Their Belief Regarding the Oneness of Allah as the Ilah.
The meaning of the Oneness of Allah in terms of him being the Ilah is that Allah should be worshipped exclusively, as He is the only one who deserves to be worshipped. Allah has no partners. Acts of worship should be dedicated entirely to Him. No act of worship should be directed, in any way or form, to anyone other than Him. This is the oneness toward which the Prophets invited, for the Oneness of Allah in terms of him being the Rabb was already acknowledged by their people as Allah informs us in the Qur’an regarding the invitations of His Messengers: Nuh, Hud, Salih and Shu’ayb ‘alayhim al-Salam to their people:
اعْبُدُواْ اللّٰهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَـهٍ غَيْرُهُ
Worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him.
Allah informed us that this was the message of all the Messengers. He says:
وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِيْ كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُوْلاً أَنِ اعْبُدُواْ اللّٰهَ وَاجْتَنِبُواْ الطَّاغُوْتَ
And we certainly sent a Messenger to every nation, [saying], “Worship Allah and avoid the Taghut.”
Elsewhere, Allah says:
وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُوْلٍ إِلَّا نُوحِيْ إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُوْنِ
And we have not sent before you any Messenger except that we revealed to him, “There is no deity except Me, so worship Me.”
This is the foundation of success and the fundamental requirement for the acceptance of worship. Allah says:
إِنَّ اللّٰهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَن يُّشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُوْنَ ذٰلِكَ لِمَن يَّشَاءَ
Indeed, Allah does not forgive that a partner be ascribed to him, and forgives whomsoever he wills for any wrong besides that.
Do the Shia uphold this fundamental principle and foundational pillar? Or, did their beliefs regarding the Imams impact the belief in the Oneness of Allah? This is what we will analyse below. I shall present the following seven discussions regarding the topic, Allah willing:
- Their belief regarding verses which discuss the Oneness of Allah in terms of Allah being the only One worthy of worship; the integral most principle of Din (faith) and in which many nations have deviated. Their belief that the motive behind these verses is the establishment of the immediate succession of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu after the Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam without anyone sharing that privilege with him.
- Their belief that the acceptance of all devotions is based upon believing in the Twelve Imams and their Imamah instead of the Oneness of Allah.
- Their belief that the Imams are intermediaries between Allah and His creation, to the extent that they deify them and supplicate to them in prosperous and adverse times.
- Their belief that the Imams have the right of legislation, declaring the impermissible permissible and vice versa.
- Their belief that the sand of the grave of Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu is a cure for all illnesses, and a protection from all fears.
- Their usage of charms and esoteric symbols to alleviate difficulties and chronic conditions, and their seeking of help for guidance from unknown entities.
- Their seeking of goodness in matters that resemble the practices of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islam).
Interpreting the Verses of Tawhid to be a Reference to the Imams
The first aspect that sends shivers down our spines is that they have re-interpreted all the Qur’anic verses in which the instruction to worship Allah alone is issued to refer to the Imamah of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Imams after him. As for the verses regarding shirk (polytheism), they take the purport of these to be ascribing partners to the Imams.
a. First verse
As an example, al Kafi (the most authentic book of narrations according to them), Tafsir al Qummi (their best tafsir) as well as other books which they consider reliable under the commentary of the verse:
وَلَقَدْ أُوْحِيَ إِلَيْكَ وَإِلَى الَّذِيْنَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ لَئِنْ أَشْرَكْتَ لَيَحْبَطَنَّ عَمَلُكَ
And it has been revealed to you and to those before you that if you should associate [anything] with Allah, your devotions would surely become worthless, and you would surely be among the losers.
يعني إن أشركت في الولاية غيره
This means that if you associate any partners with him in Wilayah (immediate succession and leadership).
In other words:
لئن أمرت بولاية أحد مع ولاية علي من بعدك ليحبطن عملك
If you (O Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) command that anyone be granted Wilayah along with ‘Ali, after you, your devotions will become worthless.
The author of al Burhan fi Tafsir al Qur’an has quoted four narrations to prove the above interpretation of the verse. Regarding the revelation of this verse, they say:
إن الله عز وجل حيث أوحى إلى نبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم أن يقيم عليًا للناس علمًا اندس إليه معاذ بن جبل فقال أشرك في ولايته الأول والثاني (يعنون أبا بكر وعمر) حتى يسكن الناس إلى قولك ويصدقوك، فلما أنزل الله عز وجل يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُوْلُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ شكا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى جبرائيل فقال إن الناس يكذبوني ولا يقبلون مني، فأنزل الله عز وجل لَئِنْ أَشْرَكْتَ لَيَحْبَطَنَّ عَمَلُكَ وَلَتَكُوْنَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِيْنَ
When Allah revealed to his Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that he should establish ‘Ali as a symbol of direction for the people, Mu’adh ibn Jabal sneaked in and said, “Add to his Wilayah the first and the second (i.e. Abu Bakr and ‘Umar), so that the people be contented with your verdict and they believe you.”
When Allah revealed, “O Messenger, convey that which has been revealed to you from your Lord.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam complained to Jibril, “People are belying me and they do not want to accept from me.” Thereupon, Allah revealed, “If you associate a partner, your actions will certainly become worthless, and you will surely be among the losers.”
We will now quote the verse that precedes this verse as well as the verse which follows it, along with the correct exegesis so that the reader realises the extent to which they have gone in corrupting the din and in changing its most fundamental principle. Allah says:
قُلْ أَفَغَيْرَ اللّٰهِ تَأْمُرُوْنِّي أَعْبُدُ أَيُّهَا الْجَاهِلُوْنَ وَلَقَدْ أُوْحِيَ إِلَيْكَ وَإِلَى الَّذِيْنَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ لَئِنْ أَشْرَكْتَ لَيَحْبَطَنَّ عَمَلُكَ وَلَتَكُوْنَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِيْنَ بَلِ اللّٰهَ فَاعْبُدْ وَكُن مِّنْ الشَّاكِرِيْنَ
Say (O Muhammad), “Is it other than Allah that you order me to worship, O ignorant ones?” And it has been revealed to you and to those before you that if you associate (anything) with Allah, your actions will become worthless, and you will surely be among the losers. Worship Allah alone instead, and be among the grateful.
The verse, as is apparent from its context, is concerning the command of dedicating acts of worship to Allah alone. They have changed the verse, and linked it to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu whereas there is absolutely no reference to him. They have interpreted the word “Allah” to mean ‘Ali, and the word “worship” to mean Wilayah. The verse is quite clear and its purport is equally unambiguous. There is no link between the meaning of the verse and their interpretation thereof.
The scholars have explained this verse in the following manner:
Allah commanded His Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to say this to the polytheists when they invited him to the worship of idols. They said to him, “It is the religion of your forefathers.” The meaning of this verse is, “Say O Muhammad, to the polytheists among your people, ‘Are you commanding me to worship anyone other than Allah, O those who are ignorant regarding him?’” Since the instruction of worshipping anyone besides Allah can only be issued by a foolish ignoramus, He addressed them as “O ignorant ones”. Thereafter, Allah explained that the warning, “If you associate (partners with Allah) your work will become worthless.” was revealed to Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as well as the messengers who preceded him. This was to highlight the gravity and heinousness of shirk. The one who would never have done it was being commanded to abstain from it, hence anyone besides him should be even more wary. Thereafter, Allah says, “Worship Allah only instead”, i.e. do not worship that which the polytheists are instructing you to worship but worship Allah alone, leaving out all other deities and idols.
Thus, as you have seen, the meaning is quite clear and obvious. Only a prejudiced follower of his desires (who is blinded from discerning the truth) will accept another interpretation. The ultimate goal of those who fabricated this interpretation was to forge for themselves some sort of proof to back their claims regarding Imamah. Unsurprisingly, they stooped to the lowest of levels. Their proof is not backed by the rules of language or reason. It is only a far-fetched hallucination that this kind of ‘proof’ can have any religious significance. I do not consider it far-fetched that those behind this fabrication intentionally chose this type of ludicrousness with the intention of distancing the youth and the intelligentsia of the Shia from Islam. When they see the illogical nature of these proofs and their likes, whilst believing that this is Islam, they will most certainly doubt the truth of Islam itself. This is in fact one of the long-term objectives of this group, who have been relentlessly planning and plotting against the Ummah and its religion. A point that begs to be highlighted in the above quotation is their attack on the Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. They claim that he initially failed to uphold the command of his Lord, and thus disobeyed Him. In this way, they have tried to tarnish the image of the one who was truly infallible. The irony of the matter is that they are the same people who exceed the limits in claiming the infallibility of those who are not even Prophets (i.e. the Imams). It should be remembered that bad-mouthing a Nabi is disbelief. He is further discredited in the above quotation, as they portray him as one who was dominated by fear of his people owing to which he would hesitate in carrying out the commands of his Lord. Hence, they state that he did not change his stance until the warning of his deeds being void of acceptance was sounded to him.
b. Second verse
Another example of this kind of distortion is their interpretation of the verse:
فَهَلْ إِلَى خُرُوْجٍ مِّن سَبِيْلٍ
So is there any way to an exit?
This is a question that will be asked by the polytheists, to whom it will be told:
ذٰلِكُم بِأَنَّهُ إِذَا دُعِيَ اللّٰهُ وَحْدَهُ كَفَرْتُمْ
This is because, when Allah alone was invoked you disbelieved.
In other words, you are facing this punishment due to your aversion (in the worldly life) from the belief that Allah alone should be called upon and your rejection of the Oneness of Allah. Conversely:
وَإِن يُشْرَكْ بِهِ تُؤْمِنُوْا
But when partners were associated with Him you believed.
Allah explains the reason as to why they will not be entertained when they will plea to be removed from hellfire, i.e. their refusal to accept the Oneness of Allah and their insistence upon associating a partner with him in worship, at the core of which is Dua’ (invocation). Thus, this verse as well as the one that precedes is a description of the punishment that will be apportioned for the polytheists in the hereafter. They will be doomed to hell forever, with no possibility of them ever emerging therefrom. They will beg to be returned to the worldly life, only for their plea to be ignored, since they associated partners with Allah by worshipping others along with Him.
The Shia, however, narrate from their Imams an interpretation very different from that of the Muslims:
عن أبي جعفر في قوله عز وجل ذٰلِكُم بِأَنَّهُ إِذَا دُعِيَ اللّٰهُ وَحْدَهُ كَفَرْتُمْ بأن لعلي ولاية وَإِن يُشْرَكْ بِهِ من ليست له ولاية تُؤْمِنُوا فَالْحُكْمُ للّٰهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْكَبِيْرِ
It is narrated from Abu Jafar regarding the verse, “This is because, when Allah was called upon alone, you disbelieved” that ‘Ali is deserving of Wilayah. “But if others were associated with Him” who did not deserve Wilayah, “you believed. So the judgment is with Allah, the Most High, and the Grand.”
It is obvious that this interpretation is very akin to the interpretations of the Batiniyyah. Neither do the words of the verse nor does its context lend any support to it. It is for this reason that the author of Majma’ al Bayan shunned these interpretations of his sect, which they allegedly report from their Imams and explained the verse in light of its apparent meaning and the sayings of the Salaf. However, moderate views do not survive in environments that are dominated by Taqiyyah.
There are many other examples of their erroneous interpretations, which are very similar to that which has already been discussed.
c. Third verse
We present to you a third example. This one is regarding the verse:
أَإِلَهٌ مَّعَ اللّٰهِ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لا يَعْلَمُوْنَ
Is there a deity with Allah?
Their concocted narrations state:
قال أبو عبد الله أي إمام هدى مع إمام ضلال في قرن واحد
Abu ‘Abdullah said, “The Imam of guidance with the Imam of deviation in one era.”
This narration and its likes create a fertile ground for the rest of their extremist views, such as taking ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu as a deity, the manifestation of which we see amidst them from time the time. The reality is that this verse has absolutely no connection with their Imams. Rather, the Oneness of Allah is being established, as Allah says (in the preceding verses):
قُلِ الْحَمْدُ للّٰهِ وَسَلامٌ عَلٰى عِبَادِهِ الَّذِيْنَ اصْطَفٰى آللّٰهُ خَيْرٌ أَمَّا يُشْرِكُوْنَ أَمَّنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ وَأَنزَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاء مَاء فَأَنبَتْنَا بِهِ حَدَائِقَ ذَاتَ بَهْجَةٍ مَّا كَانَ لَكُمْ أَن تُنبِتُوْا شَجَرَهَا أَإِلَهٌ مَّعَ اللّٰهِ بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ يَعْدِلُوْنَ
Say, (O Muhammad), “Praise be to Allah, and peace upon His servants whom He has chosen. Is Allah better or that which they associate with Him? Is he not the being who created the heavens and the earth and showered for you rains from the sky, wherewith he produced orchards of joyful beauty? It is beyond your capacity to create of it a tree. Is there a deity with Allah? [No], but they are a people who ascribe equals (to Him).
At the end of each verse, Allah says:
أَإِلَهٌ مَّعَ اللّٰهِ
Is there a deity with Allah?
In other words, is there any other deity who is doing all of this along with Allah? This is a rhetorical question, the purpose of which is the negation of all other deities, as the polytheists had accepted that none besides Allah was responsible for the above-mentioned. The verse proved to them that the outcome of their own logic and understanding is that none besides Allah was deserving of being worshipped.
d. Fourth verse
A fourth example of these interpretations is their explanation of the verse:
وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُوْلٍ إِلَّا نُوْحِيْ إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِل هَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُوْنِ
And we sent not before you any messenger except that we revealed to him that, “There is no deity except me, so worship me.
Those who fabricated the narrations of this sect wished to either challenge this verse or contradict it. Hence, they say (whilst explaining the verse):
ما بعث الله نبيًا قط إلا بولايتنا والبراء من أعدائنا
Allah did not send any Nabi but to support us and dissociate himself from our enemies.
Another narration states:
ولايتنا ولاية الله التي لم يبعث نبيًا قط إلا بها
Allegiance to us is allegiance to Allah. No Nabi was ever sent but with this.
Thus, they made the essence of the call of the Prophets a call towards the Imams who were not yet born. Further, there is almost no verse in the Qur’an in which the Oneness of Allah and the prohibition of shirk is mentioned except that they have distorted its meaning by way of these thumb-sucked narrations.
One of their scholars goes as far as claiming that this is a set principle regarding the verses of the Qur’an. He says:
كل ما ورد ظاهره في الذين أشركوا مع الله سبحانه ربًا غيره من الأصنام التي صنعوها بأيديهم ثم عظموها وأحبوها والتزموا عبادتها وجعلوهم شركاء ربهم، وقالوا: هؤلاء شفعاؤنا عند الله بغير أمر من الله بل بآرائهم وأهوائهم، فبطنه وارد في الذين نصبوا أئمة بأيديهم وعظموهم وأحبوهم والتزموا طاعتهم وجعلوهم شركاء إمامهم الذي عينه الله لهم
All the verses, the outer meanings of which refer to those who ascribed partners to Allah in the form of idols which they crafted with their hands, honoured, loved, insisted on their worship, took them as the partners of their Rabb and said—based on their own whims and views, without any such instruction from Allah—‘These are our interceders before Allah;” they are inwardly regarding those who appointed Imams with their own hands, respected them, loved them, took it upon themselves to obey them, and made them partners along with the Imam who Allah had appointed for them….
The fact that they could stipulate this as a principle means that their narrations are replete with this nonsense. They have openly admitted this:
إنّ الأخبار متضافرة في تأويل الشّرك بالله والشّرك بعبادته بالشّرك في الولاية والإمامة؛ أي يشرك مع الإمام من ليس من أهل الإمامة، وأن يتّخذ مع ولاية آل محمد رضي الله عنهم (أي الأئمّة الاثنا عشر) ولاية غيرهم
The narrations are replete with interpretations wherein associating a partner with Allah and worshipping others along with him are interpreted to mean Wilayah and Imamah. That is, to appoint an unworthy person with the Imam and to support anyone else alongside the family of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam i.e. the Twelve Imams.
In this way, the meanings of all the verses in the Qur’an pertaining to the subject of the Oneness of Allah and the prohibition of ascribing a partner to him have been distorted by the Shia. The actual meanings of these verses are lost and converted to the Wilayah and Imamah of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the subsequent Imams. They were not bothered by the fact that these verses were clear, definite, and explicit in their meanings. Thus, these interpretations are the key to all evil and the door to all types of trouble. This cannot be doubted for they are tempering with the very core of Islam toward which all the Prophets called, and for the establishment of which their books were revealed. They were selected solely for this mission and on this very basis will humanity be segregated into the people of heaven and the people of hell. Before concluding our discussion on this topic, I would like to point out a narration from their books in which these interpretations have been declared invalid, and their origin has been exposed. Their tafsir, Al Burhan states:
عن حبيب بن معلى الخثعمي قال: ذكرت لأبي عبد الله رضي لله عنه ما يقول أبو الخطاب، فقال: أجل إليّ ما يقل. قال: في قوله عز وجل إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللّٰهُ وَحْدَهُ أنه أمير المؤمنين وَإِذَا ذُكِرَ الَّذِيْنَ مِنْ دُوْنِهِ فلان وفلان قال أبو عبد الله من قال هذا فهو مشرك بالله عز وجل ثلاثًا أنا إلى الله منهم بريء ثلاثًا بل عني الله بذلك نفسه قال فالآية الأخرى التي في حم قول الله عز وجل ذٰلِكُمْ بِأَنَّهُ إِذَا دُعِيَ اللّٰهُ وَحْدَهُ كَفَرْتُمْ ثم قلت زعم أنه يعني بذلك أمير المؤمنين صلى الله عليه وسلم.قال أبو عبد الله من قال هذا فهو مشرك بالله عز وجل ثلاثًا أنا إلى الله منهم بريء ثلاثًا بل عني الله بذلك
Habib ibn al Mu’alla al Khath’ami reports, “I mentioned to Abu ‘Abdullah that which Abu al Khattab says.” He said, “Yes, tell me what he says.” I said, “He says regarding the verse of Allah, ‘And when Allah is mentioned alone’, this refers to Amir al Mu’min ‘but when those other than Him are mentioned’ this refers to so and so.” Abu ‘Abdullah said (thrice), ‘The one who said this is a polytheist who has ascribed partners to Allah. I have nothing to do with them. Allah only referred to Himself. What about the other verse, in Ha Mim which reads as, “That is because, when Allah was called upon alone, you disbelieved.” I answered, “He claims that it is regarding Amir al Mu’minin.” Abu ‘Abdullah exclaimed (thrice), “The one who said this is a polytheist who has associated partners with Allah. I have nothing to do with him. Allah only referred to Himself.”
We have already mentioned that the interpretation of the second verse in the manner done by Abu al Khattab appears in a number of their reliable sources such as al Kafi, al Burhan, al Bihar, Tafsir al Safi etc. As for the second verse, it is also interpreted by them in the heretical manner that Abu ‘Abdullah refuted (as confessed by them). His condemnation of their interpretations has been mentioned by the author of al Kafi, and the author of al Bihar amongst others. We have thus learnt that Abu ‘Abdullah declares the scholars of the Shia who accept these interpretations to be polytheists. Besides these interpretations, they have many independent narrations in which this heresy is established as a principle of their religion. One narration states:
من أشرك مع إمام إمامته من عند الله من ليست إمامته من الله كان مشركا
Whoever adds as a partner to an Imam who is appointed by Allah an Imam who is not appointed by Allah, he is a polytheist.
There are many other narrations which echo this meaning. One of their celebrated scholars, who is referred to as al Saduq (the truthful one), Ibn Babuwayh states:
إن الله هو الذي لا يخليهم في كل زمان من إمام معصوم، فمن عبد ربًا لم يقم لهم الحجة، فإنما عبد غير الله عز وجل
Undoubtedly, Allah is the One who does not leave them without an infallible Imam in every era. Therefore, whoever worships a Lord who did not appoint for them an Imam, then there is no doubt that he worshipped a (deity) other than Allah.
In other words, if a person believes in Allah and worships Him with sincerity but he also holds the belief that Allah did not appoint ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu as the khalifah, nor did He explicitly state that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu should be the Imam; then he has worshipped a deity besides Allah. On the basis of these texts and their likes, they managed to declare as kafir everyone besides themselves. Al Majlisi says:
اعلم أنّ إطلاق لفظ الشّرك والكفر على من لم يعتقد إمامة أمير المؤمنين والأئمّة من ولده عليهم السّلام، وفضّل عليهم غيرهم يدلّ أنّهم كفّار مخلّدون في النار
Know well! The usage of the words ‘shirk’ and ‘kufr’ is regarding those who do not believe in the Imamah of Amir al Mu’minin and the Imams from his progeny, and give preference to others over them. This is clear that they are disbelievers who are destined to hell.
All of these claims have no basis in the noble Qur’an. They are totally foreign to the religion of Islam. If they had any importance in Islam, they would have been mentioned in many verses of the Qur’an, in an explicit and unambiguous manner. It is not possible that such an important matter was not explained to the Ummah in definite terms. Furthermore, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would have taught this to the ummah in a convincing and clear manner, and the entire ummah would have narrated it from him, generation after generation. It would have been among the definite and well-known aspects of Islam, instead of being a tale transmitted by a handful of fibbers. If there was any truth to these claims, the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum—who spent their wealth, sacrificed their lives and left their homes, families and children for the sake Islam—would have not turned away from it or hesitated in the least in upholding it. The verses of the noble Qur’an unequivocally state that the fundamental principle and the focal point of this religion is to believe in the Oneness of Allah and to dedicate all acts of worship to Him alone. Many verses can be quoted to prove this. Allah says:
وَقَضَى رَبُّكَ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُواْ إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ
And your Lord has decreed that you not worship except Him.
وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيْثَاقَ بَنِيْ إِسْرَائِيْلَ لاَ تَعْبُدُوْنَ إِلَّا اللّٰهَ
And (recall) when we took the covenant from the Children of Israel, [enjoining upon them], “You will not worship but Allah.”
قُلْ إِنَّمَا أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ اللّٰهَ وَلا أُشْرِكَ بِهِ
Say, “I have only been commanded to worship Allah and not associate [anything] with Him.
There is absolutely no mention, anywhere in the Qur’an of the Twelve Imams. As we have pointed out, this is even admitted in their books. Thus, these false interpretations are a major innovation, which destroys our great religion from its very core. It opens up the doors and pathways to Shirk.
 Sharh al Tahawiyyah pg. 16; Lawami’ al Anwar 1/29; Taysiral ‘Aziz al Hamid pg. 36
 Surah al A’raf: 59, 65, 73, 85
 Surah al Nahl: 36
 Surah al Ambiya’: 25
 Surah al Nisa: 48, 116
 The last four points can also be included in Tawhid al Rububiyyah. There is no doubt that the two are inter-twined.
 Usul al Kafi 1/427, number 76
 Tafsir al Qummi 2/251
 Al Burhan 4/83, Tafsir al Safi 4/328
 Surah al Zumar: 65
 These are the words of al Kulayni in al Kafi
 These are the words of al Qummi in his tafsir.
 Al Burhan 4/83
 Surah al Ma’idah: 67
 Al Burhan 4/83
 Surah al Zumar: 64-66
 Ibn Kathir narrated from some of the salaf that this was the reason behind its revelation. Refer to Tafsir Ibn Kathir 4/67, Tafsir al Baghawi 4/284.
 Refer to Tafsir al Tabari 24/24, Tafsir al Qurtubi 15/276-277, al Bahr al Muhit (by Abu Hayyan) 7/438, Fath al Qadir (by al Shawkani) 4/474, Ruh al Ma’ani (by al Alusi) 24/23-24
 Refer to Risalah fi al Radd ‘ala al Rafidah pg. 6
 Surah al Ghafir: 11
 Surah Ghafir: 12
 Refer to Tafsir Tabari 24/48, Tafsir al Baghawi 4/93-94, Tafsir Ibn Kathir 4/79-80, Fath al Qadir 4/484, Tafsir al Qasimi 14/227, Ibn Sa’di: Taysir al Karim al Rahman 6/512 etc.
 Surah al Ghafir: 12
 Al Barqi: Kanz Jam’ al Fawa’id pg. 277, Bihar al Anwar 23/364, Tafsir al Qummi 2/256, Usul al Kafi 1/421, al Burhan 4/93-94, Tafsir al Safi 4/337
 Majma’ al Bayan 5/186
 Surah al Naml: 61
 Bihar al Anwar 23/391, Kanz Jami’ al Fawa’id pg. 207
 Surah al Naml: 59-60
 Sharh al Tahawiyyah pg. 25
 Surah al Anbiya’’: 25
 Al Burhan 2/367, Tafsir al ‘Ayyashi, Tafsir al Safi 3/134
 Usul al Kafi 1/437
 To add salt to the wound, they attribute these claims to Jafar al Sadiq and his father, whom Allah had protected from this type of heresy. The reason behind this attribution was to hoodwink their simple-minded blind followers, who refuse to use their ability to think. Thus, along the course of their life, they (the followers) are bombarded with a variety of forgeries pertaining to the difficulties endured by the Ahlul Bayt, merits of love for the Ahlul Bayt, the fight between the Ahlul Bayt, and the Sahabah etc. All of these tales leave the poor victim with a heart filled with hatred and rancour for the noble Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum as well as all other Muslims. It is thus necessary to dedicate a special study to the psychological effects that these narrations leave on the mind of the common-man and the incidences to which they eventually lead. This will reveal the dangerous nature of these forgeries. Once the cause of the trouble is identified, it will be easier to minimise its effects. Also, it will reveal the extent to which the Batiniyyah connived against the Ummah and its religion.
 Mir’at al Anwar pg. 100, 58.
 Mir’at al Anwar pg. 202
 Ibn al Qayyim wrote an important article on the damage caused by unfounded interpretations. He stated that the basis of destruction in this world as well as the hereafter is those interpretations that have not been sanctioned by Allah and His Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in their speech, nor did they indicate that this could be its meaning. Refer to I’lam al Muwaqqi’in 4/240-254
 i.e. Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma
 Al Burhan 4/78
 Rawdat al Kafi pg. 304
 Bihar al Anwar 23/362, 368
 Refer to al Barqi: Kanz Jami’ al Fawaid
 Al Nu’mani: al Ghaybah pg. 82, Bihar al Anwar 22/78
 As an example, refer to Usul al Kafi 1/437
 ‘Ilal al Shara’’ pg. 14, Bihar al Anwar 23/83
 Bihar al Anwar 23/390. A few more narrations will be quoted regarding their labelling of the Sahabah and others as kafir on the basis of them not believing in their Imams.
 Surah al Isra: 23
 Surah al Baqarah: 83
 Surah al Ra’d: 36