يا علي لا يحل لأحد يجنب في هذا المسجد غيري وغيرك.
O ‘Ali! It is not permissible for anyone save me and you to be in a state of major ritual impurity while in this masjid.
This hadith is narrated by Abu Sa’id, Umm Salamah, ‘Aisha, and Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhum.
The Hadith of Abu Sa’id
The following people narrate this version:
- Imam al Tirmidhi
- Abu Ya’la
- Ibn ‘Asakir
- Al Bayhaqi (from Muhammad ibn Fudayl — from Salim ibn Abi Hafsah — from ‘Attiyah — from Abu Sa’id who said, “The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to ‘Ali…”)
‘Ali ibn al Mundhir said, “I said to Dirar ibn Surad, ‘What does this hadith mean?’ He said, ‘It is not permissible for anyone to pass through the masjid in a state of major ritual impurity except for me and you.’”
Imam al Tirmidhi says, “This hadith is Hassan gharib (fair rare); we only know it to appear in this manner. Muhammad ibn Ismail (i.e. al Bukhari) heard this hadith from me and found it strange.”
Imam al Nawawi said, “Imam al Tirmidhi regarded this hadith as Hassan (fair) because of its shawahid (witness reports).”
(The author says) ‘Attiyah’s name is ibn Sa’id al ‘Aufi. He is da’if (weak) and a mudallis (obfuscates in his transmissions). There is a difference of opinion regarding Salim ibn Abi Hafsah. There are chains of transmission which can serve as tawabi’ (parallel narrations) for Salim; however, they are questionable.
The Hadith of Umm Salamah
There are two chains of transmission for this version:
- Al Tabarani narrates with a chain of transmission that contains a da’if (weak) and majhul (uknown) narrator.
- There are several versions from Jisrah, from Umm Salamah. The best of which is narrated by Ibn Shabbah. It is narrated as follows: Musa ibn Marwan narrated to us — ‘Ata’ ibn Muslim narrated to us — from Ibn Abi Ghunayyah — from Ismail — from Jisrah—she was from the best of women. She said, “I was with Umm Salamah and she said, ‘Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam left my presence and entered the masjid. He said, ‘O people. This masjid is haram (to enter) for any males in a state of major ritual impurity, or for any females in a state of menstruation, except for the Nabi, his wives, ‘Ali and Fatimah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah. I have clarified the names for fear that you become misguided.’”
Ibn Hibban regarded Musa ibn Marwan as a thiqah (reliable). Baqi ibn Makhlad—and others whom it has been said about that they only transmit from reliable narrators—transmit from Musa ibn Marwan.
The Hadith of ‘Aisha and Sa’d
In both of these versions, there exists a narrator who I am not aware of. Ibn Hajar says, “Some have rendered the hadith of Abu Sa’id as da’if (weak) because ‘Attiyah—who is da’if (weal)—is narrating it from him. This version also contains the narrator Salim ibn Abi Hafsah, who is also da’if (weak). In response to this, it can be argued that the hadith was strengthened (tawqiyah) on account of its shawahid (witness narrations).”
Al ‘Ala’i disagrees with Ibn Hajar. He states:
This hadith is surely not from the Hassan (fair) ahadith. Rather, it is da’if (weak); but not a complete fabrication. It is strange that Imam al Tirmidhi regarded it as Hassan (fair), knowing that these two are the only two who narrate it. Proof that this hadith is da’if (weak) and munkar (unacceptable) is the fact that Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was never afforded any sort of exclusive dispensations that are related to, and encroach upon such things which are sacrosanct by Allah—and thus they are to be venerated. The dispensations he salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was afforded were all related to worldly matters; like, for example, the permission to have more than four wives in marriage, and other such examples. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not permit entering the masjid in a state of major ritual impurity; whether it meant remaining in the masjid (even for a moment), or simply passing through (depending on the different opinions). In fact, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam once reprimanded several Sahabah when he was granted a dispensation regarding a certain affair. They said, “Allah permits for His Nabi whatsoever He wills.” He salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam responded and said, “By Allah! I am the most God-fearing of you, and the most knowledgeable among you regarding how I exercise my taqwa.” He salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam negated from himself any exclusive dispensation (that was only afforded to him and nobody else) which would infringe upon anything that is sacred and is to be revered. And Allah knows best.
 Imam al Tirmidhi: Sunan al Tirmidhi, hadith no. 3727.
 Abu Ya’la: Musnad Abi Ya’la al Mawsili, hadith no. 1042.
 Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, 42/140.
 Imam al Bayhaqi: al Sunan al Kubra, 7/65.
 Ibn al Mulaqqin responded to this and said, “There is a problem with this explanation. This ruling does not only apply to ‘Ali, but based on the direct text of the Qur’an, it applies to the entire Ummah.” See: al Badr al Munir, 7/465.
 Al Shawkani: al Fawa’id al Majmu’ah, 320.
 Imam al Tabarani: al Mujam al Kabir, 23/881.
 The printed copy of the book Tarikh al Madinah has the name written as ‘Abu ‘Utbah’. The correct reading is, as I’ve mentioned, ‘Abu Ghunayyah’.
 Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah, 1/38.
 Ibn Hajar: al Talkhis al Habir, 3/136.
 Al Hafiz al ‘Ala’i: al Naqd al Sahih li ma ‘Uturida min Ahadith al Masabih, pp. 55-57.