Hadith 30: The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ordered ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib to fight the nakithin (the people of the battle of Jamal), the qasitin (the people of the battle of Siffin) and the mariqin (the people of Nahrawan, i.e. the Khawarij).

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Hadith 30

 

أمر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم علي بن أبي طالب بقتال الناكثين، والقاسطين، والمارقين.

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ordered ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib to fight the nakithin (the people of the battle of Jamal), the qasitin (the people of the battle of Siffin) and the mariqin (the people of Nahrawan, i.e. the Khawarij).

 

This hadith is narrated by Abu Ayub al Ansari, Ibn Mas’ud, ‘Ali, ‘Ammar ibn Yasir, and Abu Sa’id radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

 

The Hadith of Abu Ayub al Ansari

This hadith is narrated with a number of different chains of transmission:

  1. Al Hakim narrates — from Muhammad ibn HumaidSalamah ibn al Fadl narrated to us — Abu Zaid al Ahwal narrated to me — from ‘Itab[1] ibn Tha’labah — Abu Ayub al Ansari narrated to me in the khilafah of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab.[2]

Muhammad ibn Humaid is (Muhammad ibn Humaid) al Razi. He is suspected of lying.

There is a difference of opinion regarding the status of Salamah ibn al Fadl.

Al Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar say regarding ‘Itab ibn Tha’labah: “Abu Zaid al Ahwal narrates the hadith of “fighting the nakithin (the people of the battle of Jamal)” from him. The chain of transmission is muzlim (murky). And the matn (text) is munkar (unacceptable).”[3]

 
  1. Al Hakim narrates — from Muhammad ibn Yunus al Qurashi — ‘Abdul ‘Aziz ibn al Khattab narrated to us — Abdullahnarrated to us — from al Asbagh ibn Nubatah — from Abu Ayub.[4]

Muhammad ibn Yunus al Qurashi al Kudaymi and al Asbagh ibn Nubatah are both matruk (suspected of forgery).

‘Ali ibn Ghurab ibn Abi Fatimah could not be traced.

 
  1. Ibn ‘Asakir narrates — from Ahmed ibn Ishaq ibn NaykhabIbrahim ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Ali al Kattani narrated to us — Yahya ibn Sulaiman al Ju’fi narrated to us — Ibn Fudayl narrated to us — Ibrahim al Hijri narrated to us — from Abu Sadiq who said, “Abu Ayub al Ansari entered ‘Iraq… until the end of the hadith.”[5]

Ahmed ibn Ishaq ibn Naykhab and Ibrahim ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Ali al Kattani could not be traced.

There is a difference of opinion regarding the status of Yahya ibn Sulaiman al Ju’fi.

Ibrahim al Hijri is da’if (weak).

 
  1. Ibn Hibban narrates — from Salih ibn Abi al Aswad — from ‘Ali ibn al Hizwar — from al Asbagh ibn Nubatah — from Abu Ayub al Ansari.[6]

Salih ibn Abi al Aswad, ‘Ali ibn al Hizwar, and al Asbagh ibn Nubatah are all matruk (suspected of forgery).

 
  1. Al Khatib narrates — from al Ma’alla ibn ‘Abdul RahmanSharik narrated to us — from Sulaiman ibn Mihran al A’mash — Ibrahim narrated to us — from ‘Alqamah and al Aswad who said, “We went to Abu Ayub al Ansari. And he mentioned a long hadith.”[7]

Al Ma’alla ibn ‘Abdul Rahman al Wasiti is a kadhdhab (liar).

Al Juraqani narrates — from al Ma’alla ibn ‘Abdul Rahman in Baghdad — Suwaid narrated to us — from Sulaiman ibn Mihran al A’mash — Ibrahim narrated to us — from ‘Alqamah and al Aswad who said, “We went to Abu Ayub al Ansari.”[8] Al Juraqani said, “This hadith is mawdu’ (fabricated), there is no doubt about it.”

This chain of transmission contains the narrator Suwaid, whereas in the previous chain, it contained the narrator Sharik. In any case, both are da’if (weak).

Ibn al Jawzi says, “Without a doubt, this hadith is mawdu’ (fabricated).”[9]

The following people concurred with him: al Suyuti, Ibn ‘Arraq, al Shawkani, and al Albani.[10]

 
  1. Al Tabarani and others narrate — from Muhammad ibn Kathir — from al Harith ibn Hasirah — from Abu Sadiq — from Abu Mihnaf ibn Salim — from Abu Ayub al Ansari.[11]

This chain of transmission is saqit (wholly unreliable). Muhammad ibn Kathir is al Kufi. He is da’if (weak). In fact, some ‘ulama’ have regarded him as da’if jiddan (extremely weak). Imam Ahmed states, “We tore his hadith up.” Imam al Bukhari states, “He is a Kufan who is a munkar al hadith (narrates unacceptable reports).” Ibn al Madini states, “We recorded ‘aja’ib (odd reports) from him and I struck out his hadith.”[12]

 

The Hadith of Ibn Mas’ud

Al Tabarani narrates — Muhammad ibn Hisham al Mustamli narrated to us — ‘Abdul Rahman ibn Salih narrated to us — ‘A’idh ibn Habib narrated to us — Bukayr ibn Rabi’ah narrated to us — Yazid ibn Qais narrated to us — from Ibrahim — from ‘Alqamah — from ‘Abdullah who said, “The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ordered the killing of the nakithin (the people of the battle of Jamal), the qasitin (the people of the battle of Siffin) and the mariqin (the people of Nahrawan, i.e. the Khawarij).”[13]

Muhammad ibn Hisham al Mustamli, Bukayr ibn Rabi’ah, and his teacher could not be traced. Perhaps they are being referred to in al Haythami’s statement, “Al Tabarani narrates this hadith with a chain of transmission that contains someone I am unaware of.”[14]

There are other chains of transmission, all of which contain narrators that are either suspected (of lying or fabricating) or majhul (unknown). I have mentioned them in the original work.

 

The Hadith of ‘Ali

This hadith is narrated with a number of different chains of transmission:

  1. Al Bazzar and others narrate — from Hakim ibn Jubayr — I heard Ibrahim say — I heard ‘Alqamah say — I heard ‘Ali say, “I have been ordered to fight the nakithin (the people of the battle of Jamal), the qasitin (the people of the battle of Siffin), and the mariqin (the people of Nahrawan, i.e. the Khawarij).’”[15]

Hakim ibn Jubayr is matruk (suspected of forgery).

 
  1. Al Tabarani and others narrate — from Yahya ibn Salamah ibn Kuhayl — from his father — from Abu Sadiq — from Rabi’ah ibn Najid who said, “I heard ‘Ali say,” and then he mentioned the hadith.[16]

Yahya ibn Salamah ibn Kuhayl is matruk (suspected of forgery).

 
  1. Al Khatib narrates — from Yunus ibn Arqam — from Aban — from Khulayd al ‘Asri who said, “I heard ‘Ali say, “ and then he mentioned the hadith.[17]

Aban is ibn Abi ‘Ayyash. He is matruk (abandoned).

There is a difference of opinion regarding the status of Yunus ibn Arqam.[18]

 
  1. Ibn ‘Asakir narrates — from Abu al Jarud — from Zaid ibn ‘Ali ibn al Hussain ibn ‘Ali — from his father — from his grandfather — from ‘Ali.[19]

Abu al Jarud is Ziyad ibn al Mundhir al A’ma al Kufi. He is a kadhdhab (liar).

 
  1. Ibn ‘Asakir narrates — from ‘Abdul Jabbar al Hamdani — from Anas ibn ‘Amr — from his father — from ‘Ali who said, “I was ordered to fight three: the nakithin (the people of the battle of Jamal), the qasitin (the people of the battle of Siffin), and the mariqin (the people of Nahrawan, i.e. the Khawarij).”[20]

Al Hafiz ibn Khirash says Anas ibn ‘Amr is majhul (unknown). Ibn Hibban mentions his in his Kitab al Thiqat.[21]

His father (‘Amr) could not be traced.

‘Abdul Jabbar ibn al ‘Abbas al Hamdani is a saduq (sincere). Several hadith critics have regarded him as a thiqah (reliable). However, both Ibn Hibban al ‘Uqayli mentioned him in their works.[22] In fact, Abu Nuaim regarded him as a liar.

 
  1. Ibn ‘Asakir narrates — from Abu al ‘Abbas ibn ‘Uqdahal Hassan ibn ‘Ubaid ibn ‘Abdul Rahman al Kindi narrated to us — Bakkar ibn Bishr narrated to us — Hamzah al Zayyat narrated to us — from al A’mash — from Ibrahim — from ‘Ali and Abu Sa’id al Taymi — from ‘Ali.”[23]

The preponderant opinion regarding Ibn ‘Uqdah is that he is da’if (weak).

Al Hassan ibn ‘Ubaid al Kindi and Bakkar ibn Bishr cannot be traced.

 
  1. Abu Ya’la and others narrate — from al Rabi’ ibn Sahl — from Sa’id ibn ‘Ubaid — from ‘Ali ibn Rabi’ah — from ‘Ali.[24]

Al Rabi’ ibn Sahl ibn al Rakin ibn ‘Umaylah al Fizari is da’if (weak). In fact, Ibn Ma’in says that he is not a thiqah (reliable).

 
  1. Ibn ‘Asakir and al Juraqani narrate with a chain of transmission that contains al Hassan ibn ‘Attiyah ibn Sa’d and his father, both of whom are da’if (weak). Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn Tamim is (also) da’if (weak).

There is some confusion in the chain of transmission.

Al ‘Uqayli says regarding ‘Amr ibn ‘Attiyah al ‘Aufi, “Adam ibn Musa narrated to me, ‘I heard al Bukhari say that there is a problem with the hadith of ‘Amr ibn ‘Attiyah al ‘Aufi.’”[25]

 

The Hadith of ‘Ammar ibn Yasir

Al ‘Uqayli, Abu Ya’la, and Ibn ‘Asakir narrate — from Jafar ibn Sulaiman — al Khalil ibn Murrah narrated to us — from al Qasim ibn Sulaiman — from his father — from his grandfather — from ‘Ammar.[26]

Al ‘Uqayli says there is nothing established in this chapter. He continues and says that al Khalil ibn Murrah narrates from al Qasim ibn Sulaiman and the hadith is inauthentic.

It remains to be seen who his father and grandfather are.

Al Khalil ibn Murrah is da’if (weak). According to Ibn ‘Asakir’s version, his name is al Hassan ibn Murrah. However, this is a mistake.

Al Dulabi narrates from Abu al Jarud — from Abu al Rabi’ al Kindi — from Hind ibn ‘Amr who said, “I heard ‘Ammar saying,” and then he mentioned the hadith.[27]

Abu al Jarud is Ziyad ibn al Mundhir al A’ma al Kufi. He is a kadhdhab (liar).

Abu al Rabi’ al Kindi could not be traced.

 

The Hadith of Abu Sa’id

Ibn ‘Asakir narrates — from Abu Harun al ‘Abdi — from Abu Sa’id al Khudri who said, “The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ordered us to fight the nakithin (the people of the battle of Jamal), the qasitin (the people of the battle of Siffin) and the mariqin (the people of Nahrawan, i.e. the Khawarij). We said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, you have ordered us to fight these people, so who shall we fight them with?’ He salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, ‘With ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib; alongside him, ‘Ammar ibn Yasir will be killed.’”[28]

Abu Harun al ‘Abdi is matruk (suspected of forgery).

Al Khatib narrates from Ibrahim ibn Hirasah — from Sharik — from al A’mash, from Abu Sa’id ‘UQaisa who said, “I heard ‘Ali saying…”[29]

Ibrahim ibn Hirasah is a kadhdhab (liar).

Sharik is da’if (weak).

Al Albani mentions the hadith with the words:

 

تقاتل الناكثين، والقاسطين، والمارقين: بالطرقات، والنهروانات، وبالشعفات.

You (i.e. ‘Ali) will fight the nakithin (the people of the battle of Jamal), the qasitin (the people of the battle of Siffin) and the mariqin (the people of Nahrawan, i.e. the Khawarij) in the roads, near the rivers and on the hill.[30]

 

Al Albani says this is entirely fabricated.

After scrutinizing the various chains of transmissions, al Albani states that the shawahid (witness reports) of this hadith are not strong enough to bolster the first part of the (above) hadith because they are severely weak, with some being weaker than others.

I actually collected and scrutinized all the various chains of transmission before coming across al Albani’s efforts on the hadith. When I completed my work, I compared it with al Albani’s and found my work to be broader and more extensive. My rulings regarding the hadith were no different than his, except in few minute inconsequential instances. All praise belongs to Allah for His taufiq.

In conclusion, when the hadith specifies the group of the nakithin and others it is batil (false). All of the different chains of transmission are saqitah (wholly unreliable). As for when the hadith appears without specifying who the groups are, than most of the chains of transmission are extremely weak.

 

NEXT⇒ Hadith 31


[1] The name appears as ‘‘iqab’ in al Mustadrak. However, the correct version is as I have mentioned.

[2] Al Hakim: Mustadrak al Hakim, hadith no. 4674.

[3] Imam al Dhahabi: Mizan al I’tidal, 3/27; Ibn Hajar: Lisan al Mizan, 4/127.

[4] Al Hakim: Mustadrak al Hakim, hadith no. 4675.

[5] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimishq, 16/53.

[6] Ibn Hibban: Kitab al Majruhin, 1/174.

[7] Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, 13/186.

[8] Al Juraqani: al Abatil wa al Manakir wa al Sihah wa al Mashahir, 1/174.

[9] Ibn al Jawzi: Kitab al Mawdu’at, 2/12.

[10] Al Suyuti: al La’ali al Masu’ah, 1/374; ibn ‘Arraq: Tanzih al Shari’ah, 1/371; al Shawkani: al Fawa’id al Majmu’ah, hadith no. 345; al Albani: Silsilat Ahadith al Da’ifah, hadith no. 4896.

[11] Al Tabarani: al Mujam al Kabir, hadith no. 4049.

[12] Ibn Hajar: Tahdhib al Tahdhib, 9/371.

[13] Al Tabarani: al Mujam al Kabir, hadith no. 10053.

[14] Nur al Din al Haythami: Majma’ al Zawa’id, 6/235.

[15] Al Bazzar: Musnad al Bazzar, hadith no. 604.

[16] Al Tabarani: al Mujam al Wasit, hadith no. 8433.

[17] Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, 8/340.

[18] Ibn Hajar: Ta’jil al Manfa’ah, 459.

[19] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, 42/468.

[20] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, 42/469.

[21] Ibn Hajar: Lisan al Mizan, 1/469.

[22] Ibn Hibban: Kitab al Majruhin, 2/159; al ‘Uqayli: Kitab al Du’afa’, 3/88.

[23] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, 42/469.

[24] Abu Ya’la: Musnad Abi Ya’la, hadith no. 519.

[25] Al ‘Uqayli: Kitab al Du’afa’, 3/290.

[26] Al ‘Uqayli: Kitab al Du’afa’, 3/480; Abu Ya’la: Musnad Abi Ya’la, hadith no. 1623; ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, 43/456.

[27] Al Dulabi: al Kuna wa al Asma’, 641.

[28] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, 42/471

[29] Al Khatib: al Mudih, 1/386-387.

[30] Al Albani: Silsilat Ahadith al Da’ifah, hadith no. 4907.