The Sahaba at Hudaybiyyah

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Chapter Two

 

After dividing the Sahabah into three categories, Tijani claims that he will base his research on impartiality and objectivity, drawing on sound logic and reason:

 

This is what I know from the Sunni scholars, and that is what I heard from the Shi’i scholars regarding the classification of the Companions; and that is what made me start my detailed study with the issue of the Companions. I promised my God — if He led me on the right path — to rid myself from emotional bias and to be neutral and objective and to listen to what the two sides said, then to follow what was best, basing my conclusions on two premises:

  1. A sound and a logical premise: that is to say that I would only depend upon what everybody is in agreement with, regarding the commentary on the Book of Allah, and the correct parts of the honourable Sunnah of the Prophet.
  2. The mind: for it is the greatest gift that Allah has given to human beings, and through it He honoured them and distinguished them from the rest of creation.[1]
 

He thus claims to rely on the Noble Qur’an, the authentic Sunnah, and reason.

It is a fact accepted by novices, let alone advanced students, that the understanding of the Qur’an must be taken from its original sources and from the statements of qualified scholars, and must be based on knowledge of its principles. To understand the Sunnah it is necessary to refer to the scholars of hadith and the science of al-Jarh wa al-Tadil (narrator discreditation and accreditation) who verify ahadith based on the chain of transmission and the text.

It is also necessary for the individual to exercise his reason in order to know correct from incorrect, provided that he does not overstep into irrationality.

So, how truthful is Tijani in his claims of impartiality and relying on reason and logic? We shall see.

 

Tijani’s position on the Sahabah at Hudaybiyyah

The first matter which Tijani brings up in context of indictments against the Sahabah is the Truce of Hudaybiyyah. He says:

 

Briefly the story is as follows:

In the sixth year after the Hijrah (emigration of the Prophet from Mecca to Madinah), the Messenger of Allah with one thousand and four hundred of his Companions marched towards Mecca to do the Umrah. They camped in “Dhu al-Hulayfah” where the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ordered his Companions to put down their arms and wear the Ihram (white gowns worn especially for the purpose of the pilgrimage and the Umrah), then they dispatched al-Hady (an offering for sacrifice) to inform Quraysh that he was coming as a visitor to do the Umrah and not as a fighter. But Quraysh, with all its arrogance, feared that its reputation would be dented if the other Arabs heard that Muhammad had entered Mecca by force. Therefore, they sent a delegation led by Suhayl ibn Amr ibn Abd Wadd al-Amiri to see the Prophet and ask him to turn back that year, but said that they would allow him to visit Mecca for three days the year after. In addition to that, they put down some harsh conditions, which were accepted by the Messenger of Allah as the circumstances warranted such acceptance, and as revealed to him by his God, Glory and Might be to Him.

A few of the Companions did not like the Prophet’s action and opposed him very strongly, and Umar ibn al-Khattab came and said to him, “Are you not truly the Prophet of Allah?”

He answered, “Yes, I am.”

Umar asked, “Are we not right and our enemy wrong?”

The Prophet answered, “Yes.”

Umar asked, “Why do we then disgrace our religion?”

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “I am the Messenger of Allah and I will never disobey Him and He is my support.”

Umar asked, “Did you not tell us that we would come to the House of Allah and go around it?”

The Prophet answered, “Yes, and did I tell you that we were coming this year?”

Umar answered, “No.”

The Prophet said, “Then you are coming to it and going around it.”

Umar later went to Abu Bakr and asked him, “O Abu Bakr, is he not truly the Prophet of Allah?”

He answered, “Yes.”

Umar then asked him the same questions he had asked the Messenger of Allah, and Abu Bakr answered him with the same answers and added, “O Umar he is the Messenger of Allah, and he will not disobey his God, Who is his support, so hold on to him.”

When the Prophet had finished signing the treaty, he said to his Companions, “Go and slaughter (sacrifices) and shave your heads.” And by Allah [not] one of them stood up until he had said it three times. When nobody obeyed his orders, he went to his quarters, then came out and spoke to no one, and slaughtered a young camel with his own hands, and then asked his barber to shave his head. When the Companions saw all that, they went and slaughtered (sacrifices), and shaved one another, until they nearly killed one another

This is the summary of the story of the peace treaty of al-Hudaibiyah, which is one of the events whose details both the Shia and Sunnah agree upon, and it is cited by many historians and biographers of the Prophet such as al-Tabari, Ibn al-Athir, Ibn Saad, al-Bukhari and Muslim.

I stopped here, for I could not read this kind of material without feeling rather surprised about the behaviour of those Companions towards their Prophet. Could any sensible man accept some people’s claims that the Companions may Allah bless them, always obeyed and implemented the orders of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, for these incidents expose their lies, and fall short of what they want! Could any sensible man imagine that such behaviour towards the Prophet is an easy or acceptable matter or even an excusable one! Allah, the Almighty, said:

 

فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُوْنَ حَتَّى يُحَكِّمُوْكَ فِيْمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوْا فِيْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوْا تَسْلِيمً

But no, by your Lord, they will not (truly) believe until they make you, (O Muhammad), judge concerning that over which they dispute among themselves and then find within themselves no discomfort from what you have judged and submit in (full, willing) submission.[2]

 

The Sahabah at Hudaybiyyah

Before proceeding with the refutation of Tijani’s assessment of the Sahabah’s conduct at Hudaybiyyah it will only be fair to the reader that the incident of Hudaybiyyah be recounted in as much detail as to establish some context. The truncated version reproduced by Tijani conveniently overlooks major elements of the entire incident and zooms-in, in high definition, on the alleged elements of misconduct.

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had a vision that he had entered Makkah and circumambulated the Ka’bah. The Companions of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were overjoyed when the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told them about the vision since they esteemed and revered Makkah. The opportunity of paying a visit had been denied to them for a long time but nobody had cause to think of the Holy City. They had been yearning to make the journey to Makkah all those years and were looking forward to the day when their hearts’ desire would be fulfilled and they could pay homage to the first House erected for the worship of Allah. The Muhajirin were especially consumed by longing since Makkah was their birthplace. They had grown up in that city but had been forced to abandon it. As soon as the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam informed the Companions of the vision, almost all of them promptly agreed to accompany him and started making preparations for the journey.

It was the month of Dhu al-Qa’dah, in the sixth year of hijrah, when the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam set out for Makkah with the intention of performing ‘Umrah along with 1400 of his noble Companions radiya Llahu ‘anhum; clad in the garb of pilgrims [Ihram] along with the sacrificial animals, so that everybody would know that he was going not for war but to pay a visit to the Ka’bah.

When he drew nearer he sent a scout from the tribe of Khuza’ah to assess the attitude of Quraysh. He was informed that Khalid ibn al-Walid was camped at Kura’ al-Ghamim with his cavalry acting as Quraysh’s vanguard. He was further informed that the Quraysh had conscripted mercenaries from other tribes to engage with the Muslims were they to approach; all of this to dissuade them from proceeding towards Makkah.

To avoid confrontation with Quraysh, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took detours and tread alternate routes until he was very close to Makkah. Suddenly the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam mount, called al-Qaswa’, knelt down and would not get up. The men around the Messenger (S.A.W) started talking rapidly, “Al-Qaswa’ has become stubborn!” But the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Al-Qaswa’ has not refused for such is not her nature. The one who restrained the elephants is keeping her back. I swear by Him Who holds my life that if they propose anything to me by which the sanctuaries of Allah are dignified, I will certainly accede to their request.’’ The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then prodded the camel which at once sprang up on her legs, but changed her direction and started off towards Hudaybiyyah. She came to a halt near a water-hole that contained but little water. Certain persons complained to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that they were thirsty. He took out an arrow from his quiver and asked them to throw it in the ditch. Thereupon water gushed forth and everyone drank to their satisfaction.

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam called upon ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu to send him to Makkah as an emissary to Quraysh and to negotiate the terms of their entry. ‘Umar feared that he would not succeed in convincing Quraysh, and that the enmity he displayed towards them and the harsh manner in which he treated them would compromise the negotiation. In turn he responded, “I will suggest to you a man they respect more than myself, ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.”

The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then summoned ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and sent him to Abu Sufyan and the rest of Quraysh to tell them that he had not come to war but merely to perform the ‘Umrah. The Prophetsalla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also asked ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to invite the Quraysh to Islam and to bring joy to the believing men and women still in Makkah with the glad tidings that Islam’s dominance was imminent and a time would soon come when they no longer would need to conceal their faith.

‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu went to Makkah and delivered the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam message to Abu Sufyan and other leaders of the Quraysh. After the Makkans had heard the message that Uthman (R.A) had brought them his love for the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was put to test when the they said to him, “If what you want is to do Tawaf [circumambulation of the Ka’bah], then you are free to do so now”. He declined their offer saying, “I will not do so until the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has gone round the Ka’bah.”

The Quraysh then kept ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu as their prisoner after he declined their offer of Tawaf. When the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was misinformed that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had been killed, he summoned the people to take an oath to avenge ‘Uthman’s death. “We will not leave before engaging them in battle!” he said. Everybody gathered around the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who was standing under the shade of a tree. The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took the oath one by one from the fourteen hundred standing around him. After they had all taken the oath, the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam struck one of his hands on the other, saying, “This is the pledge on behalf of ‘Uthman.” Thus was the pledge of Ridwan, taken under a tree, which finds eternal mention in the Qur’an:

 

لَقَدْ رَضِيَ اللّٰهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُوْنَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِيْ قُلُوْبِهِمْ فَأَنْزَلَ السَّكِيْنَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيْبًا

Allah was well pleased with the believers when they swore allegiance unto you beneath the tree, and He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down the peace of reassurance on them, and has rewarded them with a near victory.[3]

 

After his return from Makkah certain Muslims said to ‘Uthman, “O Abu ‘Abdullah, you have been fortunate enough to fulfil your heart’s desire by circumambulating the Ka’bah.”

“Do not be unfair to me,” replied ‘Uthman, “I declare by Him who holds my life that if I were detained there for a whole year and the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were to remain in Hudaybiyyah, I would not have circumambulated the Ka’bah until the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had done so. Truly, the Quraysh did invite me to circumambulate the House of Allah, but I declined.”

While this was going on, Budayl ibn Warqa’ al-Khuza’i arrived, accompanied by others of the Khuza’ah tribe. They were the trusted confidants of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Budayl said, “I have just left Ka’b ibn. Lu’ay and ‘Amir ibn Lu’ay who have encamped at the Hudaybiyyah wells; they have with them their camels with their young. They are going to prevent you from reaching the Ka’bah.”

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam responded, “We have not come to fight anyone. We have come to make a pilgrimage. Quraysh have been consumed by the warfare! It has ruined them. If they want, I will give them respite for a period. They should then give me access to the people. If it (Islam) prevails, and they wish to join into what the people have entered, they could do so. Otherwise, they will have gained in numbers. If they refuse this, then I swear by Him who holds my soul in His hand, I will battle them in this cause of mine until I perish! Allah’s command will be fulfilled!”

Budayl tried, unsuccessfully, to persuade the Quraysh. ‘Urwah ibn Mas’ud al-Thaqafi, who was present when the Quraysh dismissed Budayl’s proposal arose and said, “O People, am I not as your father?”

“Yes, you are,” they told him.

Then he asked, “…and are you not as my children?”

“Yes, indeed,” they replied.

“Do you mistrust me?”

“No,” they answered.

“Do you not know that I called to the people of ‘Ukaz to come forth to war alongside me and that when they put me off I came to you with my family and my son, and all who obeyed me?”

“Yes indeed,” they replied.

This man (the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) has offered you a reasonable proposal accept it and allow me to go to him.”

They said, “Go to him.”

So, he went to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and started talking to him. The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told him the same as he told Budayl.

‘Urwah then said, “O Muhammad! What do you think would happen if you vanquished your own people (Quraysh)? By Allah, I do not see dignified people. What I do see is people from various tribes who would flee and forsake you.”

Abu Bakr sternly rebuked him, “Go suck Lat’s clitoris! Do you think we would flee and forsake him?”

‘Urwah said, “Who is this man?”

They replied, “He is Abu Bakr.”

‘Urwah said to Abu Bakr, “By Him Who has control of my life, had it not been for a favour which you did for me, which I did not compensate, I would reply to you.”

‘Urwah then continued speaking to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam clutching his beard whenever he said something. Meanwhile Mughirah ibn Shu’bah was standing near the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, holding a sword and wearing a helmet. Whenever ‘Urwah stretched his hand out to the beard of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Mughirah would hit his hand away with the handle of his sword and say (to ‘Urwah), “Remove your hand from the beard of the Messenger.”

‘Urwah raised his head and asked, “Who is this?”

The people said, “He is Mughirah ibn Shu’bah.”

‘Urwah said, “O treacherous one! Am I not doing my best to prevent the evil consequences of your treachery?”

Before embracing Islam Mughirah accompanied some people and killed them. He then took their property, came (to Madinah), and embraced Islam. The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said (to him), “As for your Islam, I accept it, but as for the property I have nothing to do with it.”

‘Urwah, after observing the Sahabah, returned to his people and said, “O people! By Allah, I have been to the kings and to Caesar, Chosroe and the Negus, yet I have never seen any of them respected by his courtiers as much as Muhammad is respected by his Sahabah. By Allah, Muhammad did not spit except that it fell in the hands of one of them (the Sahabah) who would rub it on his face and skin; when he ordered them to do something they hastened to carry out his command; when he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water; and when they spoke to him, they would lower their voices and would not stare at him out of respect.”

A man of Banu Kinanah then asked to be allowed to go to see him and Quraysh agreed. As he was approaching, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam commented, “This is so-and-so; he is from a tribe who much venerate sacrificial camels. Send them out to him.” They were put out for him and people greeted him chanting Labbayk ‘at Your service, O Lord’. When he saw this, he said, “Subhan Allah! It is not right for these people to be kept from the Ka’bah!” He returned to his companions after that and told them, “I have seen the sacrificial camels necklaced and decorated, and I do not think they should be kept from the Ka’bah?”

Thereafter, one of their men named Mikraz ibn Hafs said, “Let me go to him,” to which they agreed. When he approached, the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “This is Mikraz; he is an immoral man.” As Mikraz began to speak Suhayl ibn’Amr arrived and the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam commented, “Your affair has been eased! [Suhila].”[4]

Suhayl then came and said, “Come on now, let us write an agreement between us.”

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked for a document to be brought and said, “Write down, BismiLlahi al-Rahman al-Rahim (in the name of Allah, the Most Merciful and Most Beneficent).”

But Suhayl objected, “As for that term al-Rahman, I swear I don’t know what that is. Instead, put down Bismik Allahumma (In your name, O Allah), like you used to write.”

The Muslims insisted, “By Allah, we will write it only BismiLlahi al-Rahman al-Rahim!”

But the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Write down Bismik Allahumma.”

He then said, “This is what Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, has agreed…”

Suhayl objected, “By Allah, if we knew you to be the Messenger of God, we would not have blocked your access to the Ka’bah, nor would we have fought you. Rather, write down, ‘Muhammad, son of ‘Abdullah’.”

The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then said, “I certainly am the Messenger of Allah, even though you call me a liar! Write down, ‘Muhammad, son of ‘Abdullah’.”

He salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam began negotiations by expressing his wish that the Quraysh not hinder the passage of the Muslims to the House of Allah; and that they should thus be allowed to do Tawaf of the Ka’bah.

Suhayl said, “You shall return this year and not enter Makkah lest the Arabs say that Quraysh were pliant to you in making this agreement. Next year we will make way for you; and your people may enter and stay for three nights, each rider bearing his own weapons—swords in sheaths, that is—and bringing in no other weapons.”

The agreement went on thus: ‘This is the peace agreement made by Muhammad, son of ‘Abd-Allah, with Suhayl ibn ‘Amr. They have made peace by agreeing to put aside warfare from each other for ten years. During this period, people will be safe and leave one another alone. Provided that if anyone from Quraysh comes to Muhammad without permission of his guardian, then he must send him back to them. If, however, anyone goes to Quraysh from Muhammad, they are not to send him back to him. There are to be no secret agreements, bad faith or antagonism between us. Anyone wishing to enter into a pact or agreement with Muhammad may do so. Anyone wishing to enter into an agreement or pact with Quraysh may do so.’

The Muslims objected, “How could someone be returned to the polytheists if he came as a Muslim!”

While this discussion was in progress Abu Jandal, son of Suhayl, came running dragging his chains, having escaped from Makkah. He threw himself at the feet of the Muslims seeking sanctuary.

Suhayl said, “This fellow, O Muhammad, is the first whom I charge you to return to me.”

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “But we have not completed the agreement yet?”

“In that case,” Suhayl insisted, “I will never make a pact with you over anything.”

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Release him to my custody.”

“I will not release him to you,” Suhayl replied.

“I insist that you release him!” the Prophet pleaded.

“That I will not do,” Suhayl retorted

Abu Jandal then exclaimed, “O Muslims, shall I be returned to the polytheists? I have come to you as a Muslim. Can you not see how I have been treated?” He had been brutally tortured on account of his faith.

The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Be patient, O Abu Jandal! Allah will provide a solution and relief for you and the others with you who are powerless. We have made a peace pact with the enemy and we and they have sworn to this in Allah’s name; we cannot act falsely with them.”

‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu jumped up and walked along beside Abu Jandal, saying, “Be patient! They are only polytheists, their blood is worth no more than that of dogs!” He kept the hilt of his sword close to Abu Jandal. ‘Umar used to say, “I was hoping he would take the sword and strike his father with it! But the man spared his father, and the matter was settled.”

‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu said, ‘So I went to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and asked, “Are you not truly the Messenger of Allah?”

“Yes, indeed,” he replied

“Are we not in the right? And our enemy in error?”

“Certainly,” was the response.

“Why, then, are we accepting lowliness in our religion?”

He salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied, “I am the Messenger of Allah, and I will not disobey him; He is my helper.”

“Did you not tell us we would make Tawaf of the Ka’bah?”

“Indeed I did, but did I tell you we would do so this year?”

‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu replied “No.”

“Well,” said the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, “you will definitely make Tawaf.”

‘Umar went on, “I then went down to Abu Bakr and asked, ‘O Abu Bakr, is he not Allah’s Prophet?’

“Yes, indeed,” replied Abu Bakr

“Are we not in the right and our enemy in error?…”

A similar discussion ensued until Abu Bakr said, “Look, he is indeed the Messenger of Allah and he will not disobey Him; He is his helper. Trust him; he is right.”

Umar said, “I have gone on fasting, giving alms, praying and freeing slaves because of what I did that day and out of fear for what I said that day, until I felt that I had made up.”

Once the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam concluded the agreement he told his Companions, “Sacrifice your animals and shave.”

The Companions were in a state of gloom and sadness that when the instruction was given they did not act immediately. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam went to Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha and told her of the morale of the Sahabah and their delay in sacrificing their animals and shaving their heads. Umm Salamah said, “O Prophet of Allah, go on out without speaking a word to anyone and sacrifice your camel. Then call for your barber and have him shave your head. They will follow you.”

He went out and spoke to no one until he had done this. When they saw this, they stood up, sacrificed their animals. Then some so hurriedly shaved the heads of others that it appeared that they were fighting one another to get it done.

Thereafter some believing women went to see the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Allah revealed, “O you who believe! If believing women should come to you as emigrants, then test them …” Until the words, “… nor shall you hold on to bonds of marriage with disbelieving women.[5]

That day ‘Umar divorced two women who had been his wives while he was a polytheist. Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan married one of these, while Safwan ibn Umayyah married the other.

Al-Bukhari relates with his chain to Zaid ibn Aslam, from his father, that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was travelling one night in the company of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu when ‘Umar asked him a question on some matter, but the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave him no reply. ‘Umar asked him again and yet again, received no reply from him. ‘Umar then thought to himself “O’Umar, your mother is as good as bereaved of you! You persisted three times in asking the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and despite that he would not respond to you.”

‘Umar continued, “So I moved my mount away and advanced to the front of the Muslims, fearing that there was going to be a revelation about me. But immediately I heard someone shouting at me. I said to myself eerily, ‘I fear this revelation is certainly about me.’ Then I went to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and greeted him. He said, ‘Tonight a Surah has been revealed to me that is more pleasing to me than anything over which the sun rises.’ He then recited, ‘We have granted you a clear victory!’”[6] (The opening verses of Surah al-Fath)

Having concluded the incident at Hudaybiyyah with sufficient detail I believe that you, esteemed reader, have preliminary understood the role of the Sahabah in context. It is time to proceed with the critical analysis of Tijanis assessment of the entire episode.

 

Refuting Tijani on the Sahabah at Hudaybiyyah

1. It is apparent that Tijani has summarised this narration a great deal to the extent that he cautiously concealed the important portion of it, which indicates his ill intent and bias against the Sahabah. Notwithstanding claims of impartiality he deliberately omitted these words of ‘Urwah ibn Mas’ud which form part of this narration:

 

This man (the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) has offered you a reasonable proposal accept it and allow me to go to him.”

They said, “Go to him.”

So, he went to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and started talking to him. The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told him the same as he told Budayl.

‘Urwah then said, “O Muhammad! What do think would happen if you vanquished your own people (Quraysh)? By Allah, I do not see dignified people. What I do see is people from various tribes who would flee and forsake you.”

Abu Bakr rebuked him sternly, “Go suck Lat’s clitoris![7] Do you think we would flee and forsake him?”

‘Urwah said, “Who is this man?”

They replied, “He is Abu Bakr.”

‘Urwah said to Abu Bakr, “By Him Who has control of my life, had it not been for a favour which you did for me, which I did not compensate, I would reply to you.”

‘Urwah then continued speaking to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam clutching his beard whenever he said something. Meanwhile Mughirah ibn Shu’bah was standing near the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, holding a sword and wearing a helmet. Whenever ‘Urwah stretched his hand out to the beard of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Mughirah would hit his hand away with the handle of his sword and say (to ‘Urwah), “Remove your hand from the beard of the Messenger.”

‘Urwah raised his head and asked, “Who is this?”

The people said, “He is Mughirah ibn Shu’bah.”

‘Urwah said, “O treacherous one! Am I not doing my best to prevent the evil consequences of your treachery?”

Before embracing Islam Mughirah accompanied some people and killed them. He then took their property, came (to Madinah), and embraced Islam. The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said (to him), “As for your Islam, I accept it, but as for the property I have nothing to do with it.”

‘Urwah then started looking at the Sahabah and said, “By Allah, the Messenger of Allah did not spit except that it fell in the hands of one of them (the Sahabah) who would rub it on his face and skin; when he ordered them to do something they hastened to carry out his command; when he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water; and when they spoke to him, they would lower their voices and would not stare at him out of respect. By Allah, I have been to the kings and to Caesar, Chosroe and the Negus, yet I have never seen any of them respected by his courtiers as much as Muhammad is respected by his Sahabah!”

 

These were the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. They honoured their Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. An idolater testifies to this. Subhan Allah! Do you not see, beloved reader, how this “fair and objective” Tijani conceals this important part of the hadith? However, he might be excused for this concealment since it would undo his arguments from beginning to end. How could it be congruent with his exaggerations?

 

2. The Sahabah did not “strongly” oppose the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as Tijani claims and there is nothing apparent in the hadith to indicate that they intended to oppose their Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Rather, they acted as they did out of love for their faith and anger at the disbelievers. They thought—as any human being would—that the resolutions of the treaty were prejudiced of the Muslims. This was clear and apparent from this treaty. The Sahabah were not infallible and did not receive revelation from Allah as the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did. Also, how is it possible that the Sahabah disobeyed their Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and failed to execute his command, yet Allah says about them:

لَقَدْ رَضِيَ اللّٰهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُوْنَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِيْ قُلُوْبِهِمْ فَأَنْزَلَ السَّكِيْنَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيْبًا

Allah was indeed Allah pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you, [O Muhammad], under the tree, and He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquillity upon them and rewarded them with an imminent conquest.[8]

 

This verse was revealed in relation to the very Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. How do we reconcile these two things: Allah who knows the seen and the unseen informs us of His pleasure with the Sahabah because of His knowledge of the state of their hearts, and also gives them glad tidings of imminent victory—yet Tijani seeks to cast doubt on their intentions and devotion to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

3. The line of reasoning presented in Then I was guided portrays the behaviour of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in a very erratic, unpredictable manner. How do we reconcile the ‘fact’ that they deliberately disobeyed the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and caused him distress when the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself says of those present at Hudaybiyyah, “You are the best people on earth!”[9]? One might concede that this was said in a moment of euphoria after granting the pledge of Ridwan, but the behaviour of the Companions radiya Llahu ‘anhum subsequent to that angered the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. However, this interpretation of events becomes increasingly problematic when we consider what the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said at a time long after Hudaybiyyah.

Jabir radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates, “A slave belonging to Hatib came to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam complaining about him. He said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, Hatib will surely enter hell-fire!’

The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied, ‘You have erred; he will not enter hell; he was present at Badr and Hudaybiyyah.’”[10]

Umm Mubashshir radiya Llahu ‘anha relates that she heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam say, when he was with Hafsah radiya Llahu ‘anha, “None, if God wills it, will enter the Fire from those who made the pledge beneath the tree.”[11]

These ahadith are unquestionable in terms of a Prophetic reference for the good conduct of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum at Hudaybiyyah. The question begs though: Is there anyone who can better elaborate about the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam assessment of Hudaybiyyah than the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself?

 

4. To make it even clearer for the reader, I present the narration of Sahih Muslim concerning the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, which Tijani himself makes reference to in the footnotes of his book. It is a different narration to the one in Sahih al-Bukhari which makes specific mention of those Sahabah who “strongly opposed” the command of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and “refused” to submit to his instruction. Sahih Muslim records the words of Baraʼ ibn ‘Azib radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

When the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was prevented from the Ka’bah, the people of Makkah made a treaty with him that he could enter Makkah and stay for three days, he would not enter except with swords in their sheaths and arms encased in their covers, that none of its inhabitants left with him and that he did not prevent anyone who came with him from remaining.

He said to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, “Write down the conditions between us! ‘In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. This is the covenant concluded by Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”

Then the polytheists said, “If we knew you to be the Messenger of Allah we would have followed you. Instead write Muhammad, the son of ‘Abdullah.”

The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then commanded ‘Ali to erase it (i.e. the words “the Messenger of Allah”) but ‘Ali refused and said, “Never, By Allah! I will not erase it.”

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then said, “Show me its place.” He showed him. The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam erased it and wrote, “The son of ‘Abdullah.” He then remained in Hudaybiyyah for three days.[12]

 

Now if I wished to employ Tijani’s approach, his line of thinking, and claimed objectivity, then I could say, “I stopped here, for I could not read this kind of material without feeling rather surprised about the behaviour of this Companion towards his Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Could any sensible person accept the claim of some people that this Companion obeyed and implemented the orders of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, for these incidents expose their lies, and fall short of what they want! Could any sensible man imagine that such behaviour towards the Prophet is an easy or acceptable matter or even an excusable one? Does he think himself greater than the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his desire to please Allah to the extent that he left him—may my parents be sacrificed for him—to erase it and rewrite it with his own noble hands? I don’t think any intelligent person would say that this act of opposition to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is insignificant, acceptable or excusable.”

Tijani’s approach opens the door for every ignorant person to interpret the actions of any Sahabi with the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as a misdemeanour against him, a failure to execute his command, and bad behaviour with him. Let us not for the moment burden ourselves with citing the explanations of these incidents given by the hadith commentators. I simply say to Tijani: would you accept this explanation in relation to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu with regards to his “opposition” to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam? If you accept that, then it is necessary to judge ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in the same manner that you judged the rest of the Sahabah. However, if this reasoning does not appeal to you then you have revealed your bias against the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Your reasoning is self-incriminating, and all praise is to Allah.

 

Tijani on ‘Umar at Hudaybiyyah

Tijani goes on to say:

 

Did Umar ibn al-Khattab succumb to them and find no difficulty in accepting the order of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam? Or was he reluctant to accept the order of the Prophet? Especially when he said, “Are you not truly the Prophet of Allah? Did you not tell us? …” etc., and did he succumb after the Messenger of Allah gave him all these convincing answers? No he was not convinced by his answers, and he went and asked Abu Bakr the same questions. But did he succumb after Abu Bakr answered him and advised him to hold on to the Prophet? I do not know if he actually succumbed to all that and was convinced by the answers of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Abu Bakr! For why did he say about himself, “For that I did so many things…” Allah and His Messenger know the things which were done by Umar.

Furthermore, I do not know the reasons behind the reluctance of the rest of the Companions after that, when the Messenger of Allah said to him, “Go and slaughter [sacrifices] and shave your heads.” Nobody listened to his orders even when he repeated them three times, and then in vain.

Allah, be praised! I could not believe what I had read. Could the Companions go to that extent in their treatment of the Messenger. If the story had been told by the Shia alone, I would have considered it a lie directed towards the honourable Companions. But the story has become so well known that all the Sunni historians refer to it. As I had committed myself to accept what had been agreed on by all parties, I found myself resigned and perplexed. What could I say? What excuse could I find for those Companions who had spent nearly twenty years with the Messenger of Allah, from the start of the Mission to the day of al-Hudaibiyah, and had seen all the miracles and enlightenment of the Prophethood? Furthermore the Qur’an was teaching them day and night how they should behave in the presence of the Messenger, and how they should talk to him, to the extent that Allah had threatened to ruin their deeds if they raised their voices above his voice.

 

Refuting Tijani on ‘Umar at Hudaybiyyah

1. There is no doubt that ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu accepted what the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told him. He did, however, display some disinclination towards the conditions agreed upon because the wisdom did not reveal itself clearly to him. This is especially plausible if we consider that he directed his questions to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and subsequently to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, after the Mushrikin had placed these strenuous conditions upon the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, amongst which was that if a person came as a Muslim (to Madinah) he was to be returned (to Makkah). It is reported in a hadith:

 

Suhayl said, “And on condition that no man from amongst us comes to you, even if he is upon your religion, except that you return him to us.”

The Muslims exclaimed, “Subhan Allah! How can he be returned if he comes to us as a Muslim?”

While they were discussing this, Abu Jandal ibn Suhayl ibn ‘Amr appeared bound in shackles coming from the lower parts of Makkah in order to present himself to the Muslims. Suhayl then said, “This is the first person I demand from you to return to me.”

The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then said, “We have not yet completed the agreement.”

He said, “Then I will never enter into any treaty with you.”

The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Then permit him (to stay with us) for my sake.”

He replied, “I do not permit him for you.”

The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Permit him!”

Suhayl said, “I will not!”

Mikraz said, “Rather, we permit him for you.”[13]

Abu Jandal then exclaimed, “O Muslims! Am I to be returned to the Mushrikin and I have come as a Muslim? Do you not see what I have endured?”

He had suffered severe punishment.

‘Umar said, “Then I went to the Messenger …”

 

It was at that point that ‘Umar asked those questions. It was because of this that the command was difficult for ‘Umar to accept; in fact, it was difficult upon most of the Sahabah.

Added to that, let us consider ‘Umar’s question to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, “Did you not inform us that we would come to the Ka’bah and circumambulate it?” This was because the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had informed the Sahabah that he saw in his dream that he and his Sahabah entered the Ka’bah. This is what made it difficult for them to bear when the delay became evident.[14] It was because of these reasons that ‘Umar questioned the conditions agreed upon by the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. It was out of desire to humble the Mushrikin and to grant victory to the Muslims. His questions are clear in this regard. It was not a matter of doubt, as in one narration it is reported that Abu Bakr said to him, “Hold fast onto his stirrup as he is the Messenger of Allah,” and ‘Umar said, “And I bear witness that he is the Messenger of Allah.”[15]

 

Ibn Hajar therefore says:

 

What is apparent is that ‘Umar’s questioning the treaty was an interlude from him in order to discover the wisdom of the incident and remove uncertainty. Similar to this is the incident in which he questioned the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam performing funeral prayer over the known hypocrite ‘Abdullah ibn Ubay. In the first case (i.e. Hudaybiyyah), however, his discernment did not coincide with divine decree whereas in the second (funeral prayer on Ibn Ubay) it did. He only did the mentioned actions for this reason. Therefore, everything which came from him was excusable, in fact rewardable, as he acted in conformity with his best discretion.[16]

 

A hadith in Sahih Muslim clarifies that ‘Umar paused in order to discover the wisdom behind the treaty and to clarify the ambiguity:

 

Revelation then descended upon the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam giving him glad tidings of the victory. The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then sent for ‘Umar and read it to him. ‘Umar said, “Is this a victory?” The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied, “Indeed it is,” and ‘Umar was content and returned.[17]

 

In Surah al-Fath, Allah revealed:

لَقَدْ رَضِيَ اللّٰهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُوْنَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِيْ قُلُوْبِهِمْ فَأَنْزَلَ السَّكِيْنَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيْبًا

Certainly Allah was pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you, [O Muhammad], under the tree, and He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquillity upon them and rewarded them with an imminent conquest.[18]

 

Imam Ahmed narrates a hadith in his Musnad from Jabir radiya Llahu ‘anhu that the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “A man who witnessed Badr and Hudaybiyyah will never enter the Fire.”[19]

Indeed, Allah informs us about His pleasure with the believers who gave the pledge to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam under the tree, and He confirms their entry into Paradise. Why? It is because He knew the purity of their hearts and actions, and no doubt ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was from amongst the foremost of them. If the “guided” Tijani criticises the Sahabah while Allah, the Knower of the Unseen, tells us that their hearts were pure then is he not questioning Allah Himself?

 

2. Tijani states that ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu said, “For that reason I did some actions,” and thereafter comments, “Allah and His Messenger alone know the actions which ‘Umar undertook,” if anything these words indicate the scope of his ignorance. What ‘Umar intended has been mentioned explicitly.

 

Ibn Ishaq’s narration states that ‘Umar used to say, “I continued giving charity, fasting, praying, and emancipating slaves because of what I did; out of fear for the words which I spoke.” And al-Waqidi has reported a hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu who narrated that ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu said, “I set free on account of it many slaves and kept fast for many days.”[20]

 

The context of the hadith shows that ‘Umar acted out of honest discernment. These deeds of expiation were also the product of his discretion. They present clear evidence of his conscientiousness, piety, and willingness to submit to truth. The context of the hadith indicates that his actions at Hudaybiyyah were intended to demonstrate the might of the Muslims and to humiliate the disbelievers.

 

3. Tijani failed to notice the element of ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu compliance with the command of Allah when he divorced two of his wives after the verses prohibiting marriage to women who remained in Shirk. The verses of Surah al-Mumtahinah were revealed within the context of the episode at Hudaybiyyah. This further demonstrates the reason for ‘Umar’s interlude being one of seeking further clarity rather than delaying to fulfil the divine instruction.

 

The reluctance of the Sahabah to release themselves from Ihram

 

Furthermore, I do not know the reasons behind the reluctance of the rest of the Companions after that, when the Messenger of Allah said to him, “Go and slaughter [sacrifices] and shave your heads.”

 

To this say I say: I have explained in light of the hadith in Sahih Muslim that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was from amongst the Sahabah present at Hudaybiyyah, that he was amongst those who opposed the conditions imposed upon the Muslims, and that he held the same view as ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The hadith states that when the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Go slaughter and shave your heads,” none stood up. There is no doubt that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was amongst them and that he did not execute the command of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Despite that Tijani says:

What could I say? What excuse could I find for those Companions who had spent nearly twenty years with the Messenger of Allah, from the start of the Mission to the day of al-Hudaibiyah, and had seen all the miracles and enlightenment of the Prophethood?

 

It seems as if it has escaped you that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was one of these Sahabah. Therefore, if you are able to make an excuse for ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu for this incident then I believe that it will be considered an excuse for the rest of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum as well. If, however, you are unable to find an excuse for ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu then the criticism you have levelled against the Sahabah is definitely directed to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu as well.

 

Reasons for the delay in executing the command of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

As for the failure of the Sahabah to immediately execute the commands of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, this could have been for a number of reasons, which Ibn Hajar has explained:

  1. They thought that the command may have been a recommendation rather than an obligation.
  2. They hoped that revelation would descend and cancel the afore-mentioned treaty.
  3. That special permission would descend for them to enter Makkah that year in order to complete their rituals of ‘Umrah.
  4. That this pause may have occurred during a period of abrogation and was thus permissible for them.
  5. They were distracted and engrossed in thought of their humiliation despite having the ability to meet their goal and fulfil their rituals by force or conquest.
  6. They delayed in submitting, believing that the unqualified command did not necessitate immediate compliance.

All of these are plausible reasons for all of them. There is no proof in this incident that the command necessitated immediate compliance or not. Similarly, there is no proof that the command was for obligation and not a recommendation, because of the possibility which this incident allows for.

Similar to this is what happened during the Conquest when the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed his Sahabah to break their fast in Ramadan. When they hesitated, he took a drinking bowl and drank. When they saw him do this, they did the same.[21]

These are the explanations which the scholars have made for the noble Sahabah. As for the ignorant, the resentment and dislike that they have for the Sahabah induced them to see the actions of the Sahabah in the most sinister and unfavourable light. Against such glaring prejudice we seek Allah’s protection.

 

Tijani on ‘Umar’s role at Hudaybiyyah

He now goes on to say:

 

And what leads me to believe that ‘Umar was the one who led the Sahabah present in hesitating to execute the command of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, in addition to his own confession, is that he performed “actions” which he did not wish to mention, and which he himself mentions in other places, “I continued to fast, give charity and emancipate slaves out of the fear for the words that I uttered”, and other such statements regarding this matter.

All of which gives us the impression that ‘Umar himself realised the folly of the position which he took on that day. Indeed it is an amazing and strange story, but true. [22]

 

1. This is a cheap ploy against the noble Companion ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu. How could he know that ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu prompted the rest of the Sahabah to delay in executing the instruction of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam? Does he know what is in the heart of ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu or did he receive revelation? This is nothing but bias against ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Upon what evidence is his accusation based against ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu? Is there anything in the hadith which indicates to that? If so, then let him show us instead of speaking recklessly about the best of people.

 

2. Does this statement not also demonstrate his indictment of the rest of the Sahabah who he claims abandoned the instruction of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in favour of the position of ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu? Bear in mind that this would include ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu as well. This is the slippery slope that this “guided one” has created: first laying the foundation of indicting all the great Sahabah, and thereby leading people to accept the Shia theory of mass apostasy by the Sahabah with none but three or seven exceptions. Does he not realise that he is criticising his first Imam, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who was one of the Sahabah who hesitated in executing the instruction of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

3. As for his statement:

In addition to his own confession, is that he performed “actions” which he did not wish to mention.

And

… which he himself mentions in other places, “I continued to fast, give charity …”

 

One wonders if this man knows what he is writing. How could ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu do actions which he did not wish to mention and then mentions in other places what he did? Here he intends to give the reader the impression that there were other actions which were concealed by ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. It appears that Tijani has a sixth sense through which he can uncover what the commentators of hadith were unable to. What does he mean with his statement, “other occasions”? Are these not “other” narrations for this hadith? What makes you hold onto the narration of al-Bukhari, which states that ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu said, “Therefore, I did actions,” but you doubt the narrations which clarify what these “actions” are, especially when the speaker in all these narrations is ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu himself? Why would he confess to do actions which he did not want to mention?

 

4. Tijani’s words, “…and other such narrations from him on this matter,” beg the question what else has been narrated on this matter? When you encounter the clear and explicit statement of ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu, you regard them as ambiguous. If you could find clear and explicit evidence to convict ‘Umar you would have filled your book with it, but you couldn’t so you try to give the impression that you did.

 

 NEXT ⇒ Refuting of Tijani on ‘The Companions and the Raziyat Yawm al Khamis (The Calamity of Thursday)’


[1] Then I was Guided pg. 64

[2]  Surah al-Nisaʼ: 65

[3] Surah al-Fath: 18

[4] The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took a good omen from his name Suhayl, which means ease.

[5] Surah al-Mumtahinah: 10

[6] Surah al-Fath: 1

[7]

[8]  Surah al-Fath: 18

[9] Sahih al-Bukhari, (4154). Narrated by Jabir: “The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to us at al-Hudaybiyyah, ‘You are the best people on earth!’ We were 1,400; and were I able today to see, I would show you the place where the tree stood.”

[10] Sahih Muslim, The Book of the Merits of the Companions, The chapter on the virtues of Hatib ibn Abi Balta’ah and the people of Badr

[11] Sahih Muslim, The Book of the Merits of the Companions, Chapter: The Virtues Of The Companions Of The Tree

[12]Sahih Muslim, The Book of Jihad and Siyar, The chapter of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

[13]  Abu Jandal was not allowed to remain with the Muslims, rather he was returned as agreed.

[14]Fath al-Bari 5/408

[15]  Ibid 5/409

[16]  Ibid

[17] Sahih al-Muslim

[18]  Surah al-Fath: 18

[19]Musnad Ahmed: Hadith no. 15262

[20]Fath al-Bari 5/408, authenticated by Albani and Arna’ut.

[21] Ibid 5/409

[22] This passage was omitted in the English translation; it appears in the original on page 98 (Mu’assasat al-Fajr London)