Fourth Module – Miscellaneous Divisions of The Qur’an

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Fourth Module

Miscellaneous Divisions of The Qur’an

This module holds the following discussions:

 

  1. Count of the verses of the Qur’an.
  2. What a verse constitutes.
  3. Benefits of knowing the verse.
  4. Ways to recognize the signs of a verse.
  5. Laws pertaining to the order of the verses in the Qur’an.
  1. Count of the verses of the Qur’an

This subject has been delved into by the scholars that have dealt with the numerology and rhyming prose of the verses in the Qur’an. Hereunder are the views of seven such famous opinions:

a) Al Madani al Awwal

This is the view narrated by Nafi’ (d. 169) from his teacher, Abu Jafar Yazid ibn al Qa’qa’ (d. 128) and from Shaybah ibn Nisah (d. 130).

There exists a difference of opinion amongst the Kufi and Basri scholars in his narrations.

  • The scholars of Kufah narrate from the scholars of Madinah without specifying whom they narrate from. The verses of the Qur’an according to them amounts to 6217.
  • The scholars of Basra narrate from Warsh from Nafi’ from his teacher. The verses of the Qur’an according to them amounts to 6214.[1]

b) Al Madani al Akhir

This is the view narrated by Isma’il ibn Jafar from Abu Jafar Yazid ibn al Qa’qa (d. 128) and Shaybah ibn Nisah (d. 130) through the channel of Sulaiman ibn Jamaz (d. 170). The verses of the Qur’an according to him amounts to 6214.[2]

c) Al Makki

This is the view narrated by al Dani (d. 444.) with his chain of narration to ‘Abdullah ibn Kathir (d. 120.) who narrates from Mujahid ibn Jabr (d. 104.) who narrates from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma (d. 68) who narrates from Ubay ibn Ka’b (d. 30) who narrates from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The verses of the Qur’an according to him amounts to 6210.[3]

d) Al Basri

This is the view narrated by ‘Ata ibn Yasar (d. 102.) and Asim al Jahdari (d. 128.) who reference their view to Ayub ibn al Mutawakkil (d. 200.). The verses of the Qur’an according to him amounts to 6204.[4]

e) Al Dimashqi

This is the view narrated by Yahya al Dhamari from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amir al Yahsubi (d. 118.) who narrates from Abu al Darda’ (d. 33.) radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This view is attributed to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan (d. 35) radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The verses of the Qur’an according to him amounts to 6227 according to one view, and according to another 6226.[5]

f) Al Himsi

This view is attributed to Shurayh ibn Yazid al Himsi al Hadrami (d. 203). The verses of the Qur’an according to him amounts to 6232.[6]

g) Al Kufi

This is the view narrated by Hamzah ibn Habib al Zayyat (d. 156.) and Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah (d. 198.) from ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (d. 40.) radiya Llahu ‘anhu through a strong chain of narration. The verses of the Qur’an according to him amounts to 6236.[7]

[Translators Note]

This difference of opinion is negligible as one will come to notice. The Muslims are unanimous in the establishment of words in the Qur’an, they do not differ in the least in the words that make up the Qur’an. No addition or subtraction of words are found, nor tolerated. Yes, they differ in the number of verses which stem from the different approaches taken by the scholars in defining the ends of some verses. Some will regard it as a single verse whilst others will not; ergo, a negligible difference.

Majd al Din Fayruz Abadi says:

اعلم أَنَّ عدد سور القرآن ـ بالاتِّفاق ـ مائة وأَربعة عشر سورة، وأَمّا عدد الآيات: فإِن صدر الأُمّة وأَئمة السّلف من العلماءِ والقراءِ كانوا ذوي عنايةٍ شديدة في باب القرآن وعِلمه، حتى لم يبق لفظ ومعنى إِلاَّ بحثوا عنه، حتى الآيات والكلمات والحروف، فإِنهم حَصَروها وعدُّوها، وبين القرّاءِ في ذلك اختلاف، لكنَّه لفظي لا حقيقي، مثال ذلك أَنَّ قرّاءَ الكوفة عدُّوا قوله: والقرآن ذِي الذكر ـ آية، والباقون لم يعدّوها آية، وقراء الكوفة عدّوا، قَالَ فالحق والحق أَقُولُ ـ آية والباقون لم يعدّوها، بل جعلوا آخر الآية: فِي عِزَّةٍ وَشِقَاقٍ، و: لأَمْلأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنكَ وَمِمَّن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ ـ وهكذا عدّ أَهل مكَّة والمدينة والكوفة والشَّام آخر الآية والشياطين كُلَّ بَنَّآءٍ وَغَوَّاصٍ ـ وأَهل البصرة جعلوا آخرها: وَآخَرِينَ مُقَرَّنِينَ فِي الأصفاد ـ ولا شكَّ أَنَّ ما هذا سبيله اختلاف في التَّسمية لا اختلاف في القرآن، ومن هاهنا صار عند بعضهم آيات القرآن أَكثر، وعند بعضهم أَقلّ، لا أَن بعضهم يزيد فيه، وبعضهم ينقص، فإِنَّ الزّيادة والنّقصان في القرآن كفر ونفاق، على أَنَّه غير مقدور للبشر، قال تعالى: إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذكر وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ.

Know that the chapters in the Qur’an are, by consensus, a hundred and fourteen. As for the verse count, understand that the former part of the Ummah and its scholars expanded their energies in attaining the knowledge in the sciences of the Qur’an. No part of this science was left bare, they researched its words, meanings, verses, and letters. They counted and encompassed them. Amongst the scholars, there remains a superficial difference in this regard. An example of this is that the scholars of Kufah consider the following as a complete verse:

ص وَالْقُرْآنِ ذِي الذِّكْرِ

However, others do not consider it as such.

Similarly, the Kufi scholars consider:

قَالَ فَالْحَقُّ وَالْحَقَّ أَقُولُ

as one verse. Whilst scholars of other schools consider the end of this verse to be at:

لأَمْلأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنكَ وَمِمَّن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

Another example of this difference is in the verse:

وَالشَّيَاطِينَ كُلَّ بَنَّاءٍ وَغَوَّاصٍ

The Makki, Madani, Kufi, and Shami scholars consider it as a stand-alone verse; while the scholars of Basra though consider the end of the verse to be at:

وَآخَرِينَ مُقَرَّنِينَ فِي الْأَصْفَادِ

As mentioned, this difference is superficial and has no bearing on the Qur’an itself. This difference though had led to the different counts of verses. Some have a larger number than others and vice versa. This does not mean that they have added or subtracted to or from the Qur’an as this constitutes disbelief. The power of adding to or subtracting from the Qur’an does not lie with the creation. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:

إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُوْنَ

Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur’an and indeed, We will be its guardian.[8]

Al Zarkashi has noted the following in his book, al Burhan:

واعلم أن سبب اختلاف العلماء في عد الآي والكلم والحروف أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يقف على رءوس الآي للتوقيف، فإذا علم محلها وصل للتمام فيحسب السامع أنها ليست فاصلة، وأيضا البسملة نزلت مع السورة في بعض الأحرف السبعة فمن قرأ بحرف نزلت فيه عدها، ومن قرأ بغير ذلك لم يعدها

The difference found amongst the scholars in their count of the verses, words and letters is born from the recital of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He would pause at the end of a verse portraying the divine end of the verse. When it had become known he would at times not pause, however, a person listening could have misunderstood it to be a continuous single verse. Similarly, basmalah was revealed with the chapter in some of the modes of recital. Whoever reads according to that mode will consider it part of the chapter and those who do not, will not [include it in their count].

Al Suyuti has, in his book, al Itqan, mentioned the details of the verses that the scholars have differed on. Those who wish can refer to it.

From what has been mentioned one can understand that this difference does not amount to much and is not of a serious nature.

[End Translators Note]

  1. What a verse constitutes

The Arabic language holds two literal meanings of the word Ayah (verse).

a) A group. In Arabic one would say:

جاء القوم بآيتهم اي جماعتهم

The people came in their groups.

b) A Take the following verse as an example;

إِنَّ آيَةَ مُلْكِهِ

Indeed, a sign of his kingship.[9]

This word was then taken and began to be used to refer to sentences of the Qur’an. Taking into consideration the first literal meaning the linguistic connection would be due to a verse being a collection, i.e. a group of words.

The linguistic connection between the second mentioned literal meaning and its consequential use would be thus; an Ayah is a sign indicating to either the end of a sentence or a sign indicating to the truthfulness of the one revealing the Ayah. Both meanings are appropriate for the Qur’an.

Imam al Shatbi has referred to this in the following couplet:

ـعلامة مبناها على خير ما جدر

والآية من معنى الجماعة أو من الـ

The Ayah is in the meaning of a group or; a sign that would behove it.[10]

There are differing opinions on the technical meaning of the word ‘Ayah’ based on the afore-mentioned difference in its literal meaning.

1) Those that opt for the literal meaning of ‘a group’ define an Ayah as:

  • A portion of the Qur’an. [Thus, including all collections of words in the Qur’an].
  • Which has a definite, divine beginning and end. [Thus, excluding such which have no definite, divine beginning and end]
  • Independent of what comes before it and what comes after it in word and meaning.
  • And not inclusive of the same. [Thereby excluding chapters of the Qur’an as they too are ‘A portion of the Qur’an which have a definite and divine beginning and end, independent of what comes before it and after it in word and meaning. However, as a chapter includes within itself verses it is excluded from this definition].[11]

 

2) Those that opt for the literal meaning of ‘a sign’ define an Ayah as:

  • Words of the Qur’an which have a definite and divine beginning and end, placed as a sign indicating the end of speech, or indicating the truthfulness of the one revealing it, or indicating towards the impossible duplication of even a single verse.[12]

Imam al Shatbi has referred to this in the following couplet:

فإما حروف في جماعتها غنى

وإما حروف في دلالة من يقري

Either words in a group independent; or words in indication to the reader[13]

  1. Benefits of knowing the verse

There are many great benefits of having knowledge of the verses in the Qur’an. I will suffice on mentioning the following:

a) The perfection of ones salah is dependent on knowledge of the verses. One who has no such knowledge cannot perform his salah in the correct manner.

b) Without it one cannot attain the reward promised on reading a specified amount of verses.

c) Similarly, one will not be able to attain the virtue of learning a specific number of verses.

d) This knowledge is needed to know what must be read in prayer after reciting Surah al Fatihah. The proper method is to read three short verses or one long verse after Surah al Fatihah. Those scholars that deem it an integral part of salah after the recitation of Surah al Fatihah will consider that salah incomplete in which less than the required amount of verses is read.

e) The veracity of the Khutbah lays squarely on a complete verse read therein.[14]

 

  1. Ways to recognize the signs of a verse

a) Similar length to the previous and following verse.

b) The relative similarity of the end of the verse to the verses in that chapter or to the verse before it.

c) Bearing a likeness to other similar verses in the Qur’an.

  1. Laws pertaining to the order of the verses in the Qur’an

There is consensus among the ummah that that the order of the verses in the Qur’an as it stands today within its chapters is divine. The sequence is as dictated by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from Jibril ‘alayh al Salam from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. There is no place for analytical reasoning in determining the sequence of verses.

Many texts have dealt with this issue, some at length, others more concisely establishing that the sequence of the verses is by divine selection.[15]

Hereunder are some of these texts:

1) Sahih al Bukhari, ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhuma narrates:

قلت لعثمان بن عفان والذين يتوفون منكم ويذرون أزواجا قال قد نسختها الآية الأخرى فلم تكتبها أو تدعها قال يا ابن أخي لا أغير شيئا منه من مكانه

I said to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the verse:

وَالَّذِيْنَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنْكُمْ وَيَذَرُوْنَ أَزْوَاجًا وَصِيَّةً لِّأَزْوَاجِهِمْ

And those who are taken in death among you and leave wives behind – for their wives is a bequest:[16]

Has been abrogated by another verse[17] so why did you imprint it or why did you leave it in the Qur’an?[18] He replied, “O my cousin, I will not change anything from its place.”[19]

This narration is clear that this verse was and is in its divinely selected place. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu could not change its place as it was in the copy of the Qur’an narrated to them by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The reason for this is as we have already established; there is no place for analytical reasoning in determining the sequence of verses.

2) Sahih Muslim, ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates:

ما سألت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عن شيء أكثر مما سألته عن الكلالة حتى طعن بأصبعه في صدري وقال ( يكفيك آية الصيف التي في آخر سورة النساء)

I did not ask Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam regarding anything more than the laws pertaining to a man dying without leaving behind children or parents[20]. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam put his finger on my chest and said, “The summer verse at the end of Surah al Nisa’ is sufficient for you.”[21]

This verse is called the summer verse as it was revealed in summer in the month of Safar in the year of the farewell pilgrimage.

3) Sahih Muslim, Abu al Darda’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates:

من حفظ عشر آيات من أول سورة الكهف عصم من الدجال

Whoever recites the first 10 verses of Surah al Kahf will be protected from Dajjal.

من قرأ العشر الأواخر من سورة الكهف

Whoever recites the last 10 verses of Surah al Kahf…[22]

4) Sahih al Bukhari, ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates:

من قرأ بالآيتين من آخر سورة البقرة في ليلة كفتاه

The last two verses of Surah al Baqarah will suffice for the one who recites them at night.[23]

These narrations are clear that the placement of the verses was through the teachings of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

5) The recital of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his salah drives the same point that the verses in its chapters are divinely sequenced. Hereunder are some examples:

a) Sahih al Bukhari has noted that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam recited Surah al A’raf in his Maghrib Salah.

b) Al Nasa’i has narrated that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam recited Surah al Mu’minun in the morning prayer.

c) Sahih Muslim has the narration noting Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam recited Surah al Munafiqun and Surah al Jumu’ah in the Jumu’ah prayer.

d) Sahih Muslim has also narrated Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam reciting Surah Qaf in his khutbah.[24]

 

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would recite in this manner in the presence of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum who learnt the sequence of the verses in their chapters from him. It is nigh impossible to envision the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum sequence the Qur’an contrary to the instructions of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. They were a group who aspired to follow him like none other.

Hereunder are some texts of the scholars establishing the sequence of the verses in the Qur’an are divine:

  • Qadi Abu Bakr al Baqillani (d. 403):

يقول ضعوا آية كذا في موضع كذا ترتيب الآيات أمر واجب، وحكم لازم، فقد كان جبريل

The sequence of the verses is definite and by law. Jibril ‘alayh al Salam would say, place this verse in that place.

  • Al Suyuti (d. 911):

والذي نذهب إليه أن جميع القرآن الذي أنزله الله وأمر بإثبات رسمه، ولم ينسخه، ولا رفع تلاوته بعد نزوله، هو الذي بين الدفتين، الذي حواه مصحف عثمان، وأنه لم ينقص منه شيئا، ولا زيد فيه، وأن ترتيبه، ونظمه ثابت على ما نظمه الله تعالى، ورتبه عليه رسوله من آي السور، لم يقدم من ذلك مؤخر ولم يؤخر مقدم، وأن الأمة ضبطت على النبي ترتيب آي كل سورة وموضعها وعرفت موقعها، كما ضبطت عنه نفس القراءات، وذات التلاوة

The belief we have of the Qur’an, is that it was revealed by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala establishing its script, not abrogating it nor lifting its recital after its revelation, it is what we find in book form today, from the copy of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Nothing in it has been erased nor anything added. Its sequence and prose are as established by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. His messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam placed each verse in its respective chapter. Interpolation of sequence did not take place. The ummah adopted the sequence set out by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and became aware of the place of each verse just as they adopted the method of recital.[25]

  • Ibn al Hasar (d. 611):

ترتيب السور ووضع الآيات مواضعها إنما كان بالوحي، كان رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- يقول: ضعوا آية كذا في موضع كذا، وقد حصل اليقين من النقل المتواتر بهذا الترتيب من تلاوة رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- ومما أجمع الصحابة على وضعه هكذا في المصحف

The sequence of the chapters and placement of the verses was by divine revelation. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would be instructed to place certain verses in particular chapters. The traditions concerning it from the recital of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are many and successive which give the benefit of certainty. Furthermore, the Sahabah were in agreement to place it in the Qur’an in this manner.[26]

  • Al Baghawi (d. 510):

ان الصحابة رضي الله عنهم جمعوا بين الدفتين القرآن الذي أنزل الله على رسوله من غير أن زادوا أو نقصوا منه شيئا، خوف ذهاب بعضه بذهاب حفظته، فكتبوه كما سمعوا من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من غير ان قدموا شيئا او اخروا او وضعوا له ترتيبا لم يأخذوه من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، وكان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يلقن أصحابه ويعلمهم ما نزل عليه من القرآن على الترتيب الذي هو الآن في مصاحفنا، بتوقيف جبرئيل إياه على ذلك وإعلامه عند نزول كل آية أن هذه الآية تكتب عقب كذا في سورة كذا فثبت أن سعي الصحابة كان في جمعه في موضع واحد لا في ترتيبه، فإن القرآن مكتوب في اللوح المحفوظ على هذا الترتيب، أنزله الله جملة إلى السماء الدنيا، ثم كان ينزله مفرقا عند الحاجة وترتيب النزول غير ترتيب التلاوة

The Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum gathered the Qur’an in book form which Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala revealed to his Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam without adding or subtracting anything. They penned it down for fear of forgetting. They wrote it as they heard it from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam without changing its sequence or creating a novel sequence contrary to the one taken from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would teach his Companions the Qur’an in the sequence we find it today. This method of teaching and placement was through the divine teachings of Jibril ‘alayh al Salam. Jibril ‘alayh al Salam would instruct him upon the revelation of every verse of its correct placement in such and such chapter between such and such verse. It is therefore logical to conclude that the gathering of the Qur’an by the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum was merely to bind it in book form and not to interfere with its sequence in any way. The Qur’an is written in the sacred tablet in this sequence. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala revealed it from there to the first sky at one go, thereafter revealing it gradually as needed. The sequence of revelation is not the same as the order of recitation.[27]

Notes:

The numerous texts provided, and others, establish that the sequence of the verses in every chapter as it stands today is exactly as the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum received from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in turn received the same from Jibril ‘alayh al Salam who received it from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. The sequence of the verses is therefore divine and analytical reasoning have no place in this matter.

Another point to note is that just as reciting in sequence is necessary, similarly the writing of the Qur’an in sequence is necessary. This legal ruling is held by the consensus of the scholars. And Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala knows best.

Is the sequence of the Qur’an as we read today the same as the sequence of revelation?

The sequence of revelation is not the same as the order of recitation. A proof of this statement is the phenomena of the gradual revelation of the Qur’an over a period of twenty-three years as and when needed, a reply to a query or an answer to a seeker of truth.

Other supporting factors of this is:

1. Some Madani verses [those verses revealed after hijrah] are imprinted in Makki chapters which were revealed before the hijrah. Hereunder are some examples of this:

a) Surah al An’am [Makki]

قُلْ تَعَالَوْا أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ

Say, “Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited to you.”[28]

This and the following three are Madani verses, though they are in a chapter known to be Makki.

b) Surah al Nahl [Makki]

وَإِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُوْا بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوْقِبْتُمْ بِهِ

And if you punish [an enemy, O believers], punish with an equivalent of that with which you were harmed.[29]

This and the following three, to the end of the chapter, are Madani verses, though they are in a chapter known to be Makki.

 

2. Some Makki verses [those verses revealed before hijrah] are imprinted in Madani chapters which were revealed after the hijrah. Hereunder are some examples of this:

a) Surah al Anfal [Madani]

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ حَسْبُكَ اللَّهُ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ

O Prophet, sufficient for you is Allah and for whoever follows you of the believers.[30]

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu is reported to have placed the revelation of this verse after the Islam of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu. As we know the Islam of ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was in Makkah shortly after the proclamation of prophethood. This verse though Makki, is in a Madani chapter.

b) Surah al Baqarah [Madani]

لَّيْسَ عَلَيْكَ هُدَاهُمْ

Not upon you, [O Muhammad], is [responsibility for] their guidance[31]

This verse was revealed before the hijrah and is therefore Makki, though it is in a Madani chapter; Surah al Baqarah.

3. Some verses abrogate others in the Qur’an. It is apparent that the abrogated verses will have been revealed prior to the abrogating verses. However, we do at times find an abrogated verse ahead in the sequence of recital. Hereunder is an example of this.

The following verse is of Surah al Baqarah: 234:

وَالَّذِيْنَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنْكُمْ وَيَذَرُوْنَ أَزْوَاجًا يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرًا

And those who are taken in death among you and leave wives behind – they, [the wives, shall] wait four months and ten [days].

This above verse is an abrogation of the law mentioned in Surah al Baqarah: 240:

وَالَّذِيْنَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنْكُمْ وَيَذَرُوْنَ أَزْوَاجًا وَصِيَّةً لِّأَزْوَاجِهِمْ مَّتَاعًا إِلَى الْحَوْلِ غَيْرَ إِخْرَاجٍ

And those who are taken in death among you and leave wives behind – for their wives is a bequest: maintenance for one year without turning [them] out.

This example makes it clear that the sequence of revelation is different to the sequence of recital.

The number of words in the Qur’an:

The scholars have differed in their count of the words in the Qur’an. Hereunder are some views:

  1. Seventy-seven thousand nine hundred and thirty-four. [77,934]
  2. Seventy-seven thousand four hundred and thirty-seven. [77,437]
  3. Seventy-seven thousand two hundred and seventy-seven. [77,277][32]

The apparent reason for this difference is that some considered a word with its preposition as one, whilst others deemed it as two, as in: في السماء; some consider this to be two words while others have counted it as one.

NEXT⇒ Chapter Three: The Writing of the Noble Qur’an – First module: Writing of the Qur’an in presence of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam


[1] Bashir al Yusr Sharh Nazimat al Zuhr, pgs. 18-19; Nafa’is al Bayan, pg. 6.

[2] Bashir al Yusr Sharh Nazimat al Zuhr, pg. 21; Nafa’is al Bayan, pg. 7.

[3] Bashir al Yusr Sharh Nazimat al Zuhr, pg. 20; Nafa’is al Bayan, pg. 7.

[4] Bashir al Yusr Sharh Nazimat al Zuhr, pg. 20; Nafa’is al Bayan, pg. 7.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Nafa’is al Bayan, pg. 7.

[7] Bashir al Yusr Sharh Nazimat al Zuhr, pg. 19; Nafa’is al Bayan, pg. 7.

[8] Surah al Hijr: 9.

[9] Surah al Baqarah: 248.

[10] Matn Nazimat al Zuhr, pg. 11.

[11] Bashir al Yusr Sharh Nazimat al Zuhr, pg. 43.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Matn Nazimat al Zuhr, pg. 12.

[14] Nafa’is al Bayan, pgs. 5-6.

[15] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 172.

[16] Surah al Baqarah: 240.

[17] The abrogation was by way of the verse:

وَالَّذِيْنَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنْكُمْ وَيَذَرُوْنَ أَزْوَاجًا يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرًا

And those who are taken in death among you and leave wives behind – they, [the wives, shall] wait four months and ten [days]; Surah al Baqarah: 234.

[18] This is a doubt from the narrator. Ibn Zubair believed the law of the verse been abrogated results in the recital of the verse been abrogated too.

[19] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 172; Tarikh al Mushaf, pgs. 115/116.

[20] See. Jalalayn, pg. 87.

[21] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 173; Tarikh al Mushaf, pg. 116.

[22] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 173; Tarikh al Mushaf, pg. 117.

[23] Tarikh al Mushaf, pg. 116.

[24] Tarikh al Mushaf, pg. 117.

[25] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 175; Tarikh al Mushaf, pgs. 118-119.

[26] Al Itqan.

[27] Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 175; Tarikh al Mushaf, pg. 118.

[28] Surah al An’am: 151-153.

[29] Surah al Nahl: 126.

[30] Surah al Anfal: 64.

[31] Surah al Baqarah: 272.

[32] Al Itqan, 198.