Hadith 26: When Fatimah was given to ‘Ali (in marriage) we found nothing in his house except for some sand that was spread out on the floor, a pillow stuffed with palm-fibre, a jug and a jar (for water). …

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Hadith 26

 

لما أهديت فاطمة إلى علي لم نجد في بيته إلا رملا مبسوطا، ووسادة حشوها ليف، وجرة وكوزا. فأرسل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى علي: لا تحدثن حدثا أو قال لا تقربن أهلك حتى آتيك. فجاء النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال: أثم أخي؟ فقالت أم أيمن وهي أم أسامة بن زيد وكانت حبشية، وكانت امرأة صالحة: يا نبي الله هو أخوك وزوجته ابنتك؟ وكان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم آخى بين أصحابه وآخى بين علي ونفسه. فقال: إن ذلك يكون يا أم أيمن. قال: فدعا النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بإناء فيه ماء، فقال فيه ما شاء الله أن يقول، ثم نضح على صدر علي ووجهه. ثم دعا فاطمة فقامت إليه تعثر في مرطها من الحياء، فنضح عليها من ذلك الماء. وقال لها ما شاء الله أن يقول، ثم قال لها: أما إني لم آلك، أنكحتك أحب أهلي إلي. ثم رأى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم سوادا من وراء الستر أو من وراء الباب فقال: من هذا؟ قالت: أسماء. قال: أسماء ابنة عميس؟ قالت: نعم يا رسول الله. قال: أجئت كرامة لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مع ابنته؟ قالت: نعم إن الفتاة ليلة يبنى بها لابد لها من امرأة تكون قريبا منها، إن عرضت حاجة أفضت بذلك إليها. قالت: فدعا لي دعاء إنه لأوثق عملي عندي، ثم قال لعلي: دونك أهلك، ثم خرج فولى. قالت: فما زال يدعو لهما حتى توارى في حجره.

 

Asma’ bint ‘Umays said:

When Fatimah was given to ‘Ali (in marriage) we found nothing in his house except for some sand that was spread out on the floor, a pillow stuffed with palm-fibre, a jug and a jar (for water). So Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent for ‘Ali (and said), “Do not do anything (or he said: Do not approach your wife) until I come to you.”

Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (eventually) came and said, “Is my brother here?”

Umm Ayman[1] said, “O Nabi of Allah, he is your brother and his wife is your daughter?”

Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam established a bond of brotherhood between his Companions and ‘Ali and himself.

He said, “That is the case, O Umm Ayman.”

Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked for a vessel with water in it. He said/read into it what Allah willed for him to say. Then he sprinkled (the water) on the chest and face of ‘Ali. Thereafter, he called Fatimah. She (hastily) stood up (to go to him), nearly stumbling in her gown out of modesty. He sprinkled the water on her and said to her what Allah willed for him to say.

Then he said to her, “Indeed, I have not neglected you; I married you off to the most beloved member of my family.”

Then the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam noticed a silhouette behind the curtain and asked, “Who is this?”

She replied, “It is Asma’.”

He said, “Asma’ bint ‘Umays?”

She said, “Yes, O Messenger of Allah.”

He said, “Did you come in honour of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, with his daughter?”

She said, “Yes. A young woman who, on the night her marriage will be consummated, requires a female to be nearby; if something happens she can take care of it.”

He (i.e. Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) supplicated for me such that I consider it (i.e. the supplication) to be the most reliable of my (good) deeds (in front of Allah).”

Then he said to ‘Ali, “Take your wife!” He then turned and left.

She said, “He continued supplicating for them until he disappeared into his room.”

 

This hadith has been narrated by: Asma’ bint ‘Umays, Ibn ‘Umar, Ibn ‘Abbas, Zaid ibn Abi Awfa, Ya’la ibn Murrah, Mahduj ibn Zaid, Abu Rafi’, Anas ibn Malik, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, Abu Sa’id al Khudri, Jabir, Abu Umamah, Abu Dharr, Hudhaifah ibn al Yaman, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al ‘As, Abu Barzah, Abu Hurairah, ‘Abis, Abu Jafar, ‘Umar ibn ‘Ali, Muhammad ibn ‘Umar ibn ‘Ali, Sa’id ibn al Musayyib, and al Bahi radiya Llahu ‘anhum. The majority of these chains suffer from severe weakness (shadidat al da’f). The strongest of these chains are two, both of which are transmitted from Asma’.

 

The Hadith of Asma’ bint ‘Umays

This hadith has been narrated by ‘Abdul Razzaq.[2] Ahmad ibn Hanbal narrates this hadith from ‘Abdul Razzaq and ibn Rahawayh.[3] Al Tabarani also narrates with the same chain of transmission from Ma’mar — from Ayub — from ‘Ikrimah and Abu Yazid al Madani—or from only one of the last two narrators—Abu Bakr (‘Abdul Razzaq) is not sure) that Asma’ bint ‘Umays said (the hadith).[4]

The narrators of this hadith are all reliable. Imam al Bukhari narrates from Abu Yazid al Madini and Yahya ibn Ma’in regarded him as reliable. This (grading of Yahya ibn Ma’in in favour of Abu Yazid) is sufficient testimony in his favour.

The fact that ‘Abdul Razzaq has doubt (i.e. whether both ‘Ikrimah and/or Abu Yazid al Madini narrate the hadith from Asma’) is not a problem because he is inferring based on a reliable narrator.[5] ‘Abdul Razzaq is a reliable narrator. However, he does commit mistakes (awham) and possesses (some) unacceptable narrations (manakir), as I have elucidated in the original work. Similarly, Ma’mar ibn Rashid; he is one of the reliable masters of hadith, but he commits mistakes when certain people narrate from him and when he narrates from (other) specific people. Despite this, both of their narrations enjoy other, parallel narrations (tawabi’). Ibn ‘Asakir (for example) narrates from Hammad ibn Zaid — from Ayub al Sakhtiyani — from Abu Yazid al Madani that Asma’ bint ‘Umays said.[6]

Imam al Nasa’i narrates this hadith with the following chain of transmission: Ismail ibn Mas’ud informed us — Hatim ibn Wardan narrated to us — Ayub al Sakhtiyani narrated to us — from Abu Yazid al Madani — from Asma’ bint ‘Umays.[7]

 

Regarding this hadith, Imam al Dhahabi said:

 

This hadith is, however, incorrect since Asma’ bint ‘Umays was in Abyssinia on the night of Fatimah’s wedding.[8]

 

Ibn Hajar said:

 

The narrators of this hadith are all reliable. However, Asma’ bint ‘Umays was in Abyssinia at that time with her husband, Jafar. There is no disagreement regarding this. Perhaps this incident occurred with her sister, Salma bint ‘Umays. Salma was the wife of Hamzah ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib.[9]

 

However, the hadith is strong when it is transmitted by two (particular) chains: the chain of transmission of Ma’mar and the chain of transmission of Hatim ibn Wardan. The existence of a mistake in some of the hadith’s wordings does not require that the hadith be rejected. The only part of the hadith that is good (jayyid) is (up to) the wording that mentions Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made a bond of brotherhood. The remaining words of the hadith are unacceptable (munkarah). Zayn al Din al ‘Iraqi inclined towards the hadith being weak.[10]

 

Al Shawkani mentioned the hadith of Anas and said:

 

Ibn al Jawzi and al Dhahabi said the hadith is mawdu’ (fabricated). The accused narrator (in the chain of transmission) is Matar ibn Maymun al Iskaf.[11]

 

Imam al Dhahabi says:

 

We say: This hadith is fabricated and baseless. The incident of the mubahalah[12] occurred around the ninth year (A.H) and the bond of brotherhood made by the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam between the Muhajirin and the Ansar occurred at the beginning of the Hijrah. Moreover, the actual mubahalah did not take place; the Christians of Najran were merely invited to the mubahalah. They requested some respite so they could deliberate over the matter. When they were alone, they said, “He is a Nabi. A people never entered into a mubahalah with a Nabi except that they were extirpated.” So they agreed to pay the jizyah (as opposed to entering into the mubahalah) and left.[13]

 

Imam al Dhahabi means the hadith is fabricated in only some of its chains of transmission. Ibn al Jazari felt the hadith has some strength.[14]

 

NEXT⇒ Hadith 27


[1] Umm Ayman was the mother of Usamah ibn Zaid. She was an extremely devout Abyssinian woman.

[2] ‘Abdul Razzaq al San’ani: Musannaf ‘Abdul Razzaq, hadith no. 9781.

[3] Ahmad ibn Hanbal: Fadaʾil al Sahabah, hadith no. 958; ibn Rahawayh: Musnad Ishaq Ibn Rahawayh; hadith no. 2132.

[4] Al Tabarani: al Mu’jam al Kabir; 24/365.

[5] In other words, since both narrators in question are reliable, it is inconsequential if he is unsure whether ‘Ikrimah and/or Abu Yazid al Madini narrate the hadith from Asmaʾ. [translator’s note]

[6] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq; 42/133.

[7] Imam al Nasaʾi: al Sunan al Kubra; hadith no. 8455 and Khasaʾis ‘Ali; hadith no. 124.

[8] Imam al Dhahabi: Talkhis al Mustadrak; 3/1261.

[9] Ibn Hajar al ‘Asqalani: al Matalib al ‘Aliyah bi Zawaʾid al Masanid al Thamaniyah; 8/240.

[10] Zayn al Din al ‘Iraqi: Takhrij Ahadith al Ihyaʾ, hadith no. 648.

[11] Al Shawkani: al Fawaʾid al Majmu’ah; hadith no. 305.

[12] The Mubahalah was a meeting between the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and a Christian delegation from Najran (present-day Yemen), in the month of Dhu al Hijjah, 10 A.H, where he salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam invoked a curse attempting to reveal who was lying about their religious differences. [translator’s note]

[13] Imam al Dhahabi: al Muntaqa min Minhaj al ‘Itidal; 471.

[14] Ibn al Jazari: Manaqib al Asad al Ghalib ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib; 22.