Refuting Tijani’s Criticisms against Abu Bakr

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Chapter Six

Tijani’s Criticisms against Abu Bakr

Tijani has singled out Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu for the bulk of his criticisms. He has isolated a number of incidents as evidence upon which he pronounces judgement against Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. I will attempt— with Allah’s help— to analyse all the points of criticism and reconnect them to their context. This will be the most feasible strategy in defending this noble Sahabi radiya Llahu ‘anhu about whom the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

أبرأ إلى كل خليل من خله ولو كنت متخذا خليلا لاتخذت ابن أبي قحافة خليلا وإن صاحبكم خليل الله

I distance myself from taking anyone as a khalil (close friend). Were I to take a khalil I would have taken Abu Bakr. Indeed, your companion is the Khalil of Allah.[1]

 

Consider the great status of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu when the Qur’an bears testimony to his Iman:

 

إِلَّا تَنْصُرُوْهُ فَقَدْ نَصَرَهُ اللّٰهُ إِذْ أَخْرَجَهُ الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْا ثَانِيَ اثْنَيْنِ إِذْ هُمَا فِي الْغَارِ إِذْ يَقُوْلُ لِصَاحِبِه لَا تَحْزَنْ إِنَّ اللّٰهَ مَعَنَا فَأَنْزَلَ اللّٰهُ سَكِيْنَتَهعَلَيْهِ وَأَيَّدَهبِجُنُودٍ لَمْ تَرَوْهَا وَجَعَلَ كَلِمَةَ الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوا السُّفْلَى وَكَلِمَةُ اللّٰهِ هِيَ الْعُلْيَا وَاللّٰهُ عَزِيْزٌ حَكِيْمٌ

If you do not aid him [i.e. the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam] — Allah has already aided him when those who disbelieved had driven him out [of Makkah] as one of two, when they were in the cave and he [i.e. Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam] said to his Companion, “Do not grieve; indeed Allah is with us.” And Allah sent down His tranquillity upon him and supported him with soldiers [i.e. angels] you did not see and made the word of those who disbelieved the lowest while the word of Allah — that is the highest. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.

 

The esteemed reader will be well aware that we have already disproved Tijani’s insinuation that Abu Bakr was enlisted in Usamah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu army; as well as his allegation that Abu Bakr objected to Usamah’s appointment. Prior to his demise the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam appointed Abu Bakr to lead the Muslims in salah.

After the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passing, Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the most determined to dispatch the army of Usamah radiya Llahu ‘anhu despite the uncertainty of others who feared an attack from the enemy. When it was suggested to him that the army rather remain in Madinah for a while he said, “I will not undo the standard which was fastened by the Messenger of Allah!” Abu Bakr’s insistence on dispatching the battalion of Usamah radiya Llahu ‘anhu immediately after his appointment as Khalifah is considered one of his greatest accomplishments.[2] This fact has been completely ignored by Tijani despite it being a matter of consensus among historians.

It is worthy of noting that Tijani conveniently failed to mention Abu Bakr’s steadfastness at Hudaybiyyah. This was an occasion which even great companions like ‘Umar and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma

expressed their discontentment with the terms laid down by the Quraysh. It serves as a solemn reminder that incidents striped of context are malleable in the hand of ‘objective researchers’.

 

1. Tijani’s Claims that Abu Bakr Condemned Himself

Tijani says:

 

Like history records about Abu Bakr the following (incident). He looked at a bird on a tree, then said, “Well done bird … You eat the fruits, you stand on the trees and you are not accountable to anybody nor indeed can anybody punish you. I wish I was a tree by the road and that a camel would come along and eat me. Then relieve me with his bowel evacuation … I wish that I had been all that, rather than a human being.”

He also said, I wish that my mother had not given birth to me … I wish I was a straw in the mud.

These are some texts that I used just as examples and not for any specific reason. [3]

 

Refuting Tijani’s Claims that Abu Bakr Condemned Himself

Tijanis referencing

Tijani ascribes the first narration to Tarikh al Tabari, al Riyad al Nadirah, Kanz al ‘Ummal and Minhaj al Sunnah of Ibn Taymiyyah. This narration is not found in Minhaj al Sunnah, Riyad al Nadirah, or Tarikh al Tabari. The only source where it is found is Kanz al ‘Ummal.

For the second narration he referenced it to the same sources mentioned above, but this narration is neither found in Kanz al ‘Ummal, Tarikh al Tabari, or Riyad al Nadirah. The only book wherein it is mentioned is Minhaj al Sunnah.

Tijani tries to create impression that the compilers of the books which he has referenced are in agreement with him. At the very least it is meant to convince the reader that he has spared no effort in collecting material and has proven his claim from Sunni sources. Let us now raise the curtain on these references and see for ourselves the tricks which Tijani has kept under his sleeve.

The book Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah fi Naqd Kalam al Shia was authored by Taqi al Din Ahmed ibn Taymiyyah in refutation of the book Minhaj al Karamah fi Ithbat al Imamah by the Rafidi cleric Ibn al Mutahhar al Hilli. The narration under discussion was actually recorded by ibn al Mutahhar al Hilli, the Rafidi, in Minhaj al Karamah; which was subsequently refuted by Ibn Taymiyyah. So Tijani’s reference to Minhaj al Sunnah is nothing but deception.

As for the book al Riyad al Nadirah which Tijani consistently cites, its full title is al Riyad al Nadirah fi Manaqib al ‘Asharah (The ripe gardens concerning the virtues of the ten). The ‘ten’ refers to the ten Sahabah who were given the glad tidings of Jannat. They were Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Ali, Talhah, Zubair, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Sa’id ibn Zaid, ‘Abd al Rahman ibn ‘Awf and Abu ‘Ubaydah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. The author of the book in his title alludes to the famous hadith of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in which he gave the glad tidings of paradise to these Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum on Mount Uhud.[4] The Rafidah reject this hadith. How is it then that they cite it as a proof in their favour?

Secondly the two statements of Abu Bakr are not mentioned in the book. The author affirms that Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the most suitable person for Caliphate after the Prophet[5] salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He discusses ‘Ali’s pledge to Abu Bakr and debunks the allegations of the Rafidah.[6] More than one quarter of the book is devoted to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Does Tijani think nothing of his readers!

Tarikh al Tabari was provided as reference for the statements of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. I refer the reader to Tarikh al Tabari, to the events of the year eleven to the end of the year thirteen. There is no trace of these two narrations found in this reference.

The book Kanz al ‘Ummal fi Sunan al Aqwal wa al Af’al was compiled by ‘Alaʼ al Din al Hindi. All its narrations are not considered authoritative since the compiler did not restrict himself to collecting only authentic narrations. Instead it is an encyclopaedic index for over 90 books. His objective being to collect whatever has been narrated from the Prophet; whether it be reliable or forged.

It is interesting to note that the compiler of Kanz al Ummal dedicated a special section for ahadith which criticise the Rafidah despite knowing that Sunni Hadith scholars have not authenticated a single hadith of this nature. These are the same hadith scholars who Tijani accuses of declaring weak the ahadith of the merits of the Ahlul Bayt; and of fabricating ahadith about the virtues of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

If this accusation had any substance we would expect to see the Sunni scholars of al Jarh wa al Ta’dil authenticating all the ahadith which criticise the Rafidah. That, however, is not the case as the authentication of ahadith is subject to specific criteria which the hadith scholars have agreed upon; based on the evaluation of the sanad and text.

In addition to that al Hindi, the compiler of Kanz al Ummal, dedicated a special chapter on the Sahabah and their merits. This chapter has three sub-sections the first of them dedicated to the four khalifas (Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum) indicating to their superiority and their precedence in Islam and Caliphate.[7]

One wonders how long Tijani assumed the act would last.

 

The meaning of Abu Bakr’s statements

It is unfortunate that the words of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum seem to be deliberately interpreted in the worst possible way. Likewise, their actions seem to be considered in the worst possible light. It appears almost as if Tijani goes out of his way to strip their statements and actions from their original context. In so doing he finds opportunity to depict their behaviour in the unfavourable manner which is preconceived in his mind.

Let us return to the quotations from Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. We find that even if we ignore Tijani’s lies in terms of referencing and suppose we assume their authenticity; do they necessarily mean that Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu condemned himself? If one gives careful consideration to the personality of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu one will find that these statements ascribed to him merely illustrate the strength of his iman and his fear of Allah.

Let us not forget the story which appears in the Sahihayn[8][9] about a man who instructed his family to cremate his body after his death, and to scatter half of his ashes in the sea and the other half in the land. In addition to the haram act of cremating he did no good during his life. He remarked before his death, “If Allah should get hold of me he will punish me like He punished no other before me.” Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala commanded the land and it gathered his ashes and commanded the sea and it gathered his ashes. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala asked him, “What caused you to do this?” He replied, “Out of fear of Your punishment, O my Lord.” Allah then forgave him.[10]

His belief in Allah’s ability to resurrect him was defective; hence he requested his ashes to be dispersed over land and see. Despite his defective belief he was forgiven on account of his genuine fear of Allah. We learn from this incident that the fear of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala is one of the greatest sources for Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala forgiveness.[11]

 

Numerous incidents of this nature have been reported from different Companions. Ahmed ibn Hambal narrates from Masruq, he said:

A man once remarked in the company of ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu, “I do not wish to be amongst the Ashab al Yamin. I prefer to be amongst the Muqarrabin.”‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu then said, “There is a man here (referring to himself) who wishes not to be resurrected (at all).”[12]

Al Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrate in their Sunan, from Abu Dhar radiya Llahu ‘anhu that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

إني أرى ما لا ترون وأسمع ما لا تسمعون أطت السماء وحق لها أن تئط ما فيها موضع أربع أصابع إلا وملك واضع جبهته ساجدا لله لو تعلمون ما أعلم لضحكتم قليلا ولبكيتم كثيرا وما تلذذتم بالنساء على الفرش ولخرجتم إلى الصعدات تجأرون إلى الله لوددت أني كنت شجرة تعضد

Indeed I see what you do not see, and I hear what you do not hear. The Heavens moan and they have the right to moan. There is no spot, the size of four fingers in them, except that there is an angel placing his forehead in it, prostrating to Allah. By Allah! If you knew what I know, then you would laugh little and cry much. And you would not taste the pleasures of your women in the beds, and you would go out to the open fields imploring Allah. I wish that I was but a felled tree.[13]

 

Al Tirmidhi concludes the narration as follows:

 

ويروى من غير هذا الوجه أن أبا ذر قال لوددت أني كنت شجرة تعضد

It has been related in many other narrations that Abu Dhar said, “I wish that I was a felled tree.”[14]

 

What does Tijani have to say about the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam? Will he claim that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam condemned himself when he said:

لوددت أني كنت شجرة تعضد

I wish that I was a felled tree.

 

This Hadith shares the same sentiments as the statement of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Why treat them differently. The complaint of unprincipled interpretation is ever-recurring in Then I was Guided.

Abu Dhar radiya Llahu ‘anhu is considered from the first group of Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum; those who were true to the cause. Al Tirmidhi has provided us with evidence that Abu Dhar radiya Llahu ‘anhu repeated a similar statement. Does this incriminate Abu Dhar radiya Llahu ‘anhu as well? The explanation given to exonerate Abu Dhar is the same for Abu Bakr.

These sentiments have been echoed by even ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Certainly they do not warrant criticism. Muhammad Baqir al Majlisi records in his book Bihar al Anwar[15] that ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:

If only the predators ripped my flesh. If only my mother had not given birth to me so I do not hear the mention of the Fire (of Jahannam).[16]

 

Does this statement of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu not indicate strength of iman and genuine fear of Allah?

Then Tijani goes on to say:

 

This is the book of Allah giving glad tidings to his believing slaves saying:

أَلَا إِنَّ أَوْلِيَاءَ اللّٰهِ لَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُوْنَ الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا وَكَانُوْا يَتَّقُوْنَ لَهُمُ الْبُشْرَى فِيْ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِيْ الْآخِرَةِ لَا تَبْدِيْلَ لِكَلِمَاتِ اللّٰهِ ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيْمُ

Unquestionably, [for] the allies of Allah there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve. Those who believed and feared Allah for them are good tidings in the worldly life and in the hereafter. No change is there in the words [i.e., decrees] of Allah. That is the great attainment.[17]

He also says:

إِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ قَالُوْا رَبُّنَا اللّٰهُ ثُمَّ اسْتَقَامُوْا تَتَنَزَّلُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ أَلَّا تَخَافُوْا وَلَا تَحْزَنُوْا وَأَبْشِرُوْا بِالْجَنَّةِ الَّتِيْ كُنْتُمْ تُوْعَدُوْنَ (30) نَحْنُ أَوْلِيَاؤُكُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ وَلَكُمْ فِيهَا مَا تَشْتَهِي أَنْفُسُكُمْ وَلَكُمْ فِيهَا مَا تَدَّعُوْنَ (31) نُزُلًا مِنْ غَفُوْرٍ رَحِيْمٍ (32) وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ قَوْلًا مِمَّنْ دَعَا إِلَى اللّٰهِ

Indeed, those who have said: “Our Lord is Allah” and then remained on a right course — the angels will descend upon them, [saying], “do not fear and do not grieve but receive good tidings of Jannat, which you were promised. We [angels] were your allies in worldly life and [are so] in the hereafter. And you will have therein whatever your soul’s desire and you will have therein whatever you request [or wish]. Accommodation from a [Lord who is] All Forgiving and Most Merciful.”[18]

How could the two Sheikhs, Abu Bakr and Umar, wish that they were not from the human race, which Allah honoured and put it above all His creation?[19]

 

Our response:

In no way do these verses negate the slave’s fear of his creator. We mentioned previously the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam fear of Allah as well as those of his Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

As for the verse in Surah Yunus:

أَلَا إِنَّ أَوْلِيَاءَ اللّٰهِ لَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُوْنَ

Unquestionably, [for] the allies of Allah there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve…

 

Ibn Kathir says in his commentary of this verse:

 

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala informs (us in this verse) that His allies are those who believe in Him and are conscious (have taqwa) of Him. Therefore, whoever is conscious of Allah is a friend of Allah; and “there will be no fear” (for them) of what is to come in the Hereafter, “nor will they grieve” over what they left behind in the world.[20]

 

The fear spoken about in this verse refers to fear in the Hereafter. All the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum feared Allah in the world.

As for this part of the verse “nor will they grieve”, it refers to what they left behind in the world. There is no doubt that the fear of Abu Bakr and the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum does not indicate that they grieved about anything in the world.

As for the verse:

إِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ قَالُوْا رَبُّنَا اللّٰهُ ثُمَّ اسْتَقَامُوْا تَتَنَزَّلُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ

Indeed, those who have said, “Our Lord is Allah,” and then remained on a right course — the angels will descend upon them…

 

Ibn Jarir al Tabari says in his commentary of this verse:

 

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says, “Indeed, those who have said, “Our Lord is Allah,” alone without partner, and dissociate themselves from deities other than Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and partners (falsely ascribed to him)…

“And then remained on a right course,” (in other words), upon the belief of the oneness of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and stayed clear from associating a partner with Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and they resorted to His obedience concerning what He commanded and prohibited.[21]

 

Imam al Tabari then forwards a number of ahadith from Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu in order to explain the meaning of expression, “and then remained on a right course (referring to istiqamah).” From amongst them, from Sa’id ibn ‘Imran, he said:

 

I read this verse in the presence of Abu Bakr, “Indeed, those who have said, ‘our Lord is Allah, and then remained on a right course,’ and he remarked, ‘They are those who did not ascribe any partner unto Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.’”[22]

 

From the above we learn that Tijani’s interpretation of the verse is incorrect and does not apply to the first khalifah, Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. No person with the slightest amount of intelligence will say that Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu—the person who fought the Mushrikin and the murtaddin and strove firmly against them and whom Allah radiya Llahu ‘anhu used to protect the Muslim community—is a mushrik.

Subhan Allah!

 

Tijani further states:

 

Even the ordinary believer, who keeps on the straight path during his lifetime, receives the angels to tell him about his place in heaven, and that he should not fear the torture of Allah, nor be depressed about his legacy in life, and that he has the good news while he is in this life before reaching the life Hereafter. Then how could the great Companions, who are the best of creation after the Messenger of Allah (so we have been taught), wish they were excrement or a hair or a straw when the angels had given them the good news that they would go to heaven? They could not have wished to have all the gold on earth to ransom themselves from the torture of Allah before meeting Him. Allah says:

وَلَوْ أَنَّ لِكُلِّ نَفْسٍ ظَلَمَتْ مَا فِيْ الْأَرْضِ لَافْتَدَتْ بِه وَأَسَرُّوْا النَّدَامَةَ لَمَّا رَأَوُا الْعَذَابَ وَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْقِسْطِ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُوْنَ

And if each soul that wronged had everything on earth, it would offer it in ransom. And they will confide regret when they see the punishment; and they will be judged in justice, and they will not be wronged. [23]

(At another place He says:)

وَلَوْ أَنَّ لِلَّذِيْنَ ظَلَمُوْا مَا فِيْ الْأَرْضِ جَمِيْعًا وَمِثْلَهمَعَهلَافْتَدَوْا بِه مِنْ سُوْءِ الْعَذَابِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَبَدَا لَهُمْ مِنَ اللّٰهِ مَا لَمْ يَكُوْنُوْا يَحْتَسِبُوْنَ وَبَدَا لَهُمْ سَيِّئَاتُ مَا كَسَبُوْا وَحَاقَ بِهِمْ مَا كَانُوْا بِه يَسْتَهْزِئُوْنَ

And if those who did wrong had all that is in the earth entirely and the like of it with it, they would [attempt to] ransom themselves thereby from the worst of the punishment on the Day of Resurrection. And there will appear to them from Allah that which they had not taken into account. And there will appear to them the evils they had earned, and they will be enveloped by what they used to ridicule.[24]

 

Our response:

Tijani fails to realize the difference between verses that refer to the Hereafter and those that refer to this world. In the two verses which have been quoted, Allah informs us about the punishment of the Hereafter when regret and repentance will be of no avail to anyone. It does not refer to regret in this world. Every intelligent person knows the difference between the slave’s fear of Allah in the world and his fear of Him in the Hereafter.

Abu Nuaim reports in Hilyah from Shaddad ibn ‘Aws radiya Llahu ‘anhu; and Ibn Mubarak narrates in Zuhd from al Hassan that the Messengersalla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

قال الله عز وجل و عزتي لا أجمع لعبدي أمنين و لا خوفين ، إن هو أمنني في الدنيا أخفته يوم أجمع فيه عبادي ، و إن هو خافني في الدنيا أمنته يوم أجمع فيه عبادي

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says, “By My Might, I will not combine two states of peace and two states of fear for My slave. If he felt safe from Me[25] in the world, I will cause him to fear Me the day I gather in it My slaves. However, if he feared Me in the world then I will cause him to be at peace the day I gather in it My slaves.[26]

 

The venerated Twelver scholar al Saduq ibn Babawayh al Qummi narrates something similar in his book, al Khisal, from al Hassan, who narrates that the Messengersalla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

قال الله عز وجل و عزتي و جلالي لا أجمع على عبدي خوفين ، و لا أجمع له أمنين.فإذا أمنني في الدنيا أخفته يوم القيامة ، و إن هو خافني في الدنيا أمنته يوم القيامة

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says, “By My Strength and My Honour, I will not combine two states of fear upon My slave and I will not combine for him two states of peace. If he was safe from Me in the world I will cause him to be in a state of fear on the Day of Judgement. However, if he feared Me in the world, I will cause him to be in a state of peace on the Day of Judgement.[27]

 

The above is for the person who has the slightest understanding of this reality. Whoever fears Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala in the world, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, will cause him to be in a state of peace on the Day of Judgement. That is because the slave’s fear of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala in the world is rewarded (in the Hereafter).

Whoever equates the believer’s fear of his creator in the world with an unbeliever’s fear in the Hereafter is like the one who equates darkness with light, and equates shade with heat, and equates the dead with the living.[28]

 

NEXT ⇒ 2. Tijani’s condemnation of Abu Bakr on the issue of Fadak 


[1]Sunan al Tirmidhi, Kitab al Manaqib, hadith no. 3655; Refer also to Sahih al Tirmidhi, hadith no. 2889; Its origin is in Bukhari, hadith no. 3456

[2]  See Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 6, p. 319

[3]Then I was guided, p. 111-112

[4]Sunan al Tirmidhi, Kitab al Manaqib, hadith no. 3747; and al Mishkat of al Tabrizi, Kitab al Manaqib, Bab Manaqib al ‘Asharah; See also Sahih al Tirmidhi, hadith no. 2946

[5]Riyad al Nadirah, p. 169

[6]  Ibid, p. 242-246

[7]  Refer to Kanz al ‘Ummal, p. 525

[8]  Referring to Sahih al Bukhari and Sahih Muslim

[9]Sahih al Bukhari, Kitab al Towhid, hadith no. 7067; Muslim with it commentary, Kitab al Tawbah, hadith no. 2756

[10]Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 5, p. 484

[11]  Ibid

[12]  Ibid, vol. 5, p. 483

[13]Sunan al Tirmidhi, Kitab al Zuhd, hadith no. 2312; Sunan Ibn Majah, Kitab al Zuhd, Bab al Huzn wa al Buka, hadith no. 4190; See also Sahih al Tirmidhi, hadith no. 3378

[14]  Ibid

[15] Bihar al Anwar is one of the most accepted works in Twelver tradition

[16] Bihar al Anwar, vol. 43, p. 89

[17]  Surah Yunus: 62-64

[18]  Surah al Fussilat: 30-32

[19]Then I was guided, p. 112

[20]Tafsir al Qur’an al ‘Azim of Ibn Kathir, vol. 2, p. 438

[21]Tafsir al Tabari, vol. 11, p. 106

[22]  Ibid

[23]  Surah Yunus: 54

[24]  Surah al Zumar: 47 and 48

[25]  i.e. he felt safe from Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala punishment.

[26]Al Hilyah of Abu Nuaim, vol. 6, p. 98; al Zuhd of Ibn Mubarak, p. 157; Refer also to al Silsilah al Sahihah, vol. 2, hadith no. 742

[27]Kitab al Khisal of al Qummi, Bab al Ithnayn, vol. 1, p. 79

[28]Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah, vol. 6, p. 16