslim’s Sahihs as transmitted by Abu Wa’il, al Sha’bi, Ibrahim al Nakh’i, and Sa’d ibn ‘Ubaidullah. Only Bukhari quotes his hadith through Mujahid.

In Muslim’s Sahih, his hadith is narrated by Murrah al Hamadani, Muharib ibn Dithar, Ammarah ibn ‘Umair, and Ibrahim al Taymi. His hadith is quoted in both sahihs as transmitted by Shu’bah, al Thawri, and Muhammad ibn Talhah. In Muslim’s Sahih, his hadith is narrated by Zuhayr ibn Mu’awiyah, Fadil ibn Ghazwan, and Hussain ibn al Nakh’i. He died, may Allah have mercy on his soul, in 124 A.H.

 

28 Zaid ibn al Habab Abul-Hassan al Kufi al Tamimi

Ibn Qutaybah has included his biography among those whose biographies he has included among Shi’a dignitaries in his work Al Ma’arif. Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his Al Mizan, describing him as “pious, trustworthy, truthful.”

He indicates his being vouched as trustworthy by Ibn Ma’in and Ibn al Madini. He has quoted Abu Hatim and Ahmed describing him as truthful, adding that ‘Adi has said: “He is one of the reliable Kufi traditionists whose trustworthiness is never doubted.”

Muslim has relied on his authority. Refer to the latter’s sahih containing his hadith as narrated by Mu’awiyah ibn Salih, al Dahhak ibn ‘Uthman, Qurrah ibn Khalid, Ibrahim ibn Nafi’, Yahya ibn Ayub, Saif ibn Sulaiman, Hassan ibn Waqid, ‘Ikrimah ibn ‘Ammar, ‘Abdul-’Aziz ibn Abu Salma, and ‘Aflah ibn Sa’id. His hadith is quoted by Ibn Abu Shaybah, Muhammad ibn Hatim, Hassan al Hulwani, Ahmed ibn al Munthir, Ibn Namir, Ibn Karib, Muhammad ibn Rafi’, Zuhair ibn Harb, and Muhammad ibn al Faraj.

 

29 Salim ibn Abul Ja’d al Ashja’i al Kufi

He is brother of ‘Ubaid, Ziyad, ‘Umran, and Muslim, sons of Abul-Ja’d.

In Volume 6 of Al Tabaqat, Sa’d mentions all of them on page 2303 and the succeeding pages. When he comes to Muslim, he says, “Abul-Ja’d begot six sons. Two of them followed Shi’ism. These are Salim and ‘Ubaid. Two others are Murji’is, while the remaining two agree with the Kharijites. Their father used to say: ‘What is the matter with you? I wonder why Allah has made your views vary so much.’” Ibn Qutaybah has discussed them on page 156 of his Ma’arif in a chapter dealing with Shi’a tabi’in and their successors.

A group of learned scholars has testified to the Shi’a views of Salim ibn Abul-Ja’d. Qutaybah, on page 206 of his Ma’arif, has included him among Shi’a dignitaries, and so has al Shahristani in his work Al Milal wal Nihal on page 27, Vol. 2, in the footnote of his chapter on Ibn Hazm. Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his Al Mizan, calling him a trustworthy tabi’i. He has also stated that his hadith from al No’man ibn Bashir and Jabir is included in both sahihs.

In fact, his hadith, from Anas ibn Malik and Karib, is included in both sahihs as scholars of hadith already know. Al Thahbi says that his hadith from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, and from Ibn ‘Umar, exists in Bukhari’s Sahih. The latter also contains his hadith from Ma’dan ibn Abu Talha and the latter’s father.

His hadith is quoted in both sahihs by al A’mash, Qatadah, ‘Amr ibn Murrah, Mansur, and Hasin ibn ‘Abdul-Rahman. He also knows hadith quoted by al Nisa’i and Abu Dawood in their respective Sunan. He died in either 87 or 97 A.H. during the reign of Sulaiman ibn ‘Abdul-Malik, or, as some say, during that of ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul-’Aziz, and Allah knows best.

 

30 Salim ibn Abu Hafsah al ’Ijli al Kufi

Shahristani includes him in his book Al Milal wal Nihal among Shi’a nobility. Al Fallas says: “He is a weak traditionist who is extremist in his Shi’a beliefs.” Ibn ‘Adi says: “People criticize his extremism; but I hope there is nothing wrong with his hadith.” Muhammad ibn Bashir al ’Abdi says: “I have seen Salim ibn Abu Hafsah as a fool with a long beard – what a beard! He says: ‘I wish I had been a partner of ‘Ali in everything he possessed.’”

Al Hussain ibn ‘Ali al Ju’fi has said: “I have seen Salim ibn Abu Hafsah as a fool with a long beard who used to often say, ‘Here I come, O killer of Na’thal, annihilater of Banu Umayyah!’” ‘Amr ibn al Salim ibn Abu Hafsah asked him once: “Did you kill ‘Uthman?” He answered: “Did I?!” ‘Amr said: “Yes, you did. You do not condemn his murder.” Abu ibn al Madini has said: “I have heard Jarir saying, ‘I broke my friendship with Salim ibn Abu Hafsah because he used to always defend the Shi’as.’”

Al Thahbi has detailed his biography, mentioning all the above. On page 234 of Vol. 6 of his Tabaqat, Ibn Sa’d mentions him and says: “He was very staunch in his Shi’a beliefs. He entered Mecca during the reign of the ‘Abbasides crying, ‘Here I come, here I come, O killer of the Omayyads!’ His voice was quite loud, so much so that his call was heard by Dawood ibn ‘Ali who inquired: ‘Who is this man?’ People informed him that it was Salim ibn Abu Hafsah, and they explained his story and views.”

Al Thahbi has included his biography in his Al Mizan commenting, “He was chief of those who belittled Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.” In spite of this, however, both Sufyans quote his hadith, and so does Muhammad ibn Fudayl, while al Tirmithi has relied on his authority, and Ibn Ma’in has held him trustworthy. He died in 137 A.H.

 

31 Sa’d ibn Tarif al Iskafi al Hanzali al Kufi

Al Thahbi mentions him, marking his name with TQ as a reference to the authors of sunan who quote him (i.e. al Tirmithi and Dar Qutni). Al Thahbi also quotes al Fallas saying that Sa’d is “weak, extremist in his Shi’a beliefs.” In spite of his being a “Shi’a extremist,” al Tirmithi and others quote him.

Refer to his hadith in al Tirmithi’s Sahih as narrated by ‘Ikrimah and Abul-Wa’il. He also narrates hadith as transmitted by al Asbagh ibn Nabatah, ‘Uman ibn Talhah and ‘Umair ibn Ma’mun. Isra’il, Haban and Abu Mu’awiyah all quote him.

 

32 Sa’id ibn Ashwa’

He is mentioned in al Thahbi’s Al Mizan where the author says: “Sa’id ibn Ashwa’ is a famous and truthful Kufi judge. Al Nisa’i says that there is nothing wrong with his hadith, and that he is a friend of al Sha’bi. Al Jawzjani describes him as extremist, heretic, and a Shi’a zealot.”

Both al Bukhari and Muslim rely on his authority in their respective sahihs. His hadith from al Sha’bi is regarded as authentic by authors of both sahih books. In both Bukhari’s and Muslim’s Sahihs, his hadith is quoted by Zakariyyah ibn Abu Za’idah and Khalid al Haththa’. He died during the reign of Khalid ibn ‘Abdullah.

 

33 Sa’id ibn Khaytham al Hilali

Ibrahim ibn ‘Abdullah ibn al Junaid was asked once: “Sa’id ibn Khaytham is a Shi’a. What do you think of him?” He answered: “Let’s say that he is a Shi’a, but he also is trustworthy.”

Al Thahbi mentions him in his Al Mizan, quoting Ibn Ma’in narrating the gist of what has just been stated above. He has also marked his name with the initials of both al Tirmithi and al Nisa’i to indicate that both authors quote his hadith in their sahihs. He also mentions the fact that Sa’id narrates hadith from Yazid ibn Abu Ziyad and Muslim al Malla’i. His nephew, Ahmed ibn Rashid, too, narrates his hadith.

 

34 Selamah ibn al Fudayl al Abrash

He was a Rayy judge and a reporter of traditions related to the battles in which the holy Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam participated as transmitted by Ibn Ishaq. His kunyat (surname) is Abu ‘Abdullah. In his biography in the Al Mizan, Ibn Ma’in says: “Selamah al Abrash al Razi is a believer in Shi’ism and a man whose hadith is [often] quoted, and there is no fault in the latter.”

Abu Zar’ah has also said in the Al Mizan that the natives of Rayy do not like him because of his (religious) views. Actually, their attitude is due to their own views regarding all followers of the household of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his Al Mizan, marking his name with the initials of Abu Dawood and al Tirmithi and saying: “He is well remembered for his prayers and supplications.” He died in 191 A.H.

Ibn Ma’in testifies to the fact that the hadith related to the Prophet’s military expeditions as narrated by Selamah is more reliable than anyone else’s. Zanih is quoted as having said that he had heard Selamah al Abrash saying that he had heard hadith related to the expeditions from Ishaq twice, and that he had also written down his ahadith as he had done with those of the expeditions.

 

35 Selamah ibn Kahil ibn Hasin ibn Kadih ibn Asad al Hadrami Abu Yahya

A group of scholars following the faith of the majority of Muslims, such as Ibn Qutaybah in his Ma’arif, who mentions on page 206 his distinction, and al Shahristani in his Al Milal wal Nihal, on page 27, Vol. 2, have included him among Shi’a nobility. Authors of the six sahihs have all relied on his authority, and so have others. He has learned hadith from men like Abu Jahifah, Suwaid ibn Ghaflah, al Sha’bi, ‘Ata’ ibn Abu Rabah, all cited in Bukhari and Muslim.

In Muslim, he quotes hadith from Karib, Tharr ibn ‘Abdullah, Bakir ibn al Ashaj, Zaid ibn Ka’b, Sa’id ibn Jubair, Mujahid, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Yazid, Abu Selamah ibn ‘Abdul-Rahman, Mu’awiyah ibn al Suwaid, Habib ibn ‘Abdullah, and Muslim al Batin. Al Thawri and Shu’bah have both cited his hadith in these two works, while in Bukhari, his hadith is cited by Isma’il ibn Abu Khalid.

In Muslim, he is quoted by Sa’id ibn Masruq, Aqil ibn Khalid, ‘Abdul-Malik ibn Abu Sulaiman, ‘Ali ibn Salih, Zaid ibn ‘Abu Anisah, Hammad ibn Selamah, and al Walid ibn Harb.

Selamah ibn Kahil died on ‘Ashura of 121 A.H.

 

36 Sulaiman ibn Sa’id al Khuza’i al Kufi

He used to be the supreme head of the Shi’as of Iraq, the arbitrator among them, their custodian and advisor. They had all met in his house when they swore the oath of allegiance to Imam Hussain ‘alayh al Salam. He is the herald of the tawwabin (the penitants) among the Shi’as, those who rose to avenge the murder of Imam Hussain ‘alayh al Salam.

They were four thousand strong who camped at Nakhila early in Rabi’ al Thani, 65 A.H., then marched towards ‘Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad and engaged his army at Jazira. They fought fiercely till each and every one of them died. Sulaiman, too, was martyred at a place called ‘Ayn al Warda after Hasin shot him with a deadly arrow. He was 93 years old then. His head and that of al Musayyab ibn Najba were carried as trophies to Marwan ibn al Hakam.

His biography is recorded in Vol. 6, Part One, of Ibn Sa’d’s Tabaqat, and in the Isti’ab of Ibn ‘Abdul Birr. All those who wrote the stories of the ancestors have recorded his biography and praised his virtues, faith and piety. He enjoyed a lofty status, a position of honour and dignity among his folks, and his word weighed heavily. He is the one who killed Hawshab, the notorious enemy of the Commander of the Faithful, in a duel at Siffin. Sulaiman was keen to notice that the enemies of Ahlul Bayt had gone astray. Traditionists have sought his audience.

The ahadith he narrates about the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the ones which he directly reported or those transmitted by Jubair ibn Mut’im relying on his authority, are recorded in both Bukhari’s and Muslim’s Sahihs.

In the latter, he is cited by Abu Ishaq al Subay’i and ‘Adi ibn Thabit. Sulyman has narrated ahadith which are not included in either sahihs. These include ahadith from the Commander of the Faithful, his son Imam al Hassan al Mujtaba ‘alayh al Salam, and Abiy. In works other than these sahihs, his hadith is transmitted by Yahya ibn Ya’mur, ‘Abdullah ibn Yasar, and by others.

 

37 Sulaiman ibn Tarkhan al Taymi al Basri

A slave of Qais, the imam, he is one of the most reliable authorities on hadith. Ibn Qutaybah has included him among Shi’a dignitaries in his book Al Ma’arif. Authors of the six sahihs, as well as others, have relied on his authority. Refer to his hadith in both sahihs through Anas ibn Malik, Abu Majaz, Bakr ibn ‘Abdullah, Qatadah, and Abu ‘Uthman al Nahdi.

Muslim’s Sahih quotes his hadith through others. In both sahihs, his hadith is cited by his son Mu’tamir, and by Shu’bah and al Thawri. Another party cites his hadith in Muslim’s Sahih. He died in 143 A.H.

 

38 Sulaiman ibn Qarm ibn Ma’ath

He is also known as Abu Dawood al Dabi al Kufi. Ibn Haban mentions him within the text of Sulaiman’s biography in Al Mizan. Ibn Haban has said, “He is a Rafidi – very much so.” Nevertheless, Ahmed ibn Hanbal has trusted him. At the conclusion of Sulaiman’s biography as recorded in Al Mizan, Ibn ‘Adi says, “The ahadith narrated by Sulaiman ibn Qarm are authentic. Moreover, his are by far more reliable than those related by Sulaiman ibn Arqam.”

Muslim, al Nisa’i, al Tirmithi, and Abu Dawood have all cited his ahadith. When al Thahbi mentions him, he puts the initials of these traditionists on his name. Refer to Muslim’s Sahih where Abul-Jawab’s hadith is narrated by Sulaiman ibn Qarm from al A’mash, up to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The said hadith states that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has said that a man keeps company with those whom he loves.

In the sunan, his ahadith quote Thabit through Anas successively saying that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has said: “Seeking knowledge is a religious obligation upon every Muslim.” He quotes al A’mash from ‘Amr ibn Murrah, from ‘Abdullah ibn al Harith, from Zuhair ibn al Aqmar, from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar who says that al Hakam ibn Abul ‘As used to keep company with the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and then would go and narrate it [in a twisted manner] to Quraysh; therefore, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam denounced his behaviour and all his descendants as well till the Day of Judgment.

 

39 Sulaiman ibn Mahran al Kahili al Kufi al Asla’

He is one of the Shi’a nobility and a most trusted traditionist. Many a genius among Sunni men of knowledge, such as Ibn Qutaybah in his Ma’arif and al Shahristani in his Al Milal wal Nihal, as well as many others, have all included him among Shi’a dignitaries.

In his biography of Zubaid, al Jawzjani says the following in his book Al Mizan: “Among the people of Kufa, there are some folks whose sect is not appreciated, yet they are the masters of hadith among Kufi traditionists. Among them are: Abu Ishaq, Mansur, Zubaid al Yami, al A’mash, and other peers. People tolerate them only because they are truthful in narrating hadith,” up to the end of his statement which clearly exposes his stupidity and prejudice. What harm can reach these dignitaries if the Nasibis do not appreciate their commitment to discharge the Divine commandment of seeking the Pleasure of Allah through remaining faithful to His Prophet’s kin and kith?

These Nasibis, as a matter of fact, tolerate these men not only because they are truthful in narrating hadith, but rather because they are indispensable. Had they rejected these men’s hadith, the majority of the Prophet’s ahadith would have then been abandoned, as al Thahbi himself admits in his Al Mizan while discussing the biography of Aban ibn Taghlib. I think that al Mughirah’s statement: “Abu Ishaq and your A’mash have rendered Kufa to destruction” is said due only to these men’s Shi’a beliefs. Other than that, both Abu Ishaq and al A’mash are oceans of knowledge and custodians of the prophetic legacy.

Al A’mash has left us many interesting incidents which vividly portray his greatness. One of them, for example, is included by Ibn Khallikan in al A’mash’s biography in Wafiyyat al A’yan where the author states:

 “Hisham ibn ‘Abdul-Malik once wrote to al A’mash saying: ‘Recount for me ‘Uthman’s virtues and ‘Ali’s vices.’ Al A’mash took the letter and tossed it into his she-camel’s mouth. Then he turned to the messenger and said: ‘This is my answer.’ The messenger, however, pleaded to al A’mash saying that his master had vowed to kill him if he did not return with an answer. He also pleaded to al A’mash’s brothers to pressure their brother to write something.

Finally, he wrote: ‘In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Had ‘Uthman had all the virtues of the people of the world, they would not have availed you aught, and had ‘Ali had in him all the vices of the people of the world, they would not have harmed you in the least; therefore, worry about your own soul, and peace be with you.’”

Another anecdote is narrated by Ibn ‘Abdul Birr in his chapter on the ‘ulema’s statements evaluating each other’s work in his book Jami’ Bayanul ‘Ilm wa Fada’ilih.7

The author quotes ‘Ali ibn Khashram saying, “I have heard Abul-Fadl ibn Musa say, ‘I entered the house of al A’mash once accompanied by Abu Hanifah to visit him during his sickness.

Abu Hanifah said: ‘O Abu Muhammad! Had I not feared my visits would be a nuisance to you, I would have visited you more often’.

Al A’mash answered, ‘You are a nuisance to me even at your own home; so, imagine how I feel when I have to look at your face.’” Abul-Fadl continues to say that having left the house of al A’mash, Abu Hanifah said, ‘Al A’mash never observed the fast of the month of Ramadan.’ Ibn al Khashram then asked al Fadl what Abu Hanifah meant.

Al Fadl answered, ‘Al A’mash used to observe the suhur during the month of Ramadan according to the Prophet’s hadith as narrated by Huthayfah al Yemani.’” In fact, he used to observe the Holy Qur’anic verse:

“Therefore, eat and drink till you can distinguish the white thread from the black one, from the dawn, and complete the fast till night-time.” (2:187)

Authors of Al Wajiza and Bihar Al Anwar have both quoted Hassan ibn Sa’id al Nakh’i who quotes Sharik ibn ‘Abdullah, the judge, saying, “I visited al A’mash when he was sick prior to his demise. While I was there, Ibn Shabramah, Ibn Layla and Abu Hanifah entered and inquired about his health. He told them that he was suffering from an acute feebleness, that he feared God for his sins, and he almost broke in tears.

Abu Hanifah then said to him: ‘O Father of Muhammad! Fear Allah! Look now after yourself. You used to narrate certain ahadith about ‘Ali which, if you denounce, would be better for you.’ Al A’mash answered: ‘Do you dare to say this to a man like me?’ He even denounced him, and there is no need here to go into that. He was, may Allah have mercy on his soul, as al Thahbi describes him in his Al Mizan, a trusted Imam.

He was exactly what Ibn Khallikan had described while discussing his biography in his own Wafiyyat al A’yan, a trustworthy and virtuous man of knowledge. Scholars have all conceded his truthfulness, equity and piety. Authors of the six sahih books, as well as many others besides them, have all relied on his authority.

Refer to his hadith in Bukhari’s and Muslim’s Sahih books from Zaid ibn Wahab, Sa’id ibn Jubair, Muslim al Batin, al Sha’bi, Mujahid, Abu Wa’il, Ibrahim al Nakh’i and Abu Salih Thakwan. He is cited in these works by Shu’bah, al Thawri, Ibn ‘Ainah, Abu Mua’awiyah Muhammad, Abu ‘Awanah, Jarir, and Hafs ibn Ghiyath. Al A’mash was born in 61 A.H. and he died in 148 A.H., may Allah be merciful unto him.

 

40 Sharik ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Sinan al Nakh’i al Kufi the judge

Imam Abu Qutaybah, in his Ma’arif, has unreservedly included him among Shi’a nobility. At the conclusion of Sharik’s biography as recorded in Al Mizan, ‘Abdullah ibn Idris swears that Sharik is a Shi’a. Abu Dawood al Rahawi is quoted in Al Mizan, too, to have heard Sharik saying, “‘Ali is the best of creation; whoever denies this fact is kafir (apostate).”8

What he meant, of course, is that ‘Ali is the best of all men excluding the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, as all Shi’as believe. For this reason, al Jawzjani, as quoted in Al Mizan, describes him as “biased,” meaning biased towards the faith of Ahlul Bayt and preferring it to Jawzjani’s sect. Al Mizan also quotes Sharik’s ahadith regarding the Commander of the Faithful. He cites Abu Rabi’ah from Ibn Buraydah from his father upto the Prophet who said: “For every Prophet there is a vicegerent and heir.”

He was very zealous about disseminating the knowledge pertaining to the virtues of the Commander of the Faithful, and to pressure the Omayyads to recognize and publicize his merits, peace be upon him. In his work Durrat al Ghawwas, al Hariri, as in Sharik’s biography in Ibn Khallikan’s Wafiyyat al A’yan, says, “Sharik had an Omayyad friend of his. One day, Sharik recounted the attributes of ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib ‘alayh al Salam. His Omayyad friend said that ‘Ali was ‘a fine man.’ This enraged Sharik who said, ‘Is this all that can be said about ‘Ali, that he was a fine man, no more?’”9

At the conclusion of Sharik’s biography as stated in Al Mizan, Ibn Abu Shaybah has quoted ‘Ali ibn Hakim ibn Qadim citing ‘Ali saying that once a complaint was brought with a man to Sharik’s attention. The man said: “People claim that your mind is doubtful.” Sharik answered: “You fool! How can I ever be doubtful?! I wish I had been present in the company of ‘Ali to let my sword be drenched with the blood of his enemies.”

Anyone who studies Sharik’s life-style will be convinced that the man was a very loyal follower of the path of Ahlul Bayt ‘alayh al Salam. He transmitted a great deal of traditions narrated by the most learned followers of Ahlul Bayt. His son ‘Abdul-Rahman has said, “My father has learned queries from Ja’far al Ju’fi, in addition to ten thousand rare traditions.”

‘Abdullah ibn al Mubarak is quoted in Al Mizan saying, “Sharik is more knowledgeable about the Kufans’ hadith than Sufyan. He was an avowed enemy of ‘Ali’s foes, one who spoke ill of them.” ‘Abdul-Salam ibn Harb once asked him: “Why don’t you visit a sick brother of yours?” He inquired: “And who is that?” The man answered: “Malik ibn Maghul.” Sharik, as stated in the latter’s biography in Al Mizan, then said: “Anyone who speaks ill of ‘Ali and ‘Ammar is surely no brother of mine.”

Once the name of Mu’awiyah was mentioned in his presence and was described as “clement.” Sharik, as stated in his biography in Al Mizan as well as in Ibn Khallikan’s Wafiyyat al A’yan, said: “Whoever discards equity and fights ‘Ali can never be clement.” He narrated one hadith from Asim, Tharr, ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud successively indicating that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had said: “If you see Mu’awiyah on my pulpit, kill him.” This is quoted by al Tabari, and al Tabari in turn is quoted by al Thahbi while the latter discusses the biography of Abbad ibn Ya’qub.

Ibn Khallikan’s Wafiyyat includes a biography of Sharik where the author quotes a dialogue between Sharik and Mis’ab ibn ‘Abdullah al Zubairi, in the presence of the ‘Abbaside ruler al Mahdi. Mis’ab asked Sharik: “Do you really belittle Abu Bakr and ‘Umar?” up to the conclusion of the incident.

In spite of all of this, al Thahbi has described him as a “truthful imam.” He also quotes Ibn Ma’in saying that Sharik is “truthful, trustworthy.” At the conclusion of the biography, the author states: “Sharik was a bastion of knowledge. Ishaq al Azraq learned from him nine thousand ahadith.” He also quotes Tawbah al Halabi saying, “We were at Ramla once, and someone wondered who the nation’s man was. Some people said it was Lahi’ah, while others said it was Malik. We asked ‘Isa ibn Yunus to state his view. He said: ‘The nation’s man is Sharik,’ who was then still alive.”

Muslim and authors of the four books of sunan have all relied on Sharik’s authority. Refer to his hadith as they quote it transmitted by Ziyad ibn Alaqah, ‘Ammar al Thihni, Hisham ibn ‘Urwah, Ya’li ibn ‘Ata’, ‘Abdul-Malik ibn ‘Umair, ‘Ammarah ibn al Qa’qa’ and ‘Abdullah ibn Shabramah. These reporters have cited Sharik’s hadith from Ibn Shaybah, ‘Ali ibn Hakim, Yunus ibn Muhammad, al Fadl ibn Musa, Muhammad ibn al Sabah, and ‘Ali ibn Hajar. He was born in either Khurasan or Bukhara in 95 A.H., and he died in Kufa on a Saturday early in Thul-Qi’dah, 177 or 178.

 

41 Shu’bah ibn al Hajjaj Abul-Ward al ’Atki al Wasiti (Abu Bastam)

Born in Wasit but lived in Basra, Abu Bastam is the first to inquire in Iraq about traditionists, and he is credited with helping the weak and the abandoned. He is considered among Shi’a nobility by many highly intellectual Sunni scholars such as Qutaybah in his Al Ma’arif, and al Shahristani in his Al Milal wal Nihal. Authors of the six sahih books and others have all relied on his authority.

His hadith is ascertained in Bukhari’s and Muslim’s sahih books as transmitted by Abu Ishaq al Subai’i, Isma’il ibn Abu Khalid, Mansur, al A’mash and others. In both Bukhari’s and Muslim’s books, his hadith is cited by Muhammad ibn Ja’far, Yahya ibn Sa’id al Qattan, ‘Uthman ibn Jabalah and others. He was born in 83 and he died in 160 A.H., may Allah be merciful on him.

 

42 Sa’sa’ah ibn Sawhan ibn Hajar ibn al Harith al ’Abdi

Imam Ibn Qutaybah describes him on page 206 of his Ma’arif as one of the famous Shi’a dignitaries. Ibn Sa’d states on page 154, Vol. 6, of his Tabaqat: “[Sa’sa’ah] is very well known all over Kufa as an orator and a companion of ‘Ali with whom he has witnesed the Battle of the Camel together with his brothers Zaid and Sihan sons of Sawhan. Sihan is known as an orator before Sa’sa’ah, and he was the standard-bearer during the Battle of the Camel.10

Having been killed, Sihan was succeeded in bearing the standard by Sa’sa’ah. Sa’sa’ah has narrated hadith from Imam ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam, and also from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas. He is a trusted traditionist although the ahadith he has narrated are not many.” Ibn ‘Abdul Birr mentions him in his Isti’ab saying: “He accepted Islam during the life-time of Prophet Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam although he never met him in person due to his being very young then.”

He is chief among his tribesmen, descendants of ‘Abdul Qais. He is quite an eloquent orator, a man of wisdom who has acquired a total command over the language. He is, indeed, a man of piety, virtues, and wisdom. He is counted among the companions of ‘Ali, peace be upon him. Yahya ibn Ma’in is quoted saying that Sa’sa’ah, Zaid and Sihan sons of Sawhan are all orators, and that Zaid and Sihan were killed during the Battle of the Camel.

He also cites a critical problem which ‘Umar, then caliph, could not solve; therefore, the caliph delivered a sermon in which he asked people for their suggestions. Sa’sa’ah, then a youth, stood and clarified its complexity and put forth a suggestion to it which was unanimously accepted. This should not surprise the reader since the descendants of Sawhan were among the most prominent masters of Arabia, pillars in virtue and descent. Ibn Qutaybah mentions them on page 138 of his chapter on renowned dignitaries and men of influence in his Ma’arif.

The author says: “Sawhan’s descendants were Zaid ibn Sawhan, Sa’sa’ah ibn Sawhan, Sihan ibn Sawhan, of Banu ‘Abdul Qais.” He adds: “Zaid was among the best of men. He narrated saying that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had said: ‘Zaid is indeed a good man, and Jandab – what a man he is!’ People inquired: ‘Why do you mention these men alone?’ The Prophet answered: ‘The arm of one of them will precede in thirty years the rest of his body in entering Paradise, while the other will deal heavy blows so that right is distinguished from wrong.’

The first, as it came to pass, participated in Jalawla’ Battle where his arm was chopped off. He also participated in the Battle of the Camel on the side of ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam. He asked the Imam: ‘O Commander of the Faithful! It looks like I am going to meet my fate.’ The Imam ‘alayh al Salam asked him, ‘How do you know that, O father of Sulaiman?’ He answered: ‘I have seen in a vision my arm stretching from heaven to pull me away from this world.’ He was killed by ‘Amr ibn Yathribi, while his brother Sihan was killed during the Battle of the Camel.”

It is no secret that the Prophet’s prophecy regarding Zaid’s arm preceding the rest of his body in entering Paradise is regarded by all Muslims as a testimony for his prophethood, a sign of the truth of the religion of Islam, and a recognition of the men of truth. All biographies of Zaid have mentioned it. Refer to his biography in Al Isti’ab, Al Isabah, and others. Traditionists have recorded the above, each in his own way of wording it, adding that [in “spite” of his being Shi’a] he was promised Paradise; so, praise be to the Lord of the Worlds.

Al ’Asqalani mentions Sa’sa’ah ibn Sawhan in Part Three of his Isaba, saying: “He narrates traditions about ‘Uthman and ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam. He has participated in the Battle of Siffin on ‘Ali’s side. He is an eloquent orator who has encounters with Mu’awiyah.” Al Sha’bi has said: “I used to learn how to deliver sermons from him.”11

Abu Ishaq al Subai’i, al Minhal ibn ‘Amr ibn Baridah, and others have all cited his hadith. Al ’Ala’i, narrating Ziyad’s encounters, says that once al Mughirah banished Sa’sa’ah, in accordance to an edict which he had received from Mu’awiyah, from Kufa to Jazirah, or to Bahrain (some historians say to the island of Ibn Fakkan), where he died in banishment just as Abu Tharr al Ghifari had died before him in the Rabatha desert (southern Iraq). Al Thahbi mentions Sa’sa’ah and describes him as “a well-known and trusted traditionist,” citing testimonies to his trustworthiness from Ibn Sa’d and Nisa’i, and marking his name to indicate that al Nisa’i relies on his authority. Whoever does not rely on his authority does not in fact harm anyone but his own self, as the holy Qur’an says:

 “We have not done them any harm; they have only harmed their own selves.”(2:57)

 

43 Tawus ibn Kisan al Khawlani al Hamadani al Yamani

He is ‘Abdul-Rahman’s father. His mother is Persian, and his father is Ibn Qasit, a Namri slave of Bajir ibn Raysan al Himyari. Sunni intellectuals regard him a Shi’a without any question. Among their dignitaries, al Shahristani mentions him in his Al Milal wal Nihal, and Ibn Qutaybah in his Al Ma’arif. Authors of the six sahih books, as well as others, have all relied on his authority.

Refer to his hadith in both sahih books where he cites Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar and Abu Hurairah, and in Muslim’s Sahih where he cites ‘Ayesha, Zaid ibn Thabit, and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar. His hadith is recorded in Bukhari alone as transmitted by al Zuhri, and in Muslim by many renowned traditionists. He died in Mecca while performing the rite of pilgrimage one day before the day of Tarwiya (i.e. on the 7th of Thul-Hijjah), in either 104 or 106 A.H. His funeral was quite eventful. His coffin was carried by ‘Abdullah son of al Hassan son of the Commander of the Faithful ‘alayh al Salam. He was vying with others to carry it, so much so that his headwear dropped, and his clothes were torn from the back side by the stampede, as narrated by Ibn Khallikan in his biography of Tawus in Wafiyyat al A’yan.

 

44 Zalim ibn ‘Amr ibn Sufyan Abul-Aswad al Du’ali

His being a Shi’a and a faithful adherent to the faith during the wilayat of Imams ‘Ali, al Hassan and al Hussain, as well as other members of the Ahlul Bayt, peace be upon all of them, is more visible than the sun, and it requires no reiteration.12

We have dealt with it in detail in our work Mukhtasar al Kalam fi Muallifi al Shi’a min Sadr al Islam. His being a Shi’a is a matter which nobody disputes. In spite of this fact, authors of the six sahih books have relied on his authority. Refer to his hadith about ‘Umar ibn al Khattab in Bukhari’s Sahih. In Muslim’s, his hadith is cited by Abu Musa and ‘Umran ibn Hasin.

In both sahih books, his hadith is cited by Yahya ibn Ya’mur. In Bukhari’s, ‘Abdullah ibn Buraydah quotes him, and in Muslim’s, his hadith is narrated by his son Abu Harb. He died, may Allah Almighty have mercy on him, at the age of 85 in Basrah in 99 A.H. by the plague which devastated the city. He is the one who laid down the foundations of Arabic grammar according to rules which he learned from the Commander of the Faithful ‘alayh al Salam, as we have expounded in our book Al Mukhtasar.

 

45 ‘Amr ibn Wa’ilah ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar al Laithi al Makki

Also known as Abul-Tufayl, he was born in the same year when the Battle of Uhud took place, i.e. 3 A.H. He was for eight years contemporary of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Ibn Qutaybah has included him among so-called “extremist Rafidis,” stating that he was al Mukhtar’s standard-bearer and the last of the sahabah to die. Ibn ‘Abdul Birr has mentioned him in his chapter on kunayat in his Isti’ab saying, “He resided in Kufa, and he accompanied ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam in all his battles. When ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam was killed, he left for Mecca.” He concludes by saying, “He was a virtuous and wise man, swift in providing an accurate answer, eloquent. He was also one of the Shi’as of ‘Ali, peace be upon him.”

He also indicates that “Once, Abul-Tufayl approached Mu’awiyah and the latter asked him: ‘For how long have you mourned the death of your friend Father of al Hassan ‘alayh al Salam?’ He answered: ‘I have grieved as much as the mother of Moses grieved when she parted with her son, and I complain unto Allah for my shortcomings.’ Mu’awiyah asked him: ‘Were you among those who enforced a siege around ‘Uthman’s house?’

He answered: ‘No; but I used to visit him.’ Then Mu’awiyah asked him: ‘What stopped you from rescuing him?’ He retorted: ‘What about you? What stopped you from doing so when sure death surrounded him, while you were in Syria a master among his subjects?!’ Mu’awiyah replied: ‘Can’t you see that avenging his murder is an indication of my support?’ ‘Amir then told Mu’awiyah that he acted exactly like the one implied in the verses composed by the brother of Ju’f the poet in which the latter says: ‘You mourn my death, yet while I was alive, you did not even sustain me against starvation.’”

Al Zuhri, Abul-Zubair, al Jariri, Ibn Abul-Hasin, ‘Abdul-Malik ibn Abjar, Qatadah, Ma’ruf, al Walid ibn Jami’, Mansur ibn Hayyan, al Qasim ibn Abu Bardah, ‘Amr ibn Dinar, ‘Ikremah ibn Khalid, Kulthum ibn Habib, Furat al Qazzaz, and ‘Abdul-Aziz ibn Rafi’ have all narrated his hadith as it exists in Muslim’s and Bukhari’s Sahih books. Bukhari’s work contains traditions of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam regarding the pilgrimage which are narrated by Abul-Tufayl. He describes the Prophet’s characteristics, and he narrates about the prayers and signs of prophethood from Ma’ath ibn Jabal, and he narrates about fate from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud.

He narrates from ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam, Huthayfah ibn al Yemani, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas and ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, as is well-known by all researchers of Muslim’s hadith besides that of the authors of his musnads. Abul-Tufayl, may Allah Ta’ala encompass his soul with His mercy, died in Mecca in 100 A.H. (some say in 102, while still others say 120), and Allah knows best.

 

46 ‘Abbad ibn Ya’qub al Asadi al Ruwajni al Kufi

He is mentioned by Dar Qutni who says, “‘Abbad ibn Ya’qub is a truthful Shi’a.” Ibn Hayyan mentions him and says, “‘Abbad ibn Ya’qub used to invite people to Rafidism.” Ibn Khuzaimah says, “‘Abbad ibn Ya’qub is a man whose traditions are never doubted, though his faith is questioned, etc.” ‘Abbad narrates from al Fadl ibn al Qasim, Sufyan al Thawri, Zubaid, Murrah, that Ibn Mas’ud used to interpret the verse

“Allah has spared the Believers from fighting” (Qur’an, 25:33)

to imply that they were spared from fighting ‘Ali. He quotes Sharik, ‘Asim, Tharr, from ‘Abdullah who has stated that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has said: “When you see Mu’awiyah on my pulpit, kill him.” This hadith is recorded by Tabari and others. ‘Abbad says that anyone who does not mention in his daily prayers that he dissociates himself from the enemies of the Prophet’s progeny ‘alayh al Salam shall be resurrected in their company. He also says, “Allah Almighty is too fair to let Talhah and al Zubair enter Paradise; they fought ‘Ali after swearing allegiance to him.”

Salih al Jazrah has said: “‘Abbad ibn Ya’qub used to denounce ‘Uthman.” ‘Abbad al Ahwazi quotes his trusted authorities saying that ‘Abbad ibn Ya’qub used to denounce “their” ancestors. In spite of all this, Sunni Imams like al Bukhari, al Tirmithi, Ibn Majah, Ibn Khuzaimah, and Ibn Abu Dawood rely on his authority, their mentor, in whom they all place their trust.

In spite of his intolerance and prejudice, Abu Hatim has mentioned him and said that he is a trusted Sheikh. Al Thahbi mentions him in his Al Mizan and says, “He is one of the extremist Shi’as, leaders of innovators; yet he is truthful when narrating hadith.” He goes on to mention what has already been stated above regarding ‘Abbad’s views.

Al Bukhari quotes him directly while discussing tawhid in his own sahih. He died, may Allah be merciful unto him, in Shawwal of 150 A.H. Al Qasim ibn Zakariyyah al Mutarraz has intentionally misquoted ‘Abbad’s statements regarding the digging the sea and the flow of its water, and we seek refuge with Allah against telling lies about the Believers; He is surely the One Who foils their schemes.

 

47 ‘Abdullah ibn Dawood

He is father of ‘Abdul-Rahman al Hamadani al Kufi. He resided in Al Harbiyya, a Basrah suburb. Qutaybah has included him among renowned Shi’a personalities in his own Al Ma’arif, and al Bukhari has relied on his authority in his own Sahih. Refer to his hadith from al A’mash, Hisham ibn ‘Urwah and Ibn Jurayh. His hadith is narrated in Bukhari’s Sahih by Musaddid, ‘Amr ibn ‘Ali, and, in some places, by Nasr ibn ‘Ali. He died in 212.

 

48 ‘Abdullah ibn Shaddad ibn al Had

Al Had’s full name is Usamah ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Jabir ibn al Bashir ibn ‘Atwarah ibn ‘Amir ibn Malik ibn Laith al Laithi al Kufi Abul-Walid, a companion of the Commander of the Faithful ‘alayh al Salam. His mother is Salma daughter of ‘Amis al Khayth’ami, sister of Asma’. He is nephew, from the mother’s side, of ‘Abdullah ibn Ja’far and Muhammad ibn Abu Ja’far, and brother of ‘Amara daughter of Hamzah ibn ‘Abdul-Muttalib from the mother’s side. Ibn Sa’d includes him among residents of Kufa who were distinguished for their fiqh and knowledge and who belong to the tabi’in.

At the conclusion of his biography, the author states on page 86 of Vol. 6 of his Tabaqat: “During the reign of ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn al Ash’ath, ‘Abdullah ibn Shaddad was among those who recite the Holy Qur’an and know it by heart and who fought al Hajjaj, and he was killed during the Dujail Battle.” He also says, “He was a trustworthy faqih who narrated a great deal of hadith, and he was a Shi’a.”

The battle referred to above took place in 81 A.H. All authors of the sahih books have relied on the authority of ‘Abdullah ibn Shaddad. His hadith is quoted by Ishaq al Shaybani, Ma’bid ibn Khalid and Sa’d ibn Ibrahim. Their ahadith from ‘Abdullah ibn Shaddad exist in both sahih books as well as in others, in addition to all musnads. Al Bukhari and Muslim quote his hadith as transmitted from ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam, Maimuna and ‘Ayesha.

 

49 ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar ibn Muhammad ibn Aban ibn Salih ibn ‘Umair al Qarashi al Kufi

Also known as Mishkadanah, he is mentor of Muslim, Abu Dawood, al Baghwi, and many other peers who all learned hadith from him. Abu Hatim has mentioned him testifying to his truthfulness. He quotes his hadith and states that he is a Shi’a. Salih ibn Muhammad ibn Jazrah has mentioned him and said that he is a Shi’a “extremist.”

In spite of this, ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmed has narrated hadith from his father. Abu Hatim states that Mishkadanah is trustworthy. Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his Al Mizan, describing him as “a truthful man who has learned a great deal of hadith from Ibn al Mubarak, al Dar Wardi, and their group of scholars. Muslim, Abu Dawood, al Baghwi and many others have recorded a great deal of his ahadith.” He has marked his name with the initials of Muslim and Abu Dawood indicating thereby their reliance on his hadith, and quoting what the learned scholars named above have said about him. He has also stated that he died in 239 A.H.

Refer to his hadith in Muslim’s Sahih as transmitted through ‘Abdah ibn Sulaiman, ‘Abdullah ibn al Mubarak, ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Sulaiman, ‘Ali ibn Hashim, Abul-Ahwas, Hussain ibn ‘Ali al Ju’fi and Muhammad ibn Fudayl. In his chapter dealing with causes of dissension, Muslim quotes his hadith directly. Abul-’Abbas al Sarraj has said that he died either in 238 or 237 A.H.

 

50 ‘Abdullah ibn Lahi’ah ibn ‘Uqbah al Hadrami Egypt’s judge and scholar

In his Ma’arif, Ibn Qutaybah has included him among famous Sheikhs. In his biography of ‘Abdullah ibn Lahi’ah in his Al Mizan, Ibn ‘Adi has described him as an “extremist Shi’a.” Quoting Talhah, Abu Ya’li states: “Abu Lahi’ah has said: ‘Hay ibn ‘Abdullah al Ghafari has narrated through the authority of Abu ‘Abdullah Rahman al Hibli from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar that during his sickness (which preceded his demise), the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told us to fetch his brother.

We brought him Abu Bakr, but he turned away from him and said: ‘I had asked for my brother’. We then brought ‘Uthman, but again the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam turned away from him. ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam was then brought in his presence. He covered him with his own mantle and inclined his head on his shoulder for a while (as if he was whispering something in his ear). When ‘Ali left, people asked him: ‘What has the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to you?’ He answered: ‘He has taught me a thousand chapters each of which leads to a thousand sections.’”

Al Thahbi mentions him in his Al Mizan, marking his name with DTQ to denote who among the authors of the sahih books quotes him [i.e. Abu Dawood, al Tirmithi, and Dar Qutni. Refer to his hadith in al Tirmithi’s Sahih, Abu Dawood and all musnads. Ibn Khallikan has greatly praised him in his Wafiyyat al A’yan. Refer to his hadith in Muslim’s sahih as transmitted by Yazid ibn Abu Habib. In his book Al Jam’ Bayna Kitabay Abu Nasr al Kalabathi wa Abu Bakr al Asbahani [Compilation of Both Books of Abu Nasr al Kalabathi and Abul-Faraj al Asbahani, al Qaisarani includes him among Bukhari’s and Muslim’s reliable authorities. Ibn Lahi’ah died on Sunday, mid-Rabi’ul Akhir, 174 A.H.

 

51 ‘Abdullah ibn Maimun al Qaddah al Makki

A friend of Imam Ja’far ibn Muhammad al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam, he is relied upon by al Tirmithi. Al Thahbi mentions him and marks his name with al Tirmithi’s initials as an indication that the latter cites his hadith. He adds saying that he narrates hadith through the authority of Imam Ja’far ibn Muhammad al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam, and of Talhah ibn ‘Umar.

 

52 ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Salih al Azdi

His name is Abu Muhammad al Kufi. His friend and student ‘Abbas al Duri says that he was a Shi’a. Ibn ‘Adi mentions him and says, “He is burnt in the fire of Shi’ism.” Salih Jazrah says that ‘Abdul-Rahman used to oppose ‘Uthman. Abu Dawood says that ‘Abdul-Rahman has compiled a book containing the vices of some of the companions of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and that he is a bad person.

In spite of all this, both ‘Abbas al Duri and Imam al Baghwi narrate his hadith. Al Nisa’i has quoted him. Al Thahbi has referred to him in his Al Mizan and marked his name with al Nisa’i’s initials as an indication of the latter’s reliance on him. He also quotes what the Imams (among the Sunnis) have said about him as stated above. He indicates that Ma’in trusts him, and that he died in 235. Refer to his hadith in the Sunan books as transmitted through Sharik and a group of his peers.

 

53 ‘Abdul-Razzaq ibn Humam ibn Nafi’ al Himyari al San’ani

One of the Shi’a nobility and honourable ancestry, he is included by Ibn Qutaybah among renowned Shi’as in his Ma’arif. Ibn al Athir, on page 137, Vol. 6, of his Al Tarikh Al Kamil, mentions ‘Abdul-Razzaq’s death in the end of the events of 211 A.H. thus: “In that year, the traditionist ‘Abdul-Razzaq ibn Humam al San’ani, one of Ahmed’s Shi’a mentors, died.”

Al Muttaqi al Hindi mentions him while discussing hadith number 5994 in his Kanz al ’Ummal, on page 391, Vol. 6, stating that he is a Shi’a. Al Thahbi, in his Al Mizan, says, “‘Abdul-Razzaq ibn Humam ibn Nafi’, Abu Bakr al Himyari’s mentor, is a Shi’a dignitary of San’a, was one of the most trusted traditionists among all scholars.”

He narrates his biography and adds: “He has written a great deal, authoring [in particular] Al Jami’ Al Kabir. He is a custodian of knowledge sought by many people such as Ahmed, Ishaq, Yahya, al Thahbi, al Ramadi, and ‘Abd.”

He discusses his character and quotes al ’Abbas ibn ‘Abdul-’Azim, accusing him of being a liar. He states that al Thahbi has denounced such an accusation. He says, “Not only Muslim, but all those who have memorized hadith have agreed with al ’Abbas, while the Imams of knowledge rely on his authority.”

He goes on to narrate his biography, quoting al Tayalisi saying: “I have heard Ibn Ma’in say something from which I became convinced that ‘Abdul-Razzaq was a Shi’a. Ibn Ma’in asked him: ‘Your instructors, such as Mu’ammar, Malik, Ibn Jurayh, Sufyan, al Awza’i, are all Sunnis. Where did you learn the sect of Shi’ism from?’ He answered: ‘Ja’far ibn Sulaiman al Zab’i once paid us a visit, and I found him to be virtuous and rightly guided, and I learned Shi’ism from him.’”

‘Abdul-Razzaq, as quoted above, statement in which he says that he is a Shi’a indicates that he has learned Shi’ism from Ja’far al Zab’i, but Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr al Muqaddimi thinks that Ja’far al Zab’i himself has learned Shi’ism from ‘Abdul-Razzaq. He even denounces ‘Abdul-Razzaq for this reason. In Al Mizan, he is quoted as saying, “I wish I had lost ‘Abdul-Razzaq for good. Nobody has corrupted Ja’far’s beliefs other than he.” The “corruption” to which he refers is Shi’ism!

Ibn Ma’in has heavily relied on ‘Abdul-Razzaq’s authority, in spite of his “admission” that he is a Shi’a as stated above. Ahmed ibn Abu Khayth’amah, as in ‘Abdel-Razzaq’s biography in Al Mizan, has said, “It has been said to Ibn Ma’in that Ahmed says that ‘Ubaidullah ibn Musa rejects ‘Abdul-Razzaq’s hadith because of his Shi’a beliefs. Ibn Ma’in has responded thus: ‘I swear by Allah, Who is the only God, that ‘Abdul-Razzaq is a hundred times superior to ‘Ubaidullah, and I have heard ‘Abdul-Razzaq’s hadith and found it to be many times more in volume than ‘Ubaidullah’s.’”

Also in ‘Abdel-Razzaq’s biography in Al Mizan, Abu Salih Muhammad ibn Isma’il al Dirari is quoted saying, “While we were in San’a guests of ‘Abdul-Razzaq, we heard that Ahmed and Ibn Ma’in, joined by others, had rejected ‘Abdul-Razzaq’s hadith, or say disliked it, because of the traditionist being a Shi’a. The news deeply depressed us. We thought that we had spent our resources and taken the trouble to make the trip there all in vain. Then I joined the pilgrims for Mecca where I met Yahya and asked him about this issue. He, as stated in ‘Abdel-Razzaq’s biography in Al Mizan, said: ‘O Abu Salih! Even if ‘Abdul-Razzaq abandons Islam altogether, we shall never reject his hadith.’”

Ibn ‘Adi has mentioned him and said: “‘Abdul-Razzaq has reported ahadith dealing with virtues, but nobody has endorsed them.13 He also counts the vices of certain people, which views are rejected by others;14 above all, he is believed to be a Shi’a.”

In spite of all this, Ahmed ibn Hanbal was asked once, as indicated in ‘Abdel-Razzaq’s biography in Al Mizan, whether he knew of any hadith better than that reported by ‘Abdul-Razzaq, and his answer was negative. Ibn al Qaisarani states at the conclusion of ‘Abdul-Razzaq’s biography in his own book Al Jami’ Bayna Rijalul Sahihain, quoting Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal saying, ‘If people dispute Mu’ammar’s hadith, then the final arbitrator is ‘Abdul-Razzaq.’

Mukhlid al Shu’ayri says that he was once in the company of ‘Abdul-Razzaq when a man mentioned Mu’awiyah. ‘Abdul-Razzaq, as stated in his biography in Al Mizan, then said: ‘Do not spoil our meeting by mentioning the descendants of Abu Sufyan.’” Zaid ibn al Mubarak has said: “We were in the company of ‘Abdul-Razzaq once when we recounted ibn al Hadthan’s hadith.

When ‘Umar’s address to ‘Ali and al ’Abbas: ‘You (i.e. ‘Abbas) have come to demand your inheritance of your nephew (the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny), while this man (i.e. ‘Ali) has come to demand his wife’s inheritance of her father’ was read, ‘Abdul-Razzaq, as stated in his biography in Al Mizan, said: ‘Behold this shameless, impertinent man using ‘nephew’ and ‘father’ instead of ‘the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam’!”

In spite of all this, all compilers of hadith have recorded his traditions and relied on his authority. It has even been said, as Ibn Khallikan states in his Wafiyyat al A’yan, that people did not travel to anyone after the demise of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as often as they did to ‘Abdul-Razzaq’s. He is quoted by the Imams of contemporary Muslims such as Sufyan ibn ‘Ayinah, among whose mentors ‘Abdul-Razzaq himself was one, Ahmed ibn Hanbal, Yahya ibn Ma’in, and others.

Refer to his hadith in all the sahih books, as well as all musnads, which all contain quite a few of his ahadith. He was born, may Allah have mercy on his soul, in 211 A.H. He was contemporary to Abu ‘Abdullah Imam al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam for twenty-two years.15 He died during the first days of the Imamate of Imam Abu Ja’far al Jawad ‘alayh al Salam, nine years before the Imam’s demise;16 may Allah resurrect him in the company of these Imams to whose service, seeking of the Pleasure of Allah, he sincerely dedicated his life.

 

54 ‘Abdul-Malik ibn ‘Ayan

He is brother of Zararah, Hamran, Bakir, ‘Abdul-Rahman, Malik, Musa, Daris, and Umm al Aswad, all descendants of ‘Ayan, and all are notable Shi’as. They have won the sublime cup for serving the Islamic Shari’a, and they have produced a blessed and righteous progeny that adheres to their sect and views.

Al Thahbi mentions ‘Abdul-Malik in his Al Mizan, citing Abu Wa’il and others quoting Abu Hatim saying that he has reported authentic ahadith, and that Ma’in has said that there is nothing wrong with his hadith, while another authority testifies thus: “He is truthful, yet he is Rafidi, too.” Ibn Ayinah has said: “‘Abdul-Malik, a Rafidi, has reported hadith to us.” Abu Hatim says that he is among the earliest to embrace Shi’a Islam, and that his hadith is authentic. Both Sufyans have transmitted his hadith and reported it well-documented by others.

In his book Al Jami’ Bayna Rijalul Sahihain, Ibn al Qaisarani, as quoted in both works by Sufyan ibn A’yinah, has this to say about him: “‘Abdul-Malik ibn ‘Ayan, brother of Hamran al Kufi, was a Shi’a whose hadith about tawhid is recorded by Bukhari as transmitted by Abu Wa’il, and about iman as recorded in Muslim’s.”

He died during the life-time of Imam al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam who earnestly invoked the Almighty’s mercy upon him. Abu Ja’far ibn Babawayh has reported that Imam al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam, accompanied by his disciples, visited ‘Abdul-Malik’s gravesite in Medina. May he receive the good rewards and live eternally in peace.

 

55 ‘Ubaidullah ibn Musa al ’Abasi al Kufi

He is al Bukhari’s mentor, as the latter acknowledges on page 177 of his Sahih. Ibn Qutaybah has included him among traditionists in his work Al Ma’arif, stating that the man is a Shi’a. When he recounts a roll call of notable Shi’as in his chapter on sects on page 206 of his book al Ma’arif, he includes ‘Ubaidullah among them.

On page 279, Vol. 6, of his Tabaqat, Ibn Sa’d narrates ‘Ubaidullah’s biography without forgetting to indicate that he is a Shi’a, and that he narrates hadith supportive of Shi’ism, thus, according to Ibn Sa’d, weakening his hadith in the eyes of many people. He also adds saying that ‘Ubaidullah is also very well familiar with the Holy Qur’an. He records on page 139, Vol. 6, of his Al Kamil the date of his death at the conclusion of events that took place in 213 A.H., stating: “‘Ubaidullah ibn Musa al ’Abasi, the jurist, was a Shi’a who taught al Bukhari as the latter himself acknowledges in his Sahih.”

Al Thahbi mentions him in his Al Mizan saying, “Ubaidullah ibn Musa al ’Abasi al Kufi, al Bukhari’s mentor, is no question trustworthy, but he also is a deviated Shi’a.” Yet the author admits that both Abu Hatim and Ma’in have trusted his hadith. He says, “Abu Hatim has said that the hadith narrated by Abu Na’im is more authentic, yet ‘Ubaidullah’s is more authentic than all of them when it comes to the ahadith transmitted by Isra’il.”

Ahmed ibn ‘Abdullah al Ajli has said, “‘Ubaidullah ibn Musa is very knowledgeable of the Holy Qur’an, a major authority therein. I have never seen him arrogant or conceited, and he was never seen laughing boisterously.” Abu Dawood says, “‘Ubaidullah ibn al ’Abasi was a Shi’a heretic.” At the conclusion of the biography of Matar ibn Maimun in Al Mizan, al Thahbi states: “‘Ubaidullah, a Shi’a, is trustworthy.”

Ibn Ma’in used to learn hadith from ‘Ubaidullah ibn Musa and ‘Abdul-Razzaq knowing that they were both Shi’as. In Thahbi’s Al Mizan, while documenting ‘Abdul-Razzaq’s biography, the author quotes Ahmed ibn ‘Ali Khaythamah saying, “I inquired of Ibn Ma’in once regarding what I heard about Ahmed’s alleged rejection of ‘Ubaidullah ibn Musa’s hadith because of his being a Shi’a. Ibn Ma’in answered: ‘I swear by Allah Who has no associate that ‘Abdul-Razzaq is superior to ‘Ubaidullah a hundred times, and I have heard from ‘Abdul-Razzaq many times more ahadith than I heard from ‘Ubaidullah.’”

Sunnis, like all others, rely on ‘Ubaidullah’s hadith in their respective sahih books. Refer to his hadith in both sahih books transmitted by Shayban ibn ‘Abdul-Rahman. Bukhari’s Sahih quotes his hadith as reported by al A’mash ibn ‘Urwah and Isma’il ibn Abu Khalid. His hadith as recorded in Muslim’s Sahih is reported from Isra’il, al Hassan ibn Salih, and Usamah ibn Zaid. Al Bukhari quotes him directly.

He is also quoted directly by Ishaq ibn Ibrahim, Abu Bakr ibn Abu Shaybah, Ahmed ibn Ishaq al Bukhari, Mahmud ibn Ghaylan, Ahmed ibn Abu Sarij, Muhammad ibn al Hassan ibn Ashkab, Muhammad ibn Khalid al Thahbi, and Yusuf ibn Musa al Qattan. Muslim quotes his hadith as reported by al Hajjaj ibn al Sha’ir, al Qasim ibn Zakariyyah, ‘Abdullah al Darmi, Ishaq ibn al Mansur, Ibn Abu Shaybah, ‘Abd ibn Hamid, Ibrahim ibn Dinar, and Ibn Namir.

Al Thahbi states in his Al Mizan that ‘Ubaidullah died in 213 A.H. adding, “He was well known for his asceticism, adoration, and piety.” His death took place in early Thul-Qi’da; may Allah Almighty sanctify his resting place.

 

56 ‘Uthman ibn ‘Umair ‘Abdul-Yaqzan al Thaqafi al Kufi al Bijli

He is also known as ‘Uthman ibn Abu Zar’ah, ‘Uthman ibn Qais, and ‘Uthman ibn Abu Hamid. Abu Ahmed al Zubairi says that ‘Uthman believes in the return. Ahmed ibn Hanbal says, “Abu Yaqzan was joined in dissenting by Ibrahim ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Hassan.”

Ibn ‘Adi says the following about him: “He has embraced the bad sect, and he believes in the return, although trusted authorities have quoted him knowing that he was weak.” The fact of the matter is that whenever some people desire to belittle a Shi’a traditionist and undermine his scholarly ability, they charge him with preaching the concept of the return. Thus have they done to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Umair, so much so that Ibn Ma’in has said: “There is really nothing wrong with ‘Uthman’s hadith.”

In spite of all attacks on him, al A’mash, Sufyan, Shu’bah, Sharik and other peers have not in the least hesitated to quote him. Abu Dawood, al Tirmithi and others have all quoted him in their sunan and relied on his authority. Refer to his hadith as they record it through Anas and others. Al Thahbi has documented his biography and quoted the statements by notable scholars as cited above, putting DTQ on his name to indicate who among the authors of the sunan quote him.

 

57 ‘Adi ibn Thabit al Kufi

Ibn Ma’in has described him as a “Shi’a extremist,” while Dar Qutni calls him “Rafidi, extremist, but also reliable.” Al Jawzjani says that the man has “deviated.” Al Mas’udi says, “We have never seen anyone who is so outspoken in preaching his Shi’a views like ‘Adi ibn Thabit.”

In his Al Mizan, al Thahbi describes him as “the learned scholar of Shi’as, the most truthful among them, the judge and Imam of their mosques. Had all the Shi’as been like him, their harm would have been minimized.” Then he goes on to document his biography and quote the views of the scholars cited above. He recounts the scholars who describe him as trustworthy such as Dar Qutni, Ahmed ibn Hanbal, Ahmed al ’Ajli, Ahmed al Nisa’i, placing on his name the initials of authoers of all the six sahih books who quote him.

Refer to his hadith in both Bukhari’s and Muslim’s Sahih books as transmitted by al Bara’ ibn ‘Azib, ‘Abdullah ibn Yazid (his maternal grand-father), ‘Abdullah ibn Abu Awfah, Sulaiman ibn Sard, and Sa’id ibn Jubair. His hadith reported by Zarr ibn Habish and Abu Hazim al Ashja’i is recorded in Muslim’s Sahih. His hadith is quoted by al A’mash, Mis’ar, Sa’id, Yahya ibn Sa’id al Ansari, Zaid ibn Abu Anisa, and Fudayl ibn Ghazwan.

 

58 ‘Attiyah ibn Sa’d ibn Janadah al ’Aufi

He is Abul-Hassan al Kufi, the renowned tabi’i. Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his Al Mizan, quoting Salim al Muradi saying that ‘Attiyah adhered to Shi’ism. Imam Ibn Qutaybah has included him among traditionists in his Ma’arif following his grandson al ’Aufi, al Hussain ibn ‘Attiyah, the judge, adding, “‘Attiyah, a follower of Shi’ism, has been a jurist since the reign of al Hajjaj.”

Ibn Qutaybah has mentioned a few renowned Shi’as in his chapter on sects in his Ma’arif, listing ‘Attiyah al ’Aufi among them. Ibn Sa’d mentions him on age 212, Vol. 6, of his Tabaqat indicating his firm belief in Shi’ism. His father, Sa’d ibn Janadah, was a companion of ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam. Once he visited the Imam in Kufa and said: “O Commander of the Faithful! I have been blessed with a newly born son; would you mind choosing a name for him?” The Imam answered: “This is a gift (‘Attiyah) from Allah; therefore, do name him ‘Attiyah.”

Ibn Sa’d has said: “‘Attiyah ibn al Ash’ath went out in an army to fight al Hajjaj. When al Ash’ath’s army fled, ‘Attiyah fled to Persia. Al Hajjaj wrote an edict to Muhammad ibn al Qasim ordering him to call him to his presence and give him the option to either denounce ‘Ali or be whipped four hundred lashes, and his beard and head be shaven.

So, he called him and read al Hajjaj’s letter to him, but ‘Attiyah refused to succumb; therefore, he had him whipped four hundred lashes and his head and beard were shaven. When Qutaybah became governor of Khurasan, ‘Attiyah rebelled against him and remained there till ‘Umar ibn Habirah became ruler of Iraq. It was then that he wrote to him asking permission to go there. Granted permission, he came to Kufa where he stayed till he died in 11 A.H.” The author adds, “He was, indeed, a trusted authority, and he reported many authentic ahadith.”

All his descendants were sincere followers of Muhammad’s progeny ‘alayh al Salam. Among them were noblemen, highly distinguished personalities like al Hussain ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Attiyah who was appointed governor of the district of Al Sharqiyya succeeding Hafs ibn Ghiyath, as stated on page 58 of the same reference, then he was transferred to al Mahdi’s troops. He died in 201 A.H. Another is Sa’d ibn Muhammad ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Attiyah, also a traditionist, who became governor of Baghdad.17 He used to quote his father Sa’d from his uncle al Hussain ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Attiyah.

Back to the story of ‘Attiyah al ’Aufi. He is considered a reliable authority by Dawood and al Tirmithi. Refer to his hadith in their sahih books from Ibn ‘Abbas, Abu Sa’id and Ibn ‘Umar. He has also learned hadith from ‘Abdullah ibn al Hassan who quotes his father who quotes his grand-mother al Zahra’, Mistress of the women of Paradise. His son al Hassan ibn ‘Attiyah has learned hadith from him, and so have al Hajjaj ibn Arta’ah, Mis’ar, al Hassan ibn Adwan and others.

 

59 Al’ala’ ibn Salih al Taymi al Kufi

In his biography of Al’ala’ in Al Mizan, Abu Hatim says the following about him: “He is one of the seniors of the Shi’as.” In spite of this, Abu Dawood and al Tirmithi have relied on his authority. Ma’in trusts him. Both Abu Hatim and Abu Zar’ah say that there is nothing wrong with his hadith.

Refer to his hadith in both al Tirmithi’s and Abu Dawood’s sahih books from Yazid ibn Abu Maryam and al Hakam ibn ‘Utaybah, in addition to all Sunni musnads. Abu Na’im and Yahya ibn Bakir quote him, and so do many of their peers. He must be distinguished from Al’ala’ ibn Abul-’Abbas, the Meccan poet. The latter is a Sufyani Sheikh.

His hadith is reported by Abul-Tufayl. He is in a higher rank than Abul-’ala’ ibn Salih; the latter is a Kufian, while the poet is Meccan. Both are mentioned in al Thahbi’s Al Mizan, where the author inaccurately quotes a statement pertaining to their being Shi’a seniors. Al’ala’ the poet has composed poetry in praise of the Commander of the Faithful ‘alayh al Salam which serves as irrefutable proof of his dedication and also highlights the truth about the Imam. He has also several poetic eulogies appreciated by Allah, His Messenger, and the believers.

 

60 ‘Alqamah ibn Qais ibn ‘Abdullah al Nakh’i Abu Shibil

He is uncle of al Aswad and Ibrahim, sons of Yazid. He is also a follower of the Progeny of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Al Shahristani, in his Al Milal wal Nihal, has included him among Shi’a nobility. He is master among the traditionists mentioned by Abu Ishaq al Jawzjani who spitefully says, “There has been a group of people among the residents of Kufa whose sect [of Shi’ism is not appreciated; they are the masters among Kufi traditionists.”

‘Alqamah and his brother ‘Ali have been companions of ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam. They have both participated in Siffin where ‘Ali was martyred. The latter used to be called “Abul-Salat” (man of the prayers) due to his quite frequent prayers. ‘Alqamah drenched his sword with the blood of the oppressive gang. His foot slid, yet he continued to wage jihad in the way of Allah, remaining an enemy of Mu’awiyah till his death.

Abu Bardah included ‘Alqamah’s name among the emissary to Mu’awiyah during the latter’s reign, but ‘Alqamah objected and even wrote to Abu Bardah saying: “Please remove my name (from the list); please do remove it.” This is recorded by Ibn Sa’d in his biography of ‘Alqamah on page 57, Vol. 6, of his Tabaqat.

‘Alqamah’s fair mindedness and prestige among Sunnis is undisputed in spite of their knowledge of his Shi’a beliefs. Authors of the six sahih books, as well as others, have all relied on his authority. Refer to his hadith in Muslim and Bukhari from Ibn Mas’ud, Abul-Darda’ah and ‘Ayesha. His hadith about ‘Uthman and Abu Mas’ud is recorded in Muslim’s Sahih.

In both sahih books, his hadith is narrated by his nephew Ibrahim al Nakh’i. In Muslim’s Sahih, his hadith is transmitted by ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Yazid, Ibrahim ibn Yazid, and al Sha’bi. He died, may Allah have mercy on his soul, in 62 A.H. in Kufa.

 

61 ‘Ali ibn Badimah

Al Thahbi mentions him in his Al Mizan quoting Ahmed ibn Hanbal saying, “He has reported authentic ahadith,” that he is a pioneer of Shi’ism, that Ibn Ma’in has trusted him, that he narrates hadith from Makrimah and others, and that both Shu’bah and Mu’ammar have learned hadith from him. He marks his name to indicate that the authors of sunan have all quoted his hadith.

 

62 ‘Ali ibn al Ja’d

He is Abul-Hassan al Jawhari al Baghdadi, a slave of Banu Hashim. One of al Bukhari’s mentors, he is included by Qutaybah among notable Shi’as in his book Al Ma’arif. His biography in Al Mizan indicates that for sixty years, ‘Ali used to fast every other day. Al Qaisarani mentions him in his book Al Jami’ Bayna Rijalul Sahihain, stating that al Bukhari alone has narrated twelve thousand ahadith reported by ‘Ali ibn al Ja’d. He died in 203 at the age of 96.

 

63 ‘Ali ibn Zaid

His full name is ‘Ali ibn Zaid ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Zuhayr ibn Abu Malika ibn Jad’an Abul-Hassan al Qarashi al Taymi al Basri. Ahmed al ’Ajli has mentioned him saying that the man follows the Shi’a School of Muslim Law.

Yazid ibn Zari’ has said that ‘Ali ibn Yazid has been a Rafidi. In spite of all this, the learned scholars among the tabi’in, such as Shu’bah, ‘Abdul-Warith, and many of their peers, have all quoted his hadith. He is one of the three jurists for whom Basrah has acquired fame, the others are Qatadah and ‘Ash’ath al Hadani. They were all blind. When al Hassan al Basri died, they suggested to ‘Ali to take his place due to his accomplishments. He was so prestigious that only renowned dignitaries were his companions, something not too many Shi’as could enjoy during those days.

Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his Al Mizan stating the above facts about him. In his book Al Jami’ Bayna Rijalul Sahihain, al Qaisarani states his biography and says that Muslim has quoted his hadith as reported by Thabit al Banani, and that he has learned about jihad from Anas ibn Malik. He died, may Allah have mercy on him, in 131 A.H.

 

64 ‘Ali ibn Salih

He is brother of al Hassan ibn Salih. We have already said a word about his virtues when we recounted the biography of his brother al Hassan. He is one of the early Shi’a scholars, just like his brother. In his chapter on sales, Muslim relies on his authority.

‘Ali ibn Salih has reported hadith from Salameh ibn Kahil, while Waki’ has quoted him; they, too, are both Shi’as. He was born, may Allah be merciful unto his soul, and his twin brother al Hassan, in 100 A.H., and he died in 151 A.H.

 

65 ‘Ali ibn Ghurab Abu Yahya al Fazari al Kufi

Ibn Hayyan has described him as “an extremist Shi’a.” Probably for this reason, al Jawzjani drops him completely. Abu Dawood has said that ‘Ali’s hadith has been rejected, while both Ibn Ma’in and Dar Qutni trust him. Abu Hatim has said that there is nothing wrong with his hadith. Abu Zar’ah says he considers him truthful.

Ahmed ibn Hanbal says, “I find him quite truthful.” Ibn Ma’in describes him as “the poor man, the man of the truth,” while al Thahbi mentions him in his Al Mizan quoting both pros and cons regarding his hadith as mentioned above, and marking his name with SQ to identify which authors of the sunan rely on his authority. He reports hadith from Hisham ibn ‘Urwah and ‘Ubaidullah ibn ‘Umar.

On page 273, Vol. 6, of his Tabaqat, Ibn Sa’d says the following about him: “Isma’il ibn Raja’ quotes his hadith regarding what al A’mash had said about ‘Uthman.” He died, may Allah have mercy on his soul, in Kufa in early Rabi’ul-Awwal 184, during Harun’s regime.

 

66 ‘Ali ibn Qadim Abul-Hassan al Khuza’i al Kufi

He is mentor of Ahmed ibn al Furat, Ya’qub al Faswi and a group of their peers who have all learned hadith from him and relied on his authority. Ibn Sa’d mentions him on page 282, Vol. 6, of his Tabaqat and describes him as an “extremist Shi’a.” Probably for this reason alone that Yahya regards his hadith as “weak.” Abu Hatim says that he is truthful.

Al Thahbi mentions him in his Al Mizan, quoting the above stated views about him, and marking his name to indicate that Abu Dawood and al Tirmithi have both quoted his hadith. His hadith is recorded in their books from Sa’id ibn Abu ‘Urwah and Qatar. He died, may Allah be merciful unto his soul, in 213 A.H. during al Ma’mun’s regime.

 

67 ‘Ali ibn al Munthir al Tara’ifi

He is professor of al Tirmithi, al Nisa’i, Ibn Sa’id, ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Abu Hatim, and other peers who have all learned hadith from him and relied on his authority. Al Thahbi mentions him in his Al Mizan, marking his name with TSQ as an indication of which authors of the sunan quote his hadith. He quotes the following from al Nisa’i: “‘Ali ibn al Munthir is a staunch Shi’a, very trustworthy.”

He states that Ibn Hatim has said that the man is truthful and trustworthy, and that he reports hadith from Fudayl, Ibn ‘Ayinah and al Walid ibn Muslim. Al Nisa’i testifies to the fact that he is “a staunch Shi’a,” and that he relies on his hadith which is recorded in both sahih books. This, indeed, provides food for thought for those who cast doubt about his reliability. Al Munthir, may Allah be merciful unto his soul, died in 256 A.H.

 

68 ‘Ali ibn al Hashim ibn al Barid Abul-Hassan al Kufi al Khazzaz al ’Aithi

He is one of Imam Ahmed’s mentors. Abu Dawood mentions him and describes him as a “well-ascertained Shi’a.” Ibn Haban says that he is an “Shi’a extremist.” Ja’far ibn Aban says, “I have heard Ibn Namir say that ‘Ali ibn Hashim is extremist in his Shi’a beliefs.” Al Bukhari has said that both ‘Ali ibn Hashim and his father are over-zealous in their Shi’a beliefs.

Probably for this reason, al Bukhari has rejected his hadith, but all other five authors of the sahih books have relied on his authority. Ibn Ma’in and others have trusted him, while Abu Dawood has included him among the most reliable traditionists. Abu Zar’ah has said that he is truthful, and al Nisa’i has stated that there is nothing wrong with his hadith. Al Thahbi mentions him in his Al Mizan, quoting what we have already cited above.

Al Khatib al Baghdadi, in a chapter dealing with ‘Ali’s character in his own Tarikh (history), Vol. 12, page 116, quotes Muhammad ibn Sulaiman al Baghindi saying that ‘Ali ibn Hashim ibn al Barid is truthful, a man who used to follow Shi’ism. He also quotes Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al Ajiri saying: “Once I asked Abu Dawood about ‘Ali ibn Hashim ibn al Barid. He suggested that I should ask ‘Isa ibn Yunus. The latter has said: ‘He belongs to those who call for Shi’ism.’” All of this is true. He also quotes al Jawzjani saying that Hisham ibn al Barid and his son ‘Ali ibn Hashim are extremist in their “corrupt sect.”

In spite of all this, authors of five sahih books rely on ‘Ali ibn Hashim. Refer to his hadith about marriage in Muslim’s Sahih as reported by Hisham ibn ‘Urwah, and in his chapter dealing with seeking permission as transmitted from Talha ibn Yahya. His hadith in Muslim’s Sahih is transmitted by Abu Mu’ammar Isma’il ibn Ibrahim and ‘Abdullah ibn Aban. Ahmed ibn Hanbal, too, has reported his hadith, in addition to both sons of Shaybah, and a group of their class of reporters whose mentor was none other than ‘Ali ibn Hashim. Al Thahbi says, “He died, may Allah have mercy on his soul, in 181 A.H.,” adding, “His death is probably the earliest of those of Imam Ahmed’s mentors.”

 

69 ‘Ammar ibn Zurayq al Kufi

Al Sulaimani calls him “Rafidi,” as al Thahbi states while discussing ‘Ammar in his Al Mizan. In spite of this allegation, Muslim, Abu Dawood and al Nisa’i rely on his authority. Refer to his hadith in Muslim’s Sahih as transmitted by al A’mash, Abu Ishaq al Subai’i, Mansur, and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Isa. His hadith is reported in Muslim’s Sahih by Abul-Jawab, Abul-Hawas Salam, Ibn Ahmed al Zubairi, and Yahya ibn Adam.

 

70 ‘Ammar ibn Mu’awiyah or Ibn Abu Mu’awiyah

He is also called Khabab, or Ibn Salih al Dihni al Bijli al Kufi, Abu Mu’awiyah. He is one of the Shi’a heroes who suffered a great deal of persecution while defending Muhammad’s Progeny ‘alayh al Salam, so much so that Bishr ibn Marwan cut off his hamstrings only because he was a Shi’a. He is mentor of both Sufyans, in addition to Shu’bah, Sharik, and al ’Abar, who have all learned hadith from him and relied on his authority. Ahmed, Ibn Ma’in, Abu Hatim and other people have also relied on his authority. Muslim and four authors of sunan have quoted his hadith. Al Thahbi has included his biography in his own Al Mizan and quoted the views stated above regarding his being a Shi’a and a trustworthy traditionist, adding that nobody had spoken ill of him except al ’Aqili, and that there was no fault in him other than his being a Shi’a. Refer to his hadith about the pilgrimage in Muslim’s Sahih from Abul-Zubair. He died in 133; may Allah have mercy on his soul.

 

71 ‘Amr ibn ‘Abdullah Abu Issaq al Subai’i al Hamadani al Kufi

He is Shi’a according to Ibn Qutaybah’s Ma’arif, and Shahristani’s Al Milal wal Nihal. He was one of the masters of traditionists whose sect, in its roots and branches, the Nasibis do not appreciate due to the fact that Shi’as have followed in the footsteps of Ahlul Bayt, deriving their method of worship from their own leadership in all religious matters.

For this reason, al Jawzjani has said in his biography of Zubaid in Al Mizan: “Among the residents of Kufa, there is a group whose sect is not appreciated; they are the chiefs of Kufi traditionists such as Abu Ishaq, Mansur, Zubaid al Yami, al A’mash and other peers. People have tolerated them because of being truthful in narrating hadith, without adding aught of their own thereto.”

Among what the Nasibis have rejected of Abu Ishaq’s hadith is this one:

“‘As the author of Al Mizan indicates, Amr ibn Isma’il has quoted Abu Issaq saying that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has said, ‘Ali is like a tree whose root I am, and whose branches are ‘Ali, whose fruit are al Hassan and al Hussain, whose leaves are the Shi’as.’”

In fact, al Mughirah’s statement “nobody caused the Kufis to perish except Abu Ishaq and al A’mash” is uncalled for except for the fact that these men are Shi’as and are loyal to Muhammad’s progeny ‘alayh al Salam. They have become custodians of all ahadith pertaining to the attributes of the latter, peace be upon them. They were oceans of knowledge, and they followed Allah’s commandments.

They are relied upon by the authors of all six sahih books and by others. Refer to Abu Ishaq’s hadith in both sahih books from al Bara’ ibn ‘Azib, Yazid ibn Arqam, Harithah ibn Wahab, Sulaiman ibn Sard, al No’man ibn Bashir, ‘Abdullah ibn Yazid al Khadmi, and ‘Amr ibn Maimun.

He is quoted in both sahih books by Shu’bah, al Thawri, Zuhayr, and by his grandson Yusuf ibn Ishaq ibn Abu Ishaq. Ibn Khallikan says in ‘Amr’s biography in Al Wafiyyat that ‘Amr was born three years before ‘Uthman took charge of ruling the Muslims, and that he died either in 127 or in 128, or in 129, whereas both Yahya ibn Ma’in and al Mada’ini say that he died in 132, and Allah knows best.

 

72 ‘Awf ibn Abu Jamila al Basri Abu Sahl

He is well known as “al A’rabi” [the bedouin], although his origin is really not from the desert. Al Thahbi mentions him in his Al Mizan and says that “He is also called ‘Awf the Truthful, while some say that he follows Shi’ism; despite that, a group of scholars has trusted him.” He also quotes Ja’far ibn Sulaiman describing him as Shi’a and quotes Bandar calling him “Rafidi.”

Ibn Qutaybah has included him in his own Al Ma’arif among Shi’a dignitaries. He has taught hadith to Ruh, Hawdah, Shu’bah, al Nadr ibn Shamil, ‘Uthman ibn al Haytham and many others of their calibre. Authors of the six sahih books as well as others have all relied on his authority. Refer to his hadith in Bukhari’s Sahih from al Hassan and Sa’id, sons of al Hassan al Basri, Muhammad ibn Sirin and Siyar ibn Salamah. His hadith in Muslim’s Sahih is transmitted by Al Nadr ibn Shamil. His hadith from Abu Raji’ al ’Ataridi exists in both sahihs. He died, may Allah have mercy on him, in 146 A.H.

 

73 Al Fadl ibn Dakin

His real name is ‘Amr ibn Hammad ibn Zuhayr al Malla’i al Kufi, and he is well known by Abu Na’im. He is al Bukhari’s mentor, as the latter admits in his own Sahih. A group of elite scholars, like Ibn Qutaybah in his Al Ma’arif, has included him among Shi’a dignitaries.

Al Thahbi mentions him in his Al Mizan and says: “I have heard ibn Ma’in saying: ‘If a man’s name is mentioned in the presence of Abu Na’im and he calls him a good person and praises him, then rest assured that that person is a Shi’a; whereas if he labels someone as Murji’, then rest assured that he is a good Sunni.’” Al Thahbi says that this statement proves that Yahya ibn Ma’in inclines towards believing in the Return. It also proves that the man considers al Fadl as a very staunch Shi’a.

In his biography of Khalid ibn Mukhlid in his Al Mizan, al Thahbi quotes al Jawzjani saying that Abu Na’im follows the Kufi sect, i.e. Shi’ism. To sum up, the fact that al Fadl ibn Dakin is a Shi’a has never been disputed. Nevertheless, all authors of the six sahih books rely on him. Refer to his hadith in Bukhari’s Sahih from Humam ibn Yahya, ‘Abdul-’Aziz ibn Abu Salamah, Zakariyyah ibn Abu Za’idah, Hisham al Distwa’i, al A’mash, Misar, al Thawri, Malik, Ibn ‘Ayinah, Shaybah, and Zuhayr.

His hadith in Muslim is transmitted by Saif ibn Abu Sulaiman, Isma’il ibn Muslim, Abu ‘Asim Muhammad ibn Ayub al Thaqafi, Abul Amis, Musa ibn ‘Ali, Abu Shihab Musa ibn Nafi’, Sufyan, Hisham ibn Sa’d, ‘Abdul-Wahid ibn Ayman, and Isra’il. Al Bukhari quotes him directly, while Muslim quotes his hadith as transmitted by Hajjaj ibn al Sha’ir, ‘Abd ibn Hamid, Ibn Abu Shaybah, Abu Sa’d al Ashajj, Ibn Namir, ‘Abdullah al Darmi, Issaq al Hanzali, and Zuhayr ibn Harb.

He was born in 133, and he died in Kufa on a Thursday night on the last day of Sha’ban, 210, during al Mu’tasim’s reign. Ibn Sa’d mentions him on page 279, Vol. 6, of his Tabaqat, describing him as “trustworthy, reliable, a man who has narrated a great deal of hadith, and an authority therein.”

 

74 Fadil ibn Marzuq al Aghar al Ruwasi al Kufi Abu ‘Abdul-Rahman

Al Thahbi mentions him in his Mizan and describes him as a well-known Shi’a, quoting Sufyan ibn ‘Ayinah and Ibn Ma’in testifying to this fact. He quotes Ibn ‘Adi saying that he hopes there is nothing wrong with the hadith he narrates, then he quotes al Haytham ibn Jamil saying that the latter once mentioned Fadl ibn Marzuq once and described him as “one of the Imams of guidance.”

In his Sahih, Muslim relies on the authority of Fadil’s ahadith which deals with prayers as transmitted by Shaqiq ibn ‘Uqbah, and with zakat by ‘Adi ibn Thabit. His hadith dealing with zakat as recorded by Muslim is transmitted by Yahya ibn Adam and Abu Usamah. In the sunan, his hadith is quoted by Waki’, Yazid, Abu Na’im, ‘Ali ibn al Ja’d and many peers. Zaid ibn al Habab has in fact lied regarding what he attributed to him of hadith dealing with the appointment of ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam as Amr by the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He died, may Allah have mercy on him, in 158.

 

75 Fitr ibn Khalifah al Hannat al Kufi

‘Abdullah ibn Ahmed once asked his father about Fitr ibn Khalifah. He answered, “He is a reporter of authentic hadith. His hadith reflects an attitude of a responsible person, but he also is a follower of Shi’ism.” ‘Abbas has quoted Ibn Ma’in saying that Fitr ibn Khalifah is a trusted Shi’a. Ahmed has said: “Fitr ibn Khalifah is trusted by Yahya, but he is an extremist Khashbi.” Probably for this reason alone, Abu Bakr ibn ‘Ayyash has said, “I have not abandoned the traditions reported by Fitr ibn Khalifah except because of his bad sect,” i.e. for no fault in him other than his being a Shi’a.

Al Jawzjani says: “Fitr ibn Khalifah has deviated from the path.” During his sickness, he was heard by Ja’far al Ahmar saying: “Nothing pleases me more than knowing that for each hair in my body there is an angel praising Allah Almighty on my behalf because of my love for Ahlul Bayt, peace be upon them.”

Fitr ibn Khalifah narrates hadith from Abul-Tufayl, Abu Wa’il, and Mujahid. His hadith is quoted by Usamah, Yahya ibn Adam, Qabisah and others of the same calibre. Ahmed and others have trusted him. Murrah has said the following about him, “He is a responsible narrator of hadith who has memorized what he narrates by heart.” Ibn Sa’d says, “He is, Insha-Allah, trustworthy.” Al Thahbi discusses him in his Mizan, stating the learned scholars’ views, which have already been stated above, concerning his character. Ibn Sa’d has quoted the same on page 253, Vol. 6, of his Tabaqat.

When Qutaybah mentions renowned Shi’as in his Ma’arif, he includes Fitr ibn Khalifah among them. Al Bukhari has quoted Fitr’s hadith as narrated by Mujahid. Al Thawri has quoted Fitr’s hadith dealing with etiquette as recorded in al Bukhari’s work. Authors of the four sunan books, as well as others, have all quoted Fitr’s hadith. He died, may Allah have mercy on him, in 153 A.H.

 

76 Malik ibn Isma’il ibn Ziyad ibn Dirham Abu Hassan al Kufi al Hindi

He is one of Bukhari’s mentors as stated in the latter’s Sahih. Ibn Sa’d mentions him on page 282, Vol. 6, of his Tabaqat. He concludes by saying that “Abu Ghassan is trustworthy, truthful, a very staunch Shi’a.” Al Thahbi mentions him in his Mizan, which proves his reliability and prestige, stating that the man has learned the teachings of the sect of Shi’ism from his mentor al Hassan ibn Salih, that Ibn Ma’in has said that nobody in Kufa is more accurate in reporting hadith than Abu Ghassan, and that Abu satim has said: “Whenever I look at him, he seems as though he has just left his grave, with two marks of prostration stamped on his forehead.”

Al Bukhari has quoted him directly in many chapters of his Sahih. Muslim has quoted his hadith on criminal penalties in his own Sahih as transmitted by Harun ibn ‘Abdullah. Those who narrate his hadith in Bukhari are: Ibn ‘Ayinah, ‘Abdul-Aziz ibn Abu Salamah, and Isra’il. Both al Bukhari and Muslim quote his hadith from Zuhayr ibn Mu’awiyah. He died, may Allah have mercy on him, in Kufa in 219.

 

77 Muhammad ibn Khazim

He is very well known as Abu Mu’awiyah al Darir al Tamimi al Kufi. Al Thahbi mentions him saying, “Muhammad ibn Khazim al Darir is confirmed, truthful; nowhere at all have I seen his hadith as weak; I shall discuss him in my chapter on kunayat.” When the author mentions him in his said chapter, he states: “Abu Mu’awiyah al Darir is one of the most renowned and trustworthy Imams of hadith,” and he goes on to say: “Al Hakim has said that both Sheikhs rely on his authority, and he is famous for being an extremist Shi’a.”

All authors of the six sahihs have relied on his authority. Al Thahbi has marked his name with “A” to indicate that all traditionists rely on his authority. Refer to his hadith in Bukhari’s and Muslim’s Sahihs from al A’mash and Hisham ibn ‘Urwah. Muslim’s Sahih contains other ahadith he has narrated through other trusted reporters. In Bukhari’s Sahih, his hadith is reported by ‘Ali ibn al Madini, Muhammad ibn Salam, Yusuf ibn ‘Isa, Qutaybah, and Musaddad. In Muslim’s Sahih, he is quoted by Sa’d al Wasiti, Sa’d ibn Mansur, ‘Amr al Naqid, Ahmed ibn Sinan, Ibn Namir, Issaq al Hanzali, Abu Bakr ibn Abu Shaybah, Abu Karib, Yahya ibn Yahya, and Zuhayr. Musa al Zaman has reported his hadith in both sahihs. Muhammad ibn Khazim was born in 113, and he died in 195; may Allah be merciful unto him.

 

78 Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah al Dabi al Tahani al Nisaburi Abu ‘Abdullah al Hakim

He is an Imam of huffaz, those who memorize the entirety of the holy Qur’an and hadith by heart, and author of about one thousand books. He toured the lands seeking knowledge and learning hadith from about two thousand mentors. He may be compared with the most renowned scholars of his time such as al Sa’luki.

Imam ibn Furk and all other Imams consider his status to be superior even to their own. They appreciate him and his contributions; they cherish his name and reputation, without doubting his mastership at all. All learned Sunni scholars who could not achieve as much as he did envy him. He is one of the Shi’a heroes, a protector of the Islamic Shari’a.

The author of Al Mizan narrates his biography and describes him as “a truthful Imam, a very renowned Shi’a.” He quotes Ibn Tahir saying: “I once asked Abu Isma’il ‘Abdullah al Ansari about al Hakim Abu Abdullah. He said: ‘He is an Imam in hadith, a wretched Rafidi.’” Al Thahbi has recounted a few of his interesting statements such as his saying that the Chosen One salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came to the world circumcised, with a smile on his face, and that ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam is a wasi.

The author adds the following: “His being truthful and knowledgeable of what he reports is a unanimously accepted fact.” He was born in Rabi’ al Awwal of 321, and he died in Safar of 405, may Allah have mercy on his soul.

 

79 Muhammad ibn ‘Ubaidullah ibn Abu Rafi’ al Madani

He, Abu ‘Ubaidullah, his brothers al Fadl and ‘Abdullah sons of ‘Ubaidullah, his grandfather Abu Rafi’, his uncles Rafi’, al Hassan, al Mughirah, ‘Ali, and their sons as well as grandsons, are all among good Shi’a ancestors. The books they have authored testify to the depth of their Shi’a conviction, as we have mentioned in Section 2, Chapter 12, of our book Al Fusul al Muhimmah.

Ibn ‘Uday mentions Muhammad ibn ‘Ubaidullah ibn Abu Rafi’ al Madani, adding, at the conclusion of his biography in the Mizan, that the man is among Kufi Shi’as. When al Thahbi states his biography in his own Mizan, he marks it with TQ as an indication of which authors of the sunan books quote his hadith (i.e. Tirmithi and Dar Qutni). He also mentions that he quotes his father and grandfather, and that Mandil and ‘Ali ibn Hashim quote his hadith. His hadith is also quoted by Haban ibn ‘Ali, Yahya ibn Ya’li and others.

Muhammad ibn ‘Ubaidullah ibn Abu Rafi’ al Madani may have also reported hadith from his brother ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Ubaidullah who is well known as a traditionist by researchers of hadith. Al Tabarani in his Al Mu’jam al Kabir has relied on the authority of Muhammad ibn ‘Ubaidullah ibn Abu Rafi’ al Madani who quotes his father and grandfather saying that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has said to ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam, “The first to enter Paradise will be I and you, then al Hassan and al Hussain, with our progeny behind us, and our Shi’as on our right and left.”

 

80 Muhammad ibn Fudayl ibn Ghazwan Abu ‘Abdul-Rahman al Kufi

Ibn Qutaybah has included him among Shi’a dignitaries in his work Al Ma’arif, and Ibn Sa’d has mentioned him on page 271, Vol. 6, of his Tabaqat, saying, “He is a trustworthy and reliable traditionist who as reported a great deal of hadith; he also is a Shi’a, and some scholars [for this reason] do not rely on his authority.” Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his chapter containing those well-known because of their fathers’ reputation at the conclusion of his Mizan, describing him as a truthful Shi’a.

He also mentions him in his chapter containing those whose first name is Muhammad, describing him as “a man of truth and fame,” adding that Ahmed has described him as a Shi’a whose hadith is authentic, and that Abu Dawood has described him as a “Shi’a by profession” (!), adding that he was a man of hadith and knowledge, that he learned the Qur’an from Hamzah, that he has written numerous books, and that Ibn Ma’in has trusted him and Ahmed spoken well of him. Al Nisa’i has said that there is nothing wrong with his hadith.

Authors of the six sahih books, as well as many others, have relied on his authority. Refer to his hadith in Bukhari as transmitted by Muhammad ibn Namir, Ishaq al Hanzali, Ibn Abu Shaybah, Muhammad ibn Salam, Qutaybah, ‘Umran ibn Maisarah, and ‘Amr ibn ‘Ali. His hadith is transmitted in Bukhari by ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amir, Abu Karib, Muhammad ibn Tarf, Wasil ibn ‘Abdul A’la, Zuhayr, Abu Sa’d al Ashajj, Muhammad ibn Yazid, Muhammad ibn al Muthanna, Ahmed al Wak’i, and ‘Abdul-’Aziz ibn ‘Umar ibn Aban. He died, may Allah have mercy on him, in Kufa in 194 or 195 A.H.

 

81 Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn al Ta’ifi

He was one of the most distinguished companions of Imam Abu ‘Abdullah al Sadiq, peace be upon him. Sheikh al Ta’ifa Abu Ja’far al Tusi has mentioned him in his book Rijal al Shi’a, and al Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Dawood has included him in his chapter on the most trustworthy traditionists in his book Al Mukhtasar. Al Thahbi includes his biography and quotes Yahya ibn Ma’in and others who say that the man is truthful.

He adds saying that al Qa’nabi, Yahya ibn Yahya, and Qutaybah have all transmitted his traditions, and that ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Mahdi once mentioned Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn al Ta’ifi and said: “His books [of traditions] are all authentic,” and that Ma’ruf ibn Wasil said: “I saw Sufyan al Thawri once accompanied by Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn al Ta’ifi who was writing down his hadith.”

Yet those who have labelled his hadith as “weak” have done so only on the grounds of his being a Shi’a, although their prejudice has not at all harmed him. His hadith from ‘Amr ibn Dinar about ablution exists in Muslim’s Sahih. According to Ibn Sa’d’s Tabaqat, as stated on page 381, Vol. 5, his hadith is quoted by Waki’ ibn al Jarrah and one hundred others. In that year, his name-sake Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Jummaz died in Medina. Ibn Sa’d has included both of their biographies in Vol. 5 of his Tabaqat.

 

82 Muhammad ibn Musa ibn ‘Abdullah al Qatari al Madani

Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his Mizan quoting Abu Hatim testifying to his being a Shi’a. He also quotes al Tirmithi saying that the man is trustworthy, and he even marks his name with the initials of Muslim and the authors of sunan as an indication of their reliance on his authority. Refer to his hadith about foods in Muslim’s Sahih transmitted from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Abu Talha. He is also quoted by al Maqbari and a group of his peers. Others who have quoted his hadith are: Ibn Abu Fadik, Ibn Mahdi, Qutaybah, and others of their intellectual calibre.

 

83 Mu’awiyah ibn ‘Ammar al Dihni al Bajli al Kufi

He is among our highly respected and revered Shi’as, prestigious and trustworthy. His father ‘Ammar is a good example for perseverance and persistence in adhering to the principles of justice, a model Allah has brought forth for those who are patient while suffering for His Cause. A few tyrants cut off his hamstrings because of being a Shi’a, as we have indicated above, without succeeding in swaying him, till he left this world to receive his rewards.

His son Mu’awiyah was meted the same treatment, and the father is but a model for the son. He has accompanied Imams al Sadiq and al Kazim, peace be upon them, and learned from them a great deal. He has authored many books – as indicated above – and he is quoted by Shi’a reporters such as Ibn Abu ‘Umair and others. Muslim and al Nisa’i have relied on his authority. His hadith about hajj is quoted in Muslim’s Sahih by al Zubair.

In Muslim, he is quoted by both Yahya ibn Yahya and Qutaybah. He has also narrated hadith from his father ‘Ammar, and from a group of his peers, and such ahadith exist in Sunni musnads. He died, may Allah have mercy on him, in 175 A.H.

 

84 Ma’ruf ibn Kharbuth al Karkhi

Al Thahbi describes him18 in his Mizan as “a truthful Shi’a,” marking his name with the initials of al Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Dawood to indicate that they all quote his hadith. He also quotes Abul Tufayl saying that Ma’ruf narrates a few ahadith. His hadith is narrated by Abu ‘Asim, Abu Dawood, ‘Ubaidullah ibn Musa and others. He also quotes Abu Hatim saying that the latter writes down his hadith.

Ibn Khallikan mentions him in his Wafiyyat and describes him as one of the servants of ‘Ali ibn Musa al Rida, peace be upon him. He goes on to praise him, quoting a statement of his in which he says, “I have come unto the Almighty Allah, leaving everything behind me, with the exception of serving my master ‘Ali ibn Musa al Rida, peace be upon him.”

When Ibn Qutaybah discusses a few Shi’a notables in his work Al Ma’arif, he includes Ma’ruf ibn Kharbuth among them. Muslim has relied on the authority of Ma’ruf ibn Kharbuth; refer to his hadith about hajj in his sahih from Abul Tufayl. He died in Baghdad in 200 A.H.;19 his grave-site is now a mausoleum. Sirri al Saqti was one of his students.

 

85 Mansur ibn al Mu’tamir ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Rabi’ah al Salami al Kufi

He is one of the companions of Imams al Baqir and al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam, and he has narrated hadith from them, as the author of Muntahal Maqal fi Ahwal al Rijal states. Ibn Qutaybah includes him among Shi’a nobility in his book Al Ma’arif. Al Jawzjani has included him among the narrators “whose sect is not appreciated by [certain] people” in the roots and branches of religion, due to their adherence to what they have learned from Muhammad’s progeny ‘alayh al Salam.

Says he: “Among the people of Kufa there is a group whose sect is not appreciated; these are chiefs of Kufa’s traditionists such as Abu Ishaq, Mansur, Zubaid al Yami, al A’mash and other peers. People have tolerated them just because they are truthful in narrating hadith.”20 Why do they bear so much grudge against these truthful men? Is it because of their upholding the Two Weighty Things? Or their embarking upon the Ark of Salvation? Or their entring into the city of the Prophet’s knowledge through its Gate, the Gate of Repentance? Or is it their seeking refuge with the “Refuge of all the world”? Or is it their obedience to the Prophet’s will to be kind unto his descendants? Or is it their heart’s submission to Allah and their weeping for fear of Him, as is well known about them?

Stating the biography of Mansur ibn al Mu’tamir ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Rabi’ah, Ibn Sa’d says the following about Mansur on page 235 of Vol. 6 of his Tabaqat: “He has lost his eye-sight because of excessive weeping for fear of Allah. He used to carry a handkerchief for the purpose of drying his tears. Some allege that he fasted and prayed for sixty years.” Can a man of such qualities be a burden on people? No, indeed, but we have been inflicted by some people who do not know what fairness is; so, we are Allah’s, and unto Him is our return.

In his biography of Mansur ibn al Mu’tamir ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Rabi’ah, Ibn Sa’d also quotes Hammad ibn Zaid saying, “I have seen Mansur in Mecca, and I think he belongs to those Khashbis, yet I do not think that he tells a lie when he quotes hadith.”

Behold the underestimation, grudge, contempt and manifest enmity this statement bears. How surprised I am when I consider his statement: “I do not think that he tells lies…” As if telling lies is one of the practices of those who are sincere to Muhammad’s progeny. As if Mansur alone is truthful, rather than all other Shi’a traditionists. Name-calling… As if the Nasibis could not find a name whereby they can call the Shi’as other than misnomers such as Khashbis, Turabis, Rafidis, etc. As if they have never heard the Almighty’s Commandment:

 

“And do not exchange bad names; what an evil it is to use a bad name after having accepted faith (Qur’an, 49:11).”

 

Ibn Qutaybah has mentioned the “Khashbis” in his book Al Ma’arif and said: “These are Rafidis. Ibrahim al Ashtar met ‘Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad in the battle-field. Most of Ibrahim’s men had guaiacum wood panels; therefore, they were labelled ‘khashbis,’ men associated with paneling, out of scorn.” In fact, they called them so just to humiliate them and look down upon them and their wooden weapons with which they were able to beat Ibn Marjanah, predecessor of the Nasibis, thus annihilating those heretics, murderers of Muhammad’s progeny.

 

“Allah has cut off the tail of those who committed injustice; all praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds (Qur’an, 6:45).”

 

There is no harm, therefore, in this noble name, nor is there any harm in its synonyms like Turabis, after Abu Turab (Imam ‘Ali, as); we are proud of it.

We have digressed. Let us go back to our main topic and state that it is the consensus of traditionists to rely on Mansur. For this reason, all authors of the six sahih books, as well as others, rely on his authority, knowing that he is Shi’a. Refer to his hadith in Bukhari’s and Muslim’s Sahihs from Abu Wa’il, Abul Duha, Ibrahim al Nakh’i and other peers.

He quotes Shu’bah, al Thawri, Ibn ‘Ayinah, Hammad ibn Zaid and others who are the most distinguished of that class of reporters of hadith. Ibn Sa’d has said that Mansur’s death took place at the end of the year 132, adding, “He is a trusted authority who has reported a great deal of hadith; he is a man of sublime prestige; may Allah have mercy on him.”

 

86 Al Minhal ibn ‘Amr al Kufi the tabi’i

He is one of the renowned Shi’as of Kufa. For this reason, al Jawzjani has categorized his hadith as “weak,” describing him as a “follower of the bad sect.” Ibn Hazm has spoken ill of him in the same manner, and Yahya ibn Sa’d, too, chews his name. Ahmed ibn Hanbal states contrariwise. He says: “Abu Bishr is more dear to me than a sweet cool fountain, and he is more reliable than others.”

In spite of being a staunch Shi’a, stating so in public even during the time of al Mukhtar, he is not doubted by scholars regarding the accuracy of his hadith. He is quoted by Shu’bah, al Mas’udi, al Hajjaj ibn Arta’ah, and many peers of their intellectual calibre. He is trusted by Ibn Ma’in, Ahmed al ’Ijli and others. In his Mizan, al Thahbi quotes their assessment of the man as we have stated above, marking his name with the initials of Bukhari and Muslim as an indication that they both consider his hadith reliable.

Refer to his hadith in Bukhari’s Sahih from Sa’id ibn Jubair. In Bukhari’s Sahih, in the author’s section on Tafsir, his hadith is transmitted by Zaid ibn Abu Anisa. Al Mansur ibn al Mu’tamir has quoted him in a chapter on prophets.

 

87 Musa ibn Qais al Hadrami Abu Muhammad

Al ’Aqili describes him as an “extremist Rafidi.” Once, Sufyan asked him about Abu Bakr. He answered: “‘Ali is more dear to me.” Musa ibn Qais reports hadith from Salamah ibn Kahil, Iyad ibn Iyad, ending with Malik ibn Ja’na reporting that “I heard Umm Salamah saying that ‘Ali is with the truth; whoever follows him is a follower of the truth, and whoever abandons him certainly abandons the truth; this is decreed.” This has been narrated by Abu Na’im al Fadl ibn Dakin from Musa ibn Qais. Musa ibn Qais has reported hadith praising Ahlul Bayt in volumes which angered al ’Aqili who said to him what he said. Ibn Ma’in has trusted and relied on him.

Abu Dawood and Sa’d ibn Mansur have both relied on his authority in their respective sunan. Al Thahbi has included his biography in his own Mizan, stating about him what we have already stated above. Refer to his hadith in the sunan from Salamah ibn Kahil and Hajar ibn ‘Anbasah. His hadith is transmitted by Dakin, ‘Ubaidullah ibn Musa and other reliable authorities. He died, may Allah have mercy on him, during the reign of al Mansur.

 

88 Naif’ ibn al Harith Abu Dawood al Nakh’i al Kufi al Hamadani al Subay’i

Al ’Aqili described him as being an “extremist Rafidi.” Al Bukhari says: “People speak ill of him [because of being a Shi’a].” Sufyan, Hamam, Sharik and a group of the most renowned scholars of such calibre have all quoted him. Al Tirmithi relies on him in his own sahih. Authors of musnads have all recorded his hadith. Refer to his hadith in Tirmithi and others from Anas ibn Malik, Ibn ‘Abbas, ‘Umran ibn Hasin and Zaid ibn Arqam. Al Thahbi has included his biography and stated what we have already said above.

 

89 Nuh ibn Qais ibn Rabah al Hadani

He is also known as al Tahi al Basri. Al Thahbi mentions him in his Mizan, describing his hadith as authentic, adding that Ahmed and Ibn Ma’in trust him. He also quotes Abu Dawood saying that the man is a Shi’a. Al Nisa’i has said that there is nothing wrong with his hadith, putting on his name the initials of Muslim and authors of the sunan as an indication that they all quote his hadith. In Muslim’s Sahih, his ahadith about beverages are quoted by Ibn ‘Awn. His ahadith on the dress codes exist in Muslim’s Sahih, too, as narrated by his brother Khalid ibn Qais.

In Muslim, he is quoted by Nasr ibn ‘Ali. In works other than Muslim’s, his hadith is quoted by al Ash’ath and by many others of his calibre. Nuh ibn Qais ibn Rabah reports from Ayub, ‘Amr ibn Malik and a group of other men.

 

90 Harun ibn Sa’d al ’Ijli al Kufi

Al Thahbi mentions him and puts Muslim’s initial on his name as an indication that the latter quotes him, then he describes him as “truthful in his own right,” but he also calls him “a hated Rafidi” who narrates from ‘Abbas from Ibn Ma’in that he is an extremist Shi’a. He has learned hadith from ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Abu Sa’id al Khudri, who in turn quotes Muhammad ibn Abu Hafs al ’Attar, al Mas’udi, and Hassan ibn Hayy. Abu Hatim says that there is nothing wrong with his hadith. I remember one of his ahadith which describes Hell-fire; it is recorded in Muslim’s Sahih as narrated by al Hassan ibn Salih from Harun ibn Sa’d al ’Ijli, from Salman.

 

91 Hashim ibn al Barid ibn Zaid Abu ‘Ali al Kufi

Al Thahbi mentions him and puts the initials of Abu Dawood and al Nisa’i on his name to indicate that he is one of their authorities, quoting Ibn Ma’in and others testifying to his being trustworthy, in addition to his own testimony to being a “Rafidi.” He quotes Ahmed saying that there is nothing wrong with his hadith. Hashim narrates hadith from Zaid ibn ‘Ali and Muslim al Batin, and he is quoted by al Kharibi and his son ‘Ali ibn Hashim, to whom we referred above, in addition to a group of other renowned scholars. Hashim adhered to Shi’ism, and this has been made clear when we discussed ‘Ali ibn Hashim.

 

92 Hubayrah ibn Maryam al Himyari

He is one of the companions of Imam ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam, equal only to al Harith in his sincerity as well as companionship. Al Thahbi mentions him and puts on his name the initials of the authors of sunan books as a reference to his being one of the authorities of their musnads, then he quotes Ahmed saying, “There is nothing wrong with his hadith, and he is more dear to us than al Harith.” Al Thahbi quotes Ibn Kharash describing Hubayrah as “weak; he used to assault the wounded in Siffin.” Al Jawzjani says the following about him: “He is a follower of al Mukhtar who used to put an end to the life of those wounded in the Khazir Battle.”

Al Shahristani, in his book Al Milal wal Nihal, has included him among Shi’a notables, a fact taken for granted by everyone. His hadith from ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam is unquestioned in the sunan, and he is quoted by both Abu Ishaq and Abu Fakhita.”

 

93 Hisham ibn Ziyad Abul Miqdam al Basri

Al Shahristani has included him in his Al Milal wal Nihal among Shi’a notables. Al Thahbi mentions him twice: once under his alphabetical index, and once in his chapter on kunayat, placing a Q on his name to indicate that Dar Qutni of the sunan relies on his authority. Refer to his hadith in Tirmithi’s Sahih and other works as transmitted from al Hassan and al Qardi. He is quoted by Shayban ibn Farukh, al Qawariri and others.

 

94 Hisham ibn ‘Ammar ibn Nasr ibn Maisarah Abu al Walid

He is also called al Zafri al Dimashqi. He is one of Bukhari’s mentors as the latter states in his Sahih. Ibn Qutaybah includes him among Shi’a notables when he mentions quite a few of them in his chapter on sects in Al Ma’arif. Al Thahbi mentions him in his Mizan, describing him as “the Imam, orator, and reciter of the Holy Qur’an of Damascus, its traditionist and scholar, a man of truth who has narrated a great deal of hadith, though he has a few [ideological] defects, etc.”

Al Bukhari quotes him directly in his chapter on “those who voluntarily grant extensions for repayment of debt” in his chapter on sales in his sahih and in other chapters with which researchers are familiar. Some of such chapters, I believe, are his books Al Maghazi, his book on beverages, and his chapter on the attributes of the companions of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Hisham ibn ‘Ammar narrates hadith from Yahya ibn Hamzah, Sadaqah ibn Khalid, ‘Abdul-Hamid ibn Abul ‘Ishrin and others.

The author of Al Mizan says: “Many quote his hadith; they travel to his place to learn from him how to recite the Holy Qur’an and the narration of hadith. His hadith is quoted by al Walid ibn Muslim, one of his mentors, while he himself narrates from Abu Lahi’ah. ‘Abdan has said that there is no traditionist like him in the world, while someone else has said that Hisham is outspoken, wise, easy to comprehend, and he has acquired a great deal of knowledge.”

Like other Shi’as, Hisham ibn ‘Ammar believes that the Qur’anic diction is created only by Allah Almighty. When Ahmed [ibn Hanbal] heard about this, as the author of Al Mizan states in his biography of Hisham ibn ‘Ammar, he responded by saying, “I have known him to be wreckless; may Allah annihilate him.” Ahmed has also come across a book written by Hisham in which one of the latter’s sermons says: “Praise be to Allah Who has manifested Himself unto his creatures through what He has created.”

This caused Ahmed to be extremely furious, so much so that he required all those who used to pray behind Hisham to repeat their prayers. Ahmed could not see that Hisham’s statement is very clear in stating that Allah is superior to being seen, glorified above those who inquire about Him with “how” or “where,” appreciative of His norm of creation. His statement may be compared with one saying: “He has manifested His miracles in everything He has created,” or it may even be more pertinent and fitting than the latter; but scholars of the same calibre speak of each other in the light of their own likes and dislikes, each according to his own degree of knowledge. Hisham ibn ‘Ammar was born in 153, and he died at the commencement of Muharram of 245 A.H.; may Allah have mercy on him.

 

95 Hashim ibn Bashir ibn al Qasim ibn Dinar al Wasiti Abu Mu’awiyah

His birth-place is Balkh. His grandfather al Qasim had moved to Wasit to engage in trade. Ibn Qutaybah includes him in his Al Ma’arif among Shi’a nobility. He is mentor of Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal and all those of his calibre. Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his book Al Mizan, marking his name with an indication that all authors of the six sahih books rely on his authority, and describing him as one who knows the Holy Qur’an by heart. Says al Thahbi: “He is one of the most renowned scholars. He learned hadith from al Zuhri and Hassan ibn ‘Abdul-Rahman. His hadith is quoted in turn by al Qattan, Ahmed, Ya’qub al Dawraqi, and by many others.”

Refer to his hadith in Bukhari’s and Muslim’s Sahih books as transmitted by Hamid al Tawil, Isma’il ibn Abu Khalid, Abu Ihaq al Shaybani, and by others. He is quoted in both books by ‘Umar, al Naqid, ‘Amr ibn Zararah, and Sa’id ibn Sulaiman. In Bukhari, his hadith is quoted by ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf, Sa’d ibn al Nadir, Muhammad ibn Nabahan, ‘Ali ibn al Madini, and Qutaybah. In Muslim, he is quoted by Ahmed ibn Hanbal, Shurayh, Ya’qub al Dawraqi, ‘Abdullah ibn Mu’it’, Yahya ibn Yahya, Sa’id ibn Mansur, Ibn Abu Shaybah, Isma’il ibn Salim, Muhammad ibn al Sabah, Dawood ibn Rashid, Ahmed ibn Mani’, Yahya ibn Ayub, Zuhayr ibn Harb, ‘Uthman ibn Abu Shaybah, ‘Ali ibn Hajar, and Yazid ibn Harun. He died, may Allah have mercy on him, in Baghdad in 183 A.H. at the age of 79.

 

96 Waki’ ibn al Jarrah ibn Malih ibn ‘Adi

His kunyat is “Abu Sufyan,” after his son Sufyan al Ruwasi al Kufi. He belongs to the tribe of Qais Ghilan. In his Ma’arif, Ibn Qutaybah includes him among Shi’a notables. In his book titled Tahthib, Ibn al Madani has said that Waki’ adheres to Shi’ism. Marwan ibn Mu’awiyah never doubted that Waki’ was “Rafidi.”

Once, Yahya ibn Ma’in visited Marwan and found him with a tablet containing statements about this person and that. Among its contents was a statement describing Waki’ as Rafidi. Ibn Ma’in said to Marwan: “Waki’ is better than you.” “Better than me?!” exclaimed Marwan. Ibn Ma’in answered: “Yes, better than you.” Ibn Ma’in indicates that Waki’ came to know about this dialogue and he responded by saying, “Yahya is a friend of ours.”

Ahmed ibn Hanbal was asked once, “If there is a discrepancy in narrating hadith between Waki’ and Abdul-Rahman ibn Mahdi, whose hadith shall we accept?” Ahmed answered that he personally preferred ‘Abdul-Rahman’s hadith for reasons which he stated. Among them was this one: “‘Abdul-Rahman never speaks in a derogatory manner about our ancestors, unlike Waki’ ibn al Jarrah.” This is supported by a statement recorded by al Thahbi at the conclusion of his biography of al Hassan ibn Salih wherein he says that Waki’ used to say: “Al Hassan ibn Salih, in my view, is an Imam of hadith.” Some people said to him, “But he does not invoke Allah’s mercy on ‘Uthman.” He said, “Do you invoke Allah’s mercy upon al Hajjaj’s soul?” thus equating ‘Uthman with al Hajjaj.

Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his book Al Mizan stating the above views about him. All authors of the six sahih books as well as others rely on his authority. Refer to his hadith in Bukhari’s and Muslim’s Sahih books as transmitted by al A’mash, al Thawri, Shu’bah, Isma’il ibn Abu Khalid, and ‘Ali ibn al Mubarak. He is quoted in both books by Ishaq al Hanzali and Muhammad ibn Namir. Al Bukhari quotes his hadith as transmitted by ‘Abdullah al Hamidi, Muhammad ibn Salam, Yahya ibn Ja’far ibn A’yan, Yahya ibn Musa, and Muhammad ibn Muqatil. In Muslim’s book, he is quoted by Zuhayr, Ibn Abu Shaybah, Abu Karib, Abu Sa’d al Ashajj, Nasr ibn ‘Ali, Sa’d ibn Azhar, Ibn Abu ‘Umar, ‘Ali ibn Kashram, ‘Uthman ibn Abu Shaybah, and Qutaybah ibn Sa’d. He died, may Allah have mercy on his soul, in Fid when he was in the company of a caravan returning from the pilgrimage, in Muharram of 197 A.H. at the age of 68.

 

97 Yahya ibn al Jazzar al ’Arni al Kufi

He is one of the companions of the Commander of the Faithful, peace be upon him. Al Thahbi mentions him in his book Al Mizan and marks his name to indicate that Muslim and authors of the sunan rely on his authority, describing him as “truthful” and “trustworthy,” and quoting al Hakam ibn Atbah saying that Yahya ibn al Jazzar is “extremist” in his Shi’a views. Ibn Sa’d has mentioned him on page 206, Vol. 6, of his Tabaqat saying: “Yahya ibn al Jazzar adheres to Shi’ism, and he goes to extremes in doing so; yet many have said that he is trustworthy, and that he narrates many ahadith.”

I have seen how Muslim’s Sahih contains one hadith about prayers which he narrates from ‘Ali, and another about faith transmitted from ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Abu Layla. Al Hakam ibn ‘Utayba and al Hassan al ’Urfi quote his hadith in Muslim and others.

 

98 Yahya ibn Sa’id al Qattan

His kunyat is “Abu Sa’id.” He is a slave of Banu Tamim al Basri, and he is the most renowned traditionist of his time. Qutaybah has included him in his Ma’arif among Shi’a notables. Authors of the six sahih books and others have relied on his authority. His hadith from Hisham ibn ‘Urwah, Hamid al Tawil, Yahya ibn Sa’id al Ansari and others stands on solid grounds in Bukhari, Musaddad, ‘Ali ibn al Madini and Bayan ibn ‘Amr. In Muslim’s book, his hadith is transmitted by Muhammad ibn Hatim, Muhammad ibn Khalad al Bahili, Abu Kamil Fadl ibn Hussain al Jahdari, Muhammad al Muqaddimi, ‘Abdullah ibn Hashim, Abu Bakr ibn Abu Shaybah, ‘Abdullah ibn Sa’d, Ahmed ibn Hanbal, Ya’qub al Dawraqi, Ahmed ibn ‘Abdah, ‘Amr ibn ‘Ali, and ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Bishr. He died, may Allah Almighty have mercy on him, in 198 A.H. at the age of 78.

 

99 Yazid ibn Ziyad al Kufi Abu ‘Abdullah

He is a slave of Banu Hashim. Al Thahbi mentions him in his book Al Mizan, placing on his name the initials of Muslim and four authors of sunan to indicate that they quote him. He cites Abu Fadl saying: “Yazid ibn Ziyad is one of the foremost Shi’a Imams.” Al Thahbi has admitted that he is one of the renowned Kufi scholars. In spite of all this, many have assaulted him, preparing against him all means of belittling and charging due to the fact that, relying on Abu Barzah or maybe Abu Bardah, he has narrated one hadith stating the following: “We were in the company of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam when some singing was heard.

Then ‘Amr ibn al ’Aas and Mu’awiyah came singing. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: ‘O Mighty Lord! Involve both of these men in dissension, and hurl them in Hell-fire.’” Refer to his hadith on beverages in Muslim’s Sahih from ‘Abdul-Rahman ibn Abu Layla as reported from him by Sufyan ibn ‘Ayinah. He died, may Allah Almighty have mercy on him, in 136 at the age of about ninety.

 

100 Abu ‘Abdullah al Jadali

Al Thahbi has mentioned him in his chapter on kunayat, placing on his name “DT” to indicate that he is among those relied upon by both Dawood and Tirmithi in their sahih books, then he describes him as an “abhorred Shi’a.” He quotes al Jawzjani saying that the man is the standard-bearer of al Mukhtar. He also quotes Ahmed describing him as “trustworthy.”

Al Shahristani has included him among Shi’a dignitaries in his book Al Milal wal Nihal. Ibn Qutaybah has included him among the most zealous of “Rafidis” in his book Al Ma’arif. Refer to his hadith in both Tirmithi’s and Abu Dawood’s sahih books as well as all Sunni musnads.

Ibn Sa’d mentions him on page 159, Vol. 6, of his Tabaqat where he says that, “Abu ‘Abdullah al Jadali is a very zealous Shi’a. Some allege that he headed al Mukhtar’s police force, and that he was sent once to ‘Abdullah ibn al Zubair accompanied by eight hundred men to annihilate them and support Muhammad ibn al Hanafiyyah against Ibn al Zubair’s scheme.”

Ibn al Zubair, in fact, had enforced a siege around the houses of Ibn al Hanafiyyah and Banu Hashim, surrounding them with fire wood in preparation for burning them alive because of refusing to swear the oath of allegiance to him, but Abu ‘Abdullah al Jadali saved them from a certain death; therefore, may Allah reward him for what he did for His Prophet’s household ‘alayh al Salam.

This much concludes what we liked to count in a hurry a hundred Shi’a heroes who are authorities relied upon by the Sunnis. They are custodians of the nation’s knowledge. Through them, the prophetic legacy is preserved, and they are sought by the authors of the sahih and musnad books. We have mentioned them by their names and quoted Sunni texts testifying to their being Shi’as while still remaining authorities, as you had requested. I think those who raise objections will see their error in claiming that the Sunnis do not rely on the authority of Shi’as.

They will come to know that their criterion is truthfulness and accuracy, regardless of the school of thought, Sunni or Shi’a. If the hadith narrated by the Shi’as is all rejected, then the vast majority of the prophetic legacy will be lost, as al Thahbi himself admits while narrating the biography of Aban ibn Taghlib in his book Al Mizan. There can be no better testimony than that.

You, may Allah render the truth victorious through your person, know that there have been quite a few ancestors of the Shi’as, other than the ones we have counted here, whose full count is many times more than this hundred, upon whose authority the Sunnis rely. These “others” are even of a higher calibre; they are narrators of even more authentic hadith, having acquired more knowledge. And they were closer to the Prophet’s time, with a seniority in embracing the Shi’a beliefs. They are Shi’a companions [sahabah] of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, may Allah be pleased with all of them. We have dealt with their blessed names at the conclusion of our work Al Fusul al Muhimmah.

They are also among the trustworthy tabi’in whose authority is relied upon. Each one of them is a trustworthy man who has memorized the entire text of the Holy Qur’an by heart, and his argument is irrefutabe. Among such men are those who were martyred while supporting the lesser and the greater Camel Battles, Siffin, Al Nahrawan, in Hijaz as well as in Yemen, when Bisr ibn Arta’ah invaded them, during the dissension of al Hadrami who was sent to Basrah by Mu’awiyah.

They include those who were martyred on the Taff Battle with the Master of the Youths of Paradise [Imam Hussain ibn ‘Ali, as], and those who were martyred with his grandson Zaid, and many others who had to face a great deal of injustice and persecution, avenging the massacre of the Prophet’s progeny. Among them were those who were murdered just because of being very strong in their beliefs.

Others were unfairly exiled from their homes, and those who had to resort to taqiyya, fearing for their lives or due to their physical weakness, such as al Ahnaf ibn Qais, al Asbagh ibn Nabatah, Yahya ibn Ya’mur, the latter being the first to apply dots to the Arabic alphabet, al Khalil ibn Ahmed al Farahidi, who founded the rules of Arabic grammar and scansion, Ma’ath ibn Muslim al Harra, who laid the foundations of the science of conjugation in the Arabic language, and many others whose complete biographies would require huge volumes.

Overlook the hatred of the Nasibis towards these men through their use of attacking; they call them “weak” traditionists, and they chew their names, thus depriving themselves of their knowledge. There are hundreds of reliable Shi’as who have learned hadith by heart, who are light-houses of guidance, ignored by Sunnis.

For these men, Shi’as have dedicated indices and bibliographies containing their biographies and stories. These works prove the extent of service these men have rendered to the tolerant Shari’a. Whoever researches them will find them to be models of truthfulness and trustworthiness, piety, asceticism, worship, and sincerity in bringing people closer to Allah Almighty and to His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, to His Book, and to the Imams of Muslims as well as to their commoners. We pray Allah to enable us and your own self to benefit from their blessings; He is the Most Merciful.

 

Sincerely,

Sh


 

  1. This Letter has grown quite lengthy because the topic demands it to be as such. Scholars are not bored by its length due to its contents that include precious benefits sought by every researcher and critic. Other than these, let whoever is bored read a portion of it, and let him judge the rest of it accordingly, then let him go directly to Letter No. 17 and the ones that succeed it. For fear of boring you by such a lengthy Letter, we have refrained from including it in lists of books containing valuable and very interesting information.
  2. This statement is important. Many narrators of hadith did not know how to read and write; they simply memorized hadith, as is the case with the most cited Sunni narrator of all, namely Abu Hurayra. – Tr.
  3. I think this is a typographical error and that the name should be “Abdullah ibn Omar” instead, the famous traditions and son of second caliph Omar ibn al Khattab. – Tr.
  4. Upon mentioning Isma’il ibn ‘Abbad al Thahbi departs from his usual approach in his Al Mizan listing him before Isma’il ibn Aban al Ghanawi and Isma’il ibn Aban al Azdi. He has indeed greatly wronged his own self discarding all basic rights.
  5. A collar put around the dog’s neck; the meaning here is that his time to depart has come when a rope is tightened around his neck.
  6. See page 196 of the abridged version of Al Jami’ Baynal ‘Ilmi wa Fad’ilih by the contemporary scholar Sheikh Ahmed ibn ‘Umar al Muhammasani al Beiruti.
  7. Refer to page 199 of its summary in the book written by the scholar Sheikh Ahmed ibn ‘Umar al Muhammasani al Beiruti.
  8. Ibn ‘Adi quotes a chain of narrators including al Hussain ibn ‘Ali al Sukuni al Kufi, Muhammad ibn al Hassan al Sukuni, Salih ibn al Aswad, al A’mash, and ‘Attiyah, stating that Jarir was asked once: “How was ‘Ali’s status among your folks?” Jarir answered: “He was the best of mankind.” This has been quoted by Muhammad Ahmed al Thahbi in his biography of Salih ibn Abul-Aswad in Al Mizan. In spite of al Thahbi’s extreme fanaticism, all he had to say in his comment about this hadith is his statement: “He probably meant during his [‘Ali’s] lifetime.”
  9. His statement “What a great man ‘Ali was,” though flattering, does not do justice to the status of the Imam, peace be upon him, even coming from one of his adversaries. Sharik’s rejection of such a feeble compliment and his anger thereat are, according to the norms of tradition, justified. There is quite a difference between the statement of this Omayyad vagabond who infers “What a great man ‘Ali was,” having heard ‘Ali’s outstanding virtues, as well as the verses of the Exalted and Almighty stating: “We have decreed, and the most capable of decreeing are We…” The comparison between the statement of that Omayyad man and those of Allah is indeed quite manifest; yet Allah Almighty did not content Himself with just saying “What a great servant of Allah he is,” but also added: “He is oft-returning;” so, Wafiyyat al A’yan does not provide any answer to such a question.
  10. He was also one of those who were put in charge of fighting the renegades as Ibn Hajar indicates as he discusses Sihan ibn Sawhan in Part One of his Al Isabah.
  11. It was said to al Sha’bi, as mentioned in the biography of Rashid al Hijri in al Thahbi’s Al Mizan, “What is the matter with you? Why do you find fault with ‘Ali’s companions? Haven’t you learned what you have learned from any of them?” He asked: “From whom?” They answered: “From al Harith and Sa’sa’ah.” He said: “As regarding Sa’sa’ah, he was, indeed, an eloquent orator, and I learned from him how to deliver sermons, and truly al Harith was an expert in mathematics, and from him did I learn the same.”
  12. Suffices you for proof testifying to this fact what is mentioned by Ibn Hajar in his biography in Part Three of his Isabah, Vol. 2, page 241.
  13. Yes, he was agreed upon by those who are fair, and they included it in their sahihs with satisfaction. Those who opposed it are the Nasibis and Kharijites. It includes what is narrated by Ahmed ibn al Azhar, who is unanimously considered as an authority, saying: “‘Abdel-Razzaq has taught me a few exclusive ahadith which he knows through a chain of narrators that includes Mu’ammar, al Zuhri, and ‘Ubaidullah and ends with Ibn ‘Abbas who says that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam looked once at ‘Ali and said: ‘You are a chief in this life, and a chief in the life to come; whoever loves you loves me, and whoever hates you hates me; the one you love is loved by Allah, and the one you dislike is disliked by Allah; woe unto those who despise you.’” This is quoted by al Hakim on page 128, Vol. 3, of his Al Mustadrak, followed by the author’s comment thus: “This is an authentic hadith according to the authority of both Sheikhs.” Among others is what ‘Abdel-Razzaq has narrated from Mu’ammar, from Ibn Najih, from Mujahid, from Ibn ‘Abbas who says that Fatima ‘alayh al Salam once said: “O Messenger of Allah! You have married me to a provider who has no money.” He said: “Are you not pleased that Allah cast a look at the inhabitants of the earth and chose from among them two men, and He made one of them your father and the other your husband?” This hadith is quoted by al Hakim on page 129, Vol. 3, of his Al Mustadrak through Sarih ibn Younus, Abu Hafs, al A’mash, Abu Salih, up to Abu Hurairah.
  14. Allah forbid that they have abominations only Mu’awiyah and his oppressive gang are more likely to have. Among such abominations is narrated by ‘Abdel-Razzaq through a chain of narrators that includes: Ibn ‘Ayinah, ‘Ali ibn Zaid ibn Jath’an, Abu Nadrah, up to Abu Sa’d who quotes the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying: “If you see Mu’awiyah sitting on my pulpit, kill him.”
  15. The reason for this is the fact that he, peace be upon him and his progeny, died in 148 at the age of 65.
  16. The demise of Imam al Jawad, peace be upon him, took place in 220; he was 25 years old. They have committed a mistake those who say that ‘Abdel-Razzaq narrated hadith from al Baqir, for al Baqir, peace be upon him, died in 114 at the age of 57, twelve years prior to ‘Abdel-Razzaq’s birth.
  17. This can be extracted from the biography of his grandfather Sa’d ibn Janadah in Part One of the Al Isabah.
  18. Some say “Ibn Fayruz,” others say “Ibn Fayruzan,” while still others call him “Ibn ‘Ali.”
  19. Some say in the year 201, while others say it was the year 204.
  20. As in Zubaid al Yami’s biography in Al Mizan. We have quoted this statement from al Jawzjani while discussing the biographies of Zubaid, al A’mash, and Abu Ishaq, and we included noteworthy comments on them.
 
 

Discussions

‘Abdul Hussain has clearly underestimated the complexity of the science of Hadith. His elementary conceptualization of this subject – which mirrors that of many others besides him – is symptomatic of the limitations within the Shia approach to Hadith criticism. The purpose of this discussion is not to compare the Sunni/Shia approach to Hadith. The objective is merely to provide the necessary context to this discussion which will remove the cosmetics from the objection.

The pivotal issue in ‘Abdul Hussain’s argument is that a Hadith cannot simply be dismissed because it is narrators happen to be Shia. It would stand to reason that the narrations that he has furnished deserve to be accepted despite the fact that they are narrated by Shias. ‘Abdul Hussain’s list of one-hundred Shia narrators is produced as unquestionable evidence in support of his allegation and has primarily been collected to impress his real audience; the uneducated common-folk and not Islamic scholars.

While it is true that a narration cannot simply be discarded on account of a Shia narrator appearing in its chain, the elementary flaws in ‘Abdul Hussain’s reasoning are revealing on so many levels, and are evident to the novice student let alone an accomplished scholar.

Firstly, the diffrentiation between a Rafidi and Shia has been completely ignored. The key issue is that any person who is tempted to bend the truth because of his ideological leanings, whether Shia or not, will not be relied upon.We have elaborated on this point in sufficient detail in our discussions on the previous letter and repeating some of those points will make this discussion unnecessarily long. Therefore, we refer the esteemed reader to the previous discussion on this point.

Secondly, the factors which render a narration weak are abundant. It is not restricted to the evaluation of the narrators. It is neccesarry to establish that each narrator has actually received the narration from the person he cites. Subtle interruptions in the chain (Mursal Khafi) as well as concious ommisions (Tadlis) are both flaws which can render a narration unreliable; worse still if there are obvious breaks in transmission (Inqita),

Thirdly, the levels of Adalah (moral integrity) and Dabt (precision), which are key measures of the quality of a narrator, vary in narrators. As such, a narrator might be accepted in a supporting capacity but will not be relied upon independently in establishing a fundemental matter in the Shari’ah (Tafarrud bi Asl).

Fourthly, it stands to follow from the previous reason that not every narrator whose narrations appear in Sunni books is cited for the purpose of accepting his narrations (Ihtijaj). Oftentimes the reports of a particular narrator have been cited to point out that his narrations are substantiated by others, not that he deserves to be relied upon independently (Mutabaat and Shawahid). It is sometimes the case that a narration is cited to point out that a particular narrator erred, or is the only one to narrate a particular report. It is also possible that a narrator is only cited to contrast his narrations with those of the reliable narrators (Mukhalafah). Scholars who compiled biographical profiles on narrators often commented on the manner in which a particular narrator’s reports have been cited. ‘Abdul Hussain cannot be blamed for overlooking this aspect since this level of erudition is practically absent from Shia scholarship.

Fifthly, the narrators appearing in ‘Abdul Hussain’s list are not necessarily all Shia. The level of deception is mindblowing when one considers the fact that some of those who are considered Shia from the perpective of Ahlus Sunnah are unknown entities in the Shia Rijal Literature, while some of them are even listed as Sunnis. On the other hand only a limited number of those whose names appear in ‘Abdul Hussain’s list happen to be narrators whose narrations which he cites in his arguments. These are but a handful of the many fissures that are evident in the foundation of his reasoning.

In order to faithfully process the raw data in ‘Abdul Hussain’s list of one-hundred we need to sort and classify the narrators into their respective categories so that we have useful information. The most practical classification would be to separate the narrators who are not Shia from the rest, then to separate those who are considered weak and dubious narrators regardless of their Shia leanings or ideology. After sorting the narrators into their respective categories, the next process is to include their status as documented by Shia scholars. Finally, the biographical profiles of a few narrators from each category will be cited to provide further insight on the status of narrators under each category.

Narrators who were definitely not Shia

No. Name Source cited in al Murajaat
2. Ibrahim ibn Yazid al Nakha’i[1] Ibn Qutaybah – al Ma’arif
14. Jarir ibn ‘Abdul Hamid[2] Ibn Qutaybah – al Ma’arif
20. Habib ibn Abi Thabit[3] Ibn Qutaybah – al Ma’arifal Shahrastani – al Milal wal Nihal
22. Al Hakam ibn ‘Utaybah[4] Ibn Qutaybah – al Ma’arif
28. Zaid ibn al Hubab[5] Ibn Qutaybah – al Ma’arif
Salim ibn Abi al Ja’d[6] Ibn Qutaybah – al Ma’arif
37. Sulaiman ibn Tarkhan[7] Ibn Qutaybah – al Ma’arif
41. Shu’bah ibn Hajjaj[8] Ibn Qutaybah – al Ma’arifal Shahrastani – al Milal wal Nihal
43. Tawus ibn Kaysan[9] Ibn Qutaybah – al Ma’arifal Shahrastani – al Milal wal Nihal
47. ‘Abdullah ibn Dawood[10] Ibn Qutaybah – al Ma’arif
60. ‘Alqamah ibn Qais al Nakha’i[11] al Shahrastani – al Milal wal Nihal
71. Abu Ishaq al Sabi’i[12] Ibn Qutaybah – al Ma’arifal Shahrastani – al Milal wal Nihal
94. Hisham ibn ‘Ammar[13] Ibn Qutaybah – al Ma’arif
95. Hushaym ibn Bashir[14] Ibn Qutaybah – al Ma’arif
96. Waki’ ibn al Jarrah[15] Ibn Qutaybah – al Ma’arif
98. Yahya ibn Sa’id al Qattan[16] Ibn Qutaybah – al Ma’arif

One notices a common reference, Ibn Qutaybah. Who was Ibn Qutaybah; and how does he fair in the field of narrator criticism?

‘Abdullah ibn Muslim ibn Qutaybah, Abu Muhammad al Dinawari (213-276) was born in Kufah, Iraq, and lived in the East. He served as a judge in Dinawar. He was a polymath who wrote on diverse topics including tafsir, fiqh, hadith, grammar, history, theology, and philosophy. He was well-known for his contributions to Arabic literature as well as his work on reconciling conflicting hadith titled Ta’wil Mukhtalif al Hadith.

Opinions regarding him varied in the subjects of hadith and theology. Al Dhahabi said:

The man is not an authority in hadith even though he is an accomplished scholar who was grounded in diverse disciplines and skilled at important subjects.[17]

 

Oftentimes a scholar will excel in multiple disciplines but will not be regarded an authority in some. This was the case with Ibn Qutaybah. He was a man of letters, and his contribution to the literary arts are his most distinguished accomplishments.

Al Qasim ibn Asbagh recalls a discussion about Ibn Qutaybah’s works on various subjects with al Tabari and Ibn Surayj, especially about Ibn Qutaybahs books on Fiqh. They were not impressed in the least with his books on Fiqh. They went on to criticize the books of Abu ‘Ubaid as well. They said:

This was not their field [Fiqh]. They are authorities in language though. If it is Fiqh that you are asking about, you are better of with the books of al Shafi’i and Dawood.[18]

 

His book, al Maarif, is nothing more than a book on history which lacks the academic rigour when it comes to discussions on narrator criticism. As such, any reference to it would never be taken too seriously by a novice student of Hadith, let alone an accomplished scholar. However, since ‘Abdul Hussain’s work was intended for a different audience he had no qualms about citing this as a reference, and including Sunnis in his list of one-hundred Shia narrators.

The same can be said for al Shahrastanis work, al Milal wal Nihal. This is a book on various religions and sects. Al Shahrastani’s approach in this work is to list the core beliefs and principles of each of the sects that he investigates, with the undertaking to represent their views and beliefs honestly and objectively. He is not known for any expertise in narrator criticism, in fact Hadith is not even his field of expertise.[19]

Abu Hanifah, the great Faqih, whose Madhhab is the oldest of the four remaining Sunni schools of law, is included among the Shia in al Shahrastanis work. If Abu Hanifah is considered a Shia, it does not require a strong imagination to realise that those marked as Shia by al Shahrastani have no connection to Shia belief. Abu Hanifah’s opposition to the Shia is clearly demonstrated in matters that are not fundamentals of faith, he distinguishes a Sunni from a Shia on the basis of wiping of the Khuffayn [leather socks].[20] In the issue of Khilafah, he explicitly accepts Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu as the first Khalifah and considers him the most virtuous; just as he accepts the Khilafah of ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum. He explains that the sound Islamic belief is that a person loves all the Sahabah, without exceeding the bounds for any one of them in the same way that there is no disassociation with any of them.[21]

To demonstrate the inaccuracies of these sources let us investigate the biography of Ibrahim al Nakha’i. The error of including him among the Shia can be extended to the rest as well.

Ibrahim ibn Yazid al Nakhai was the heir to the legal tradition of Kufah which had begun with ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu. His uncles, ‘Alqamah and al Aswad were the two distinguished disciples of Ibn Mas’ud and their family had a well-known link to ‘Aishah radiya Llahu ‘anha. The entire Hanafi school of Fiqh is built on the foundations of Ibrahim al Nakha’i’s teachings.

As we can see, it is only Ibn Qutaybah who has listed Ibrahim al Nakha’i as a Shia. If that were the case then Abu Hanifah is as much a Shia as Ibrahim al Nakha’i. Abu Hanifah was known for financially supporting Zaid ibn ‘Ali, and later Muhammad al Nafs al Zakiyyah.[22]However his teachings in ‘Aqidah have been documented.

 

One could add to this list:

Zubaid ibn al Harith – The extent of his Tashayyu’ was that he considered ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu correct in his stance against Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This is the view of Ahlus Sunnah.[23]

Sulaiman ibn Surad radiya Llahu ‘anhu – He was a Sahabi who fought alongside ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu when he became Khalifah. He was responsible for the Tawwabun movement; seeking retribution for Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Sadly, he was killed in battle and this movement was then hijacked by the likes of Mukhtar al Thaqafi the Liar.[24]

Sulaiman ibn Mihran al Amash – Al Dhahabi says that the allegations of Shia leanings against al A’mash are quite flimsy, he is not certain about al A’mash’s stance.[25] All evidence indicates that the extent of his ‘Shia’ leanings amount to nothing more than a few misplaced statements which are to be understood in context.

Zalim ibn Amr Abu al Aswad al Dili – His Shia leanings are only expressed by Ibn Sa’d; which appears very much to be nothing more than a political affiliation. He narrates Hadith from the likes of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu. One would hardly describe a Shia as such.[26]

Amir ibn Wathilah, Abu al Tufayl al Laythi radiya Llahu ‘anhu – He was a companion of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He fought alongside ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in battle against Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This means that whatever has been attributed to him in terms of Tashayyu amounts to nothing more than political allegiance and has no bearing on his beliefs. After all, he was the last of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhu to pass away; may Allah be pleased with him.[27]

Ali ibn Salih ibn Salih al Hamadani – ‘Abdul Hussain could not provide a single reference from Sunni books to identify him as a Shia. He therefore resorted to Shia books and abridged his name so as not to completely identify him. By abridging the name it would be plausible to deny this narrator and cite another with the same name.[28]

Muhammad ibn Muslim al Ta’ifi – The extent of the criticism against him was that he erred when he narrated from memory. There were no problems when he narrated from his original books. We have yet to come across anything that indicates that he was a Shia.[29]

Muawiyah ibn Ammar al Duhni – Besides his relationship with his father, there are no other indicators that suggest any Shia inclinations. ‘Abdul Hussain tries to establish a connection via his father, but this holds very little weight.[30]

Al Minhal ibn Amr – Besides al Juzajani, none of the critics appear to ascribe any Shia thought to him. Al Bukhari narrates from him in praise of al Hassan and al Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.[31]

 

Those described with Tashayyu’

For the sake of brevity we have reduced these narrators to a list and avoided a detailed, or even summarized, biographical account since we concede that there are Shia sentiments attached to these narrators. This does not mean that they upheld the doctrine of the Twelver Shia; as elaborated on in our previous discussion. The extent of their Tashayyu’ could be limited to prefering ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu over ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, or being overzealous in accepting the virtuous of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, or being overly critical of those who differed with ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, like Talhah, Zubair, or Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

Their sub-division is the result of consulting numerous works dedicated to narrator biographies and profiles. The sources upon which we have largely relied include, but are not limited to:

Al Tabaqat of Ibn Sa’d, al Tarikh al Kabir of al Bukhari, al Thiqat of al ‘Ijli, al Jarh wa al Tadil of Ibn Abi Hatim al Razi, al Thiqat of Ibn Hibban, al Majruhin of Ibn Hibban, al Kamil of Ibn ‘Adi, al Istiab of Ibn ‘Abdul Barr, al Duafa wa al Matrukin of Ibn al Jawzi, Tahdhib al Kamal of al Mizzi, Siyar Alam al Nubala’ of al Dhahabi, al Mughni fi al Duafa’ of al Dhahabi, Mizan al Itidal of al Dhahabi, al Kashif of al Dhahabi, Tahdhib al Tahdhib of Ibn Hajar, al Isabah of Ibn Hajar, Lisan al Mizan of Ibn Hajar and Taqrib al Tahdhib of Ibn Hajar

 

The narrations of the commited Shia

Al Dhahabi’s biographical account of Aban ibn Taghlib brilliantly demonstrates the objective, unbiased approach of Sunni Hadith scholars in the way they accepted Hadith from narrators who were known for heterodox views or beliefs. It is therefore imperative that we reproduce his account which explains why Sunnis accepted those narrations of a Mubtadi [innovator] who was deemed reliable, including many of the names below.

He writes in Mizan al Itidal:

 

Aban ibn Taghlib al Kufi (م ٤)[32] [صح] [33]

Notwithstanding the fact that he is a hardcore Shia, he is truthful. We [benefit] from his honesty, and his innovation is his own [responsibility].

Ahmed ibn Hanbal, Ibn Ma’in, and Abu Hatim have all attested to his reliability.

Ibn ‘Adi mentioned him saying that he was extreme in his Tashayyu’, and that al Sa’di[34]said, “[He is] deviant; brazen.”

It might be asked, “How is it possible to credit an innovator; whereas a Thiqah [reliable narrator] is defined as one who combines religious integrity along with accuracy [in narration]? Is it plausible that an innovator be described with religious integrity?”

The response comes in realising that innovation is of two kinds; there are minor [heterodoxies] like excessive Tashayyu’; or even benign Tashayyu which is not uncommon among the Tabi’in and those in the generation after them. Many of them displayed traits of religiosity, piety and honesty. If the narrations of these types were discarded a great deal of the prophetic legacy would be lost; and the disastrous consequences of this is evident.

Besides this [tier of heterodoxy] are the major heterodoxies, like Rafd, or excessive Rafd; in the form of detracting from Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, or campaigning for that. These types are not relied upon in Hadith and no honour is lost in that as well. As a matter of fact, I cannot recall at this moment anyone (described as being Rafidi) who is trustworthy and honest. On the contrary, deception is their outer-garment and subterfuge and hypocrisy their inner-garment. Can the narrations of such people ever be trusted? Never!

The extreme Shia in the early period, and in their vernacular referred to those who were critical of ‘Uthman, Zubair, Talhah, Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhum among others who were considered their rivals. Sometimes this led to abrasive statements being made against them.

In our times[35] when we refer to an extreme Shia it applies to those who declared these noble personalities apostates, and those who disassociate from the Sheikhayn [Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma]. Anyone guilty of this is wayward and deviant.

Aban was not known for any criticism of Abu Bakr or ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu; he did, however, consider ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu greater in virtue.[36]

 

From this we realise the variant interpretations of extremism in reference to Tashayyu’, in addition to the fact that a narrators honesty and integrity was not questioned merely because of innovation. It was when the person’s innovation motivated him to distort that draws the line between those whose narrations were accepted and those whose narrations were questioned. The objectivity and fair-mindedness in this approach is a testimony to the sophistication in the discipline of Hadith within the Sunni world.

 

Moderate Shia

4. Ismail ibn Aban al Azdi al Warraq

6. Ismail ibn Zakariyya

21. Al Hassan ibn Salih

32. Sa’id ibn ‘Amr

33. Sa’id ibn Khuthaym

35. Salamah ibn Kuhayl

42. Sa’sa’ah ibn Suhan

40. Sharik ibn ‘Abdullah al Nakha’i

48. ‘Abdullah ibn Shaddad

53. ‘Abdul Razzaq ibn Hammam

57. ‘Adi ibn Thabit

62. ‘Ali ibn Ja’d

67. ‘Ali ibn Mundhir al Tariqi

69. ‘Ammar ibn Ruzayq

72. ‘Awf ibn Abi Jamilah

73. al Fadl ibn Dukayn

74. Fudayl ibn Marzuq

76. Fitr ibn Khalifah

75. Malik ibn Ismail

77. Muhammad ibn Khazim, Abu Muawiyah

78. Abu ‘Abdullah al Hakim al Naysapuri

80. Muhammad ibn Fudayl ibn Ghazawan

82. Muhammad ibn Musa al Fitri

84. Ma’roof ibn Kharrabudh

85. Mansur ibn al Mu’tamir

87. Musa ibn Qais

89. Nuh ibn Qais

95. Hashim ibn al Barid

 

Commited Shia

1. Aban ibn Taghlib

3. Ahmed ibn al Mufaddal al Kufi al Hafari

8. Ismail ibn ‘Abdul Rahman al Suddi

9. Ismail ibn Musa al Fazari

15. Jafar ibn Ziyad al Ahmar

16. Jafar ibn Sulaiman al Dabu’i

18. Al Harith ibn Hasirah

25. Khalid ibn Makhlad al Qatawani

26. Dawood ibn Abi ‘Awf

46. ‘Abbad ibn Ya’qub al Rawajini

49. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar ibn Aban

52. ‘Abdul Rahman ibn Salih al Azdi al ‘Ataki

54. ‘Abdul Malik ibn A’yan

55. ‘Ubaidullah ibn Musa al ‘Absi

59. ‘Ala’ ibn Salih

61. ‘Ali ibn Badhimah

65. ‘Ali ibn Ghurab

68. ‘Ali ibn Hashim

70. ‘Ammar ibn Muawiyah

90. Harun ibn Sa’d al ‘Ijli

92. Hubayrah ibn Yarim

97. Yahya ibn al Jazar al ‘Urani

100. Abu ‘Abdullah al Jadali

 

Those who are considered weak due to bad memory or lack of integrity

  1. 5. Ismail ibn Khalifah, al Kufi, Abu Isra’il[37] – Al Dhahabi says that he was considerably weak. Ibn Hajar says that he is honest but his memory was significantly weak. (al Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)
  2. 7. Ismail ibn Abbad al Talaqani [38] - He was not known for narrating Hadith. In addition to his Shia leanings he has invested in many other heterodoxies.
  3. 10. Talid ibn Sulaiman al Kufi [39]– Abu Dawood refered to him as a Rafidi, known for cursing. Al Dhahabi said he was weak, and Ibn Hajar agrees. Salih Jazarah says the used to call him Balid[40] [Stupid]. (al Tirmidhi)
  4. 11. Thabit ibn Abi Safiyyah, Abu Hamzah al Thumali [41] – Al Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar concur on the fact that he is considered weak, Ibn Hajar adds that he is a Rafidi as well. (al Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)
  5. 12. Thuwayr ibn Abi Fakhitah [42] – Al Dhahabi consideres him significantly weak and Ibn Hajar agrees with him adding that he is a Rafidi as well. (al Tirmidhi)
  6. 13. Jabir al Jufi [43] – Abu Hanifah said that he had never encountered a bigger liar than Jabir al Ju’fi. Abu Dawood said that he excluded him from his Sunan entirely save for a single Hadith on forgetfulness in prayer. He is considered severely weak on account of lack of integrity. (Abu Dawood, al Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)
  7. 17. Jumay ibn Umair al Taymi [44] – Al Bukharis criticism is quite distinct. Al Dhahabi agrees that he is significantly weak. Ibn Hajar adds that his errors are evident. (Abu Dawood, al Tirmidhi, al Nasa’i, Ibn Majah)
  8. 19. Al Harith ibn Abdullah al Hamadani al Awar [45]– He was accused of lying, and much of what he narrates cannot be corroborated. Al Dhahabi provides a long list of scholars who considered him weak as untrustworthy. (Abu Dawood, al Tirmidhi, al Nasa’i, Ibn Majah)
  9. 23. Hammad ibn Isa al Juhani [46]– Abu Dawood, Abu Hatim and al Daraqutni all considered him weak. Al Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar uphold this grading. (al Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)
  10. 24. Humran ibn Ayan [47]- Yahya ibn Ma’in criticized him severely; and Abu Dawood confirmed that he was a Rafidi. His brother, Zurarah is a well known fabricator whose biography will be discussed at length later in this book. Al Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar confirm that he was indeed weak and unreliable. (Ibn Majah)
  11. 30. Salim ibn Abi Hafsah [48] – ‘Amr ibn ‘Ali al Fallas and al Nasa’i consider him weak, whereas others claim that the accuracy of what he narrates was compromised by the extent of his heterodoxy. Ibn Hajar considers him honest, though his innovation becomes problematic. Al Dhahabi clearly states that he is not to be relied upon. (al Tirmidhi)
  12. 31. Sad ibn Tarif al Iskaf al Hanzali al Kufi [49]- Yahya ibn Ma’in said that it is not allowed to rely on him, whilst Ahmed and Abu Hatim declared him weak. Al Nasa’i and al Daraqutni considered him severely weak, and suspected of forgery, whilst Ibn Hibban claims that he used to fabricate. Both al Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar maintain that he is significantly weak and cannot be relied upon.(al Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)
  13. 34. Salamah ibn al Fadl al Abrash [50]- Ishaq ibn Rahuyah, al Nasa’i, Abu Hatim al Razi among others have declared him weak. Some have pointed out the fact that he narrates that which cannot be corroborated and has an abundance of errors. (Abu Dawood, al Tirmidhi)
  14. 38. Sulaiman ibn Qarm [51]- He was considered weak on account his memory. Ibn Ma’in, Abu Zur’ah, Abu Hatim and al Nasa’i consider him weak. Al Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar confirm hat tthis was on account of weak memory. (Abu Dawood, al Tirmidhi, al Nasa’i)
  15.  50. ‘Abdullah ibn Lahiah [52]– There is much debate as to his status as a narrator. Ibn Sayed al Nas has a lengthy discussion on him, as does the editor of al Nafh al Shadhi, the commentary on al Tirmidhi by Ibn Sayed al Nas, concludes after thirty pages of discussion that Ibn Lahi’ah is independently weak, but his narrations could be elevated if they are corroborated or supported by other narrations. This applies to his narrations prior to his books even getting burnt.[53] (Abu Dawood, al Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)
  16. 51. ‘Abdullah ibn Maimun ibn al Qaddah [54] – Abu Hatim al Razi and al Bukhari considered him significantly weak. Ibn Hibban considered him weak where he was not corroborated. Although al Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar uphold the view of severe weakness,under all circumstances. (al Tirmidhi)
  17. 56. ‘Uthman ibn Umair, Abu al Yaqzan [55]– Al Dhahabi has cited the views of Yahya ibn Ma’in, Ahmed ibn Hanbal, ‘Abdul Rahman ibn Mahdi, al Nasa’i, ‘Amr ibn ‘Ali al Fallas and al Daraqutni all confirming the fact that he was weak and unreliable. (Abu Dawood, al Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)
  18. 58. ‘Attiyah ibn Sad al Aufi [56]– Al Dhahabi claims that the scholars are in agreement that he is weak. Abu Hatim says that his weakness is not so severe that his Hadith are not to be recorded. Ahmed ibn Hanbal says that he had heard Hadith from Abu Sa’id al Khudri. He also received Tafsir from al Kalbi (a known fabricator) and he had given him the Kunyah Abu Sa’id. When he narrated from al Kalbi he would say from Abu Sa’id; giving the impression that it was al Khudri. (Abu Dawood, al Tirmidhi, al Nasa’i)
  19.  63. ‘Ali ibn Zaid ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Zuhayr also known as [Ali ibn Zaid ibn Judan] [57]– ibn ‘Uyaynah, Hammad ibn Zaid, Ahmed ibn Hanbal, Yahya ibn Ma’in, al Bukhari, Abu Hatim al Razi,’Amr ibn ‘Ali al Fallas and al Daraqutni all consider him weak on the basis of his weak memory. There are rare cases where scholars have accepted his narrations and these appear to be cases where he is corroborated by others. (Abu Dawood, al Tirmidhi, al Nasa’i, Ibn Majah – although Muslim cites his narrations, it is only in a secondary capacity and not that he relies on him independently)
  20. 66. ‘Ali ibn Qadim[58] Yahya ibn Ma’in and Ibn Sa’d both consider him weak. Ibn ‘Adi has pointed out some of the narrations in which he erred, especially by way of al Thawri. (Abu Dawood, al Tirmidhi)
  21. 79. Muhammad ibn Ubaidullah ibn Abi Rafi [59] – Al Dhahabi provides a long list of names of scholars who consider him weak, including Yahya ibn Ma’in, al Bukhari, and Abu Hatim. Ibn Hajar appears to agree with al Dhahabi that Ibn Abi Rafi’ is weak in Hadith. (Ibn Majah)
  22. 88. Nufay ibn al Harith [60]– He was severely criticized by Yahya ibn Ma’in, Abu Zur’ah al Razi al Nasa’i and al Daraqutni. Ibn Hibban went as far as claiming that it was not permitted to narrate from him. Al Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar summarized the positions of the earlier scholars stating that he is Matruk.(al Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)
  23. 93. Hisham ibn Ziyad [61]– Al Dhahabi quotes Ahmed ibn Hanbal, al Bukhari, and Abu Dawood among others who have declared him weak. He then quotes al Nasa’i and Ibn Hibban; both suspecting him of narrating forged narrations and ascribing them to reliable narrators. (al Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)
  24. 99. Yazid ibn Abi Ziyad – ‘Abdullah ibn al Mubarak, Shu’bah ibn al Hajjaj, and Ahmed ibn Hanbal consider him weak. Waki’ ibn al Jarrah points out some baseless narrations that have been narrrated by way of Yazid as well. Notwithstanding his truthfulness, the reason for the scholars not relying on his narrations independently was due to his weak memory as pointed out by al Dhahabi. (Abu Dawood, al Tirmidhi, al Nasa’i, Ibn Majah – Muslim does not rely on him but mentions him along with others)

 

What do the Twelver Shia say about these narrators?

We have summarized the views of Ahlus Sunnah about these narrators. Nearly one-quarter of ‘Abdul Hussain’s list of 100 are not Shia to begin with, a further quarter of them are not reliable; not because they were Shia but because the either had weak memories, had not recorded their narrations accurately or were known for deception and dishonesty.

Having summarized the Sunni views, it is necessary to see what the Shia scholars have said about these narrators. One of the ost voluminous collection of biographical data on Hadith narrators in the Shia academic library is a book titled Mujam Rijal al Hadith by the late Abu al Qasim al Khu’i. His works spans over 24 volumes and lists the biographies of nearly 16000 narrators. His work has been summarized by Muhammad al Jawahiri in a book title al Mufid min Mujam Rijal al Hadith. In this work he has restricted himself to the essentials by omiting the extended discussions found in al Khu’i’s work. Considering the comprehensiveness of this late work – since it might be argued of earlier sources that the material was to be found elsewhere – and the fact that it provides the final grading on the narrator, we shall reproduce ‘Abdul Hussain’s list with the grading only. This will be a fair alternate representation; and one from which we can gauge the credibility of ‘Abdul Hussain’s allegations.

  1. Aban ibn Taghlib – Thiqah, ‘azim al manzilah fi ashabina [of great status among our companions]
  2. Ibrahim ibn Yazid al Nakhai – Majhul [unknown]
  3. Ahmed ibn al Mufaddal al Hafari – could not find his bio
  4. Ismail ibn Aban – Majhul
  5. Ismail ibn Khalifah, Abu Isra’il – could not find his bio
  6. Ismail ibn Zakariyya al Asadi – could not find his bio
  7. Ismail ibn Abbad al Talaqani – ‘Alim Fadil…’azim al sha’n [Noble scholar…of high stature]
  8. Ismail ibn Abdul Rahman al Suddi – Majhul
  9. Ismail ibn Musa al Fazari – could not find his bio
  10. Talid ibn Sulaiman – Majhul
  11. Thabit ibn Dinar – Thiqah
  12. Thuwayr ibn Abi Fakhitah – Thiqah
  13. Jabir ibn Yazid al Jufi – Thiqah
  14. Jarir ibn Abdul Hamid al Dabbi – Majhul
  15. Jafar ibn Ziyad al Ahmar – Majhul
  16. Jafar ibn Sulaiman al Dhabai – Thiqah
  17. Jumay ibn Umair al Taymi – Majhul
  18. Al Harith ibn Hasirah al Azdi – cannot identify him precisely due to shared name
  19. Al Harith ibn Abdullah al Hamadani – Thiqah
  20. Habib ibn Abi Thabit – Majhul
  21. Al Hassan ibn Hayy – Lam Yuwaththaq [not ratified]
  22. Al Hakam ibn Utaybah – Batri
  23. Hammad ibn Isa al Juhani – Thiqah
  24. Humran ibn Ayan – Thiqah
  25. Khalid ibn Makhlad al Qatawani – could not find his bio
  26. Dawood ibn Abi Awf – difference over whether he is credited or not
  27. Zubaid ibn al Harith ibn Abdul Karim al Yami – could not find his bio
  28. Zaid ibn al Hubab – all that is mentioned is that he is the son of Hubab who is Majhul
  29. Salim ibn Abi al Jad – theres no explicit grading of him. The impression given by al Najashi under his brothers biography appears to apply to the entire family
  30. Salim ibn Abi Hafsah al Ijli – Munharif, Dall, Mudill [Wayward, deviant, misleads others]
  31. Sad ibn Tarif – Thiqah
  32. Said ibn Amr ibn Ashwa – could not find his bio; although, all those named Sa’id ibn ‘Amr have been graded Majhul
  33. Said ibn Khuthaym al Hilali – Da’if
  34. Salamah ibn Fadl al Abrash – could not find his bio
  35. Salamah ibn Kuhayl – Batri
  36. Sulaiman ibn Surad – Among the companions of ‘Ali and al Hassan, from the senior Tabi’in
  37. Sulaiman ibn Tarkhan – could not find his bio
  38. Sulaiman ibn Qarm – Majhul
  39. Sulaiman ibn Mihran al Amash – His arrations in Tafsir are Mu’tamad
  40. Sharik ibn Abdullah al Nakhai – opinions varied, without grading. Some details were extracted from al Dhahabi’s Mizan al I’tidal citing Yahya ibn Ma’in
  41. Shubah ibn al Hajjaj – Majhul
  42. Sasaah ibn Suhan – Among those who witnessed ‘Ali’s Wasiyyah
  43. Tawus ibn Kaysan – Majhul
  44. Zalim ibn Amr Abu al Aswad al Dili – Majhul
  45. Amir ibn Wathilah Abu al Tufayl – Among the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam companions, and then of ‘Ali, al Hassan, al Hussain and al Sajjad.
  46. Abbad ibn Yaqub al Rawajini – Thiqah (although there is confusion between him and a namesake – there are other opinions that grade him as an ‘Ammi)
  47. Abdullah ibn Dawood al Hamadani – could not find his bio
  48. Abdullah ibn Shaddad – Among the close companions of ‘Ali
  49. Abdullah ibn Umar Mishkdaneh – could not find his bio
  50. Abdullah ibn Lahiah – could not find his bio
  51. Abdullah ibn Maimun al Qaddah – Thiqah
  52. Abdul Rahman ibn Salih al Azdi – could not find his bio
  53. Abdul Razzaq ibn Hammam – he objects to al Khu’i quoting Ibn Hajar’s grading
  54. Abdul Malik ibn Ayan – among the companions of al Baqir
  55. Ubaidullah ibn Musa al Absi – Thiqah because a narration of his appears in the Tafsir of al Qummi
  56. Uthman ibn Umair (Abu al Yaqzan) – could not find his bio
  57. Adi ibn Thabit – could not find his bio
  58. Attiyah ibn Sad al Aufi – Majhul
  59. Ala ibn Salih al Taymi – could not find his bio
  60. Alqamah ibn Qais – from the companions of Amir al Mu’minin
  61. Ali ibn Badimah – could not find his bio
  62. Ali ibn Jad al Jawhari – could not find his bio
  63. Ali ibn Zaid ibn Judan – Majhul
  64. Ali ibn Salih – Majhul
  65. Ali ibn Ghurab al Fazari – Majhul
  66. Ali ibn Qadim al Khuzai (Abu al Hassan) – could not find his bio
  67. Ali ibn al Mundhir al Tara’ifi – could not find his bio
  68. Ali ibn Hashim – Majhul
  69. Ammar ibn Zurayq – Majhul
  70. Ammar ibn Muawiyah – Thiqah according to the ‘Ammah [Sunnis]
  71. Amr ibn Abdullah (Abu Ishaq al Sabii) – Majhul , not far-fetched that he is from the ‘Ammah [Sunnis]
  72. Awf ibn Abi Jamilah – could not find his bio
  73. Fadl ibn Dukayn – Majhul
  74. Fudayl ibn Marzuq – Majhul
  75. Fitr ibn Khalifah – Majhul
  76. Malik ibn Ismail – Majhul
  77. Muhammad ibn Khazim – could not find his bio
  78. Muhammad ibn Abdullah al Dabbi – could not find his bio
  79. Muhammad ibn Ubaidullah ibn Abi Rafi – Majhul
  80. Muhammad ibn Fudayl ibn Ghazawan – Thiqah
  81. Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn al Ta’ifi – Min Awthaq al Nas
  82. Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Abdullah al Fitri – Majhul
  83. Muawiyah ibn Ammar al Duhni – Thiqah
  84. Maroof ibn Kharrabudh – Thiqah because his narration appears the Tafsir of al Qummi
  85. Mansur ibn al Mutamir – Batri
  86. Al Minhal ibn Amr – Majhul
  87. Musa ibn Qais al Hadrami – could not find his bio
  88. Nufay ibn al Harith – Majhul (narrated spurious narrations)
  89. Nuh ibn Qais ibn Rabah – could not find his bio
  90. Harun ibn Sad al Ijli – Majhul
  91. Hashim ibn al Barid – Majhul
  92. Hubayrah ibn Buraym al Himyari – Majhul
  93. Hisham ibn Ziyad – could not find his bio
  94. Hisham ibn Ammar – could not find his bio
  95. Hushaym ibn Bashir – could not find his bio
  96. Waki ibn al Jarrah – Theres only mention of a Waki’ whose narration appears in the Tafsir of al Qummi
  97. Yahya ibn al Jazar al Urani – could not find his bio
  98. Yahya ibn Said al Qattan – Majhul
  99. Yazid ibn Abi Ziyad – Majhul
  100. Abu Abdullah al Jadali – Majhul

 

We learn from this list that the narrators that ‘Abdul Hussain listed are not the prominent Shia narrators appearing in the books of the Twelver Shia; with the exception of a few most of these narrators have no grade in the books of the Twelver Shia. It further confirms the division spelled out by the great Muhaddith, Shams al Din al Dhahabi, that the early usage of the term Shia did not apply to the Rafidah, who later became the dominant strain of Shia in the form of the Twelvers.

The narrations cited from Shia sources can therefore, not be said to be acceptable by Sunnis without scrutiny merely because Sunni’s have relied on some Shia narrators in their books as has been repeatedly discussed.

 

NEXT⇒ Letter 17 and 18


[1] Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil vol. 1 pg. 333 , Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 2 pg 233 , al Kashif bio.221 , al Taqrib bio.270

[2] Tabaqat ibn Sa’d vol. 7 pg. 371 , Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 4 pg. 540 , Mizan al I’tidal vol. 1 pg. 394 , al Kashif bio. 771 , al Taqrib bio. 916

[3] Tabaqat ibn Sa’d vol. 7 pg. 320, Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 5 pg. 354, Mizan al I’tidal vol. 1 pg. 451, al Kashif bio. 902, al Taqrib bio. 1084

[4] Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 7. pg. 115, al Kashif biograpgy no. 1185, Tahdhib al Tahdhib vol. 2 pg. 432

[5] Tabaqat ibn Sa’d vol. 6 pg. 402, Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 10 pg. 40, Mizan al I’tidal vol. 2 bio. 2997, al Kashif bio. 1729, al Taqrib bio. 2124

[6] Tabaqat ibn Sa’d vol. 6 pg. 291, Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 10 pg. 130, Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 5 pg. 108, al Kashif bio. 1767, al Taqrib bio. 2170

[7] Tabaqat ibn Sa’d vol. 7 pg. 252 , Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 12 pg. 5, Mizan al I’tidal bio. 3481, al Taqrib bio. 2575

[8] Tabaqat ibn Sa’d vol. 7 pg. 280, Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 12 pg. 479 , Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 7 pg. 202, al Kashif bio. 2297 , al Taqrib bio. 2790

[9] Tabaqat ibn Sa’d vol. 5 pg. 537, Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 13 pg. 357 , Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 5 pg. 38 , al Kashif bio. 2461 , al Taqrib bio. 3009

[10] Tabaqat ibn Sa’d vol. 7 pg. 295, Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 14 pg. 458 , Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 9 pg. 346 , al Taqrib bio. 3297

[11] Tabaqat ibn Sa’d vol. 6 pg. 86, Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 20 pg. 300, Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 4 pg. 53, al Taqrib bio. 4681

[12] Tabaqat ibn Sa’d vol. 6 pg. 313, Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 22 pg. 102 , Mizan al I’tidal bio. 6393 , al Taqrib 5065

[13] Al Jarh wal Ta’dil vol. 9 pg. 66, Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 30 pg. 242, Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 11 pg. 420

[14] Tabaqat ibn Sa’d vol. 7 pg. 313, Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 30. pg. 272 , Mizan al I’tidal bio. 9250 , al Taqrib bio. 7312

[15] Tabaqat ibn Sa’d vol. 7 pg. 394, Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 30 pg. 462 , Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 9 pg. 140 al Taqrib bio. 7414

[16] Tabaqat ibn Sa’d vol. 7 pg. 293 , Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 31. pg. 329 , Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 9 pg. 175, al Taqrib bio. 7557

[17] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 13 pg. 300

[18] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 13 pg. 301

[19] Al Tahbir vol. 2 pg. 160, Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 20 pg. 286, Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah al Kubra vol. 6 pg . 128

[20] Al ‘Aqidat al Tahawiyyah, pg 25

[21] Al ‘Aqidat al Tahawiyyah, pg 29

[22] Ahkam al Qur’an, al Jassas, vol. 1 pg. 87

[23] Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 9 pg. 289

[24] Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 11 pg. 454, Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 3. pg.394

[25] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 2 pg. 394

[26] Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 33 pg. 37, Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 4 pg. 81, Tarikh al Islam vol. 2 pg. 735

[27] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 3 pg. 467

[28] Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 20 pg. 464

[29] Al Thiqat vol. 7 pg. 399, Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 26 pg. 412, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 6293

[30] Al Thiqat vol. 9 pg. 167, Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 28 pg. 202, Mizan al I’tidal vol. 4 pg. 137

[31] Tahdhib al Kamal vol. 28 pg. 568, Mizan al I’tidal vol. 4 pg. 192

[32] These symbols are an abbreviation for the books in which the narrators Hadith are to be found. These symbols tell us that this narrators Ahadith can be found in Sahih Muslim and the Four Sunans.

[33] This symbol means that Imam al Dhahabi is aware of the criticism levelled against the narrator; although his view is that the criticism is either misplaced, or does not affect the reliability of the narrator.

[34] This refers to al Jawzajani, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Ya’qub al Sa’di al Juzajani; who died in 259 A.H.

[35] 8th Century A.H

[36] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 1 pg. 6

[37] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 1 pg. 226, al Kashif bio. 370, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 440

[38] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 16 pg.511, Lisan al Mizan vol. 2 pg. 137

[39] al Kashif bio. 670, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 797

[40] This is a play on the letters appearing in his name. The two dots appearing above the first letter, Ta’ have been replaced by a Ba with a single dot below.

[41] Al Kashif bio. 687, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 818

[42] Al Kashif bio. 725, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 862

[43] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 1 pg. 379, al Kashif bio. 739, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 878

[44] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 1 pg. 379, al Kashif bio. 739, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 878

[45] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 1 pg. 436, al Kashif bio. 859, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 1029

[46] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 1 pg. 599, al Kashif bio. 1223, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 1503

[47] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 1 pg. 605, al Kashif bio. 1230, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio.1514

[48] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 2 pg. 110, al Kashif bio. 1768, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio.2171

[49] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 2 pg. 122, al Kashif bio. 1831, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 2241

[50] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 2 pg. 192, al Kashif bio. 2043, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 2505

[51] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 2 pg. 219, al Kashif bio. 2122, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 2600

[52] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 2 pg. 475, al Kashif bio. 2934, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio.3563

[53] Al Nafh al Shadhi vol. 2 pg. 792 onwards

[54] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 2 pg. 512, al Kashif bio. 3013, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 3653

[55] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 3 pg. 50, al Kashif bio. 3730, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 4507

[56] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 3 pg. 80, al Mughni fi al Du’afa’ bio. 4139, al Kashif bio. 3820, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 4616

[57] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 3 pg. 127, al Kashif bio. 3916, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 4734

[58] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 3 pg. 150, al Kashif bio. 3955, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 4785

[59] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 3 pg. 634, al Kashif bio. 5022, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 6106

[60] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 4 pg. 272, al Kashif bio. 5870, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 7181

[61] Mizan al I’tidal vol. 4 pg. 298, al Kashif bio. 5962, Taqrib al Tahdhib bio. 7292